A. The Need to Change the Wiring in our Brains. 

    1. Learning to work magic requires that a certain amout of 
neurological re-patterning of our brains takes place. 

      a. To be effective, we have to change the way we use our brains. 

        (1) Magic requires the development and integration of the 
right hemisphere way of thinking with the left hemisphere way of 

           (a) The spacial, intuitive and holistic patterns of 
awareness that characterize the right hemisphere modes of 
consciousness must be able to communicate and work in harmony with the 
verbal, analytical and linear patterns of awareness so characteristic 
of the left hemisphere. 

           (b) A person's growth, creativity and personality is deeply 
influenced during this process and it eventually leads to a person who 
is truly functional as a whole person. 

  B. The language of magic is expressed in symbols and images. 

    1. Images bridge the gap between the verbal and non-verbal modes 
of awareness. 

      a. Symbols and images implant certain ideas in Younger Self who 
passes them on to High Self. 

        (1) By allowing the critical and analytical functions of 
Talking Self to relax, Younger Self may respond fully and emotionally 
to what happens during your magical workings. 

           (a) Ritual, which is defined as "a specific set of images 
and symbols attached to certain actions", allows us to deliberately 
alter our states of consciousness so that we may perform works of 

    2. All humans relate to their environment through symbols and 

      a. Except during rare occasions, we do not experience our 
environment directly. 

        (1) Our left hemisphere patterning awareness developed so we 
could safely ignore anything in our environment which was not 
potentially dangerous. 

           (a) A direct benefit of this survival tactic was the 
ability to concentrate, which allowed us to examine the world around 
us and led to experimentation. 

           (b) Experimentation led to better ways of doing things, 
such as making tools, and technology was born. It has served as a goad 
and a goal since then. 

      b. The way our left hemisphere works is fascinating 

        (1) Working as a filter of all the stimuli coming into the 
various senses of a human, the left hemisphere examines everything 
closely and then files the new sensory data away as images, tastes, 
smells, etc. where it stays in memory. 

           (a) The majority of this activity occurs when we are young 
and enchanted with the world around us. 

           (b) Maturity is usually judged by the degree to which your 
enthusiasm for examining the world around you has  diminished. 

           (c) Ironically, when you become too mature, you withdraw 
from the world around you and lose interest, this is usually marked by 
a tendency to live in your memories instead of the present. This 
condition is called old age and people who give in to living in the 
past are called senile. 

           (d) Those of us who never lose our sense of wonder toward 
all the world has to offer are often accused of having never 'grown 
up' or if, we have managed to live long enough, to be going through 
our 'second childhood.' 

         (2) As we approach something in our normal everyday 
activities we receive an image from our eyes and a part of our brain 
searches through our memory for an image that matches the one at which 
we are looking. 

            (a) If there is already an image on file, even if it is 
not a perfect match, the image on file is fed to that part of our 
brain which 'sees' what we are approaching. 

            (b) In this instance, assuming that we have not associated 
the image in memory with something dangerous, we will walk past the 
object without paying it any attention or actually seeing the object. 

            (c) If there is not an image on file we will stop and 
examine the new object as if we were seeing it for the first time, 
which we are. 

            (d) Then having classified and categorized it, we then 
file it away in our memory for future reference and continue on our 
way, oblivious to our surroundings. 

          (3) This behavior allows us to concentrate on more abstract 
things than worrying if our favorite armchair is going to have us for 

             (a) An extension of this type of behavior is the 
formation of habits. Habits are ways of interacting with our 
environment, based on assumptions made using our stored images and 
experiences as a true picture of reality. 

             (b) In effect, habits are pre-programmed responses to 
everyday occurrences. 

          (4) A little known fact relating to habits is that habits do 
fulfill a psychological need. 

             (a) And you cannot break a habit, you can only replace it 
with another that meets that same psychological need. 


  a. The Ritual Bath 

    1. Before performing a ritual it is necessary to prepare yourself 
for the work ahead. 

      a. A ritual bath washes away the dirt and grime of the everyday 
world along with the tensions of the mundane world 

        (1) Draw a hot bath and add some essence, oils or perfume that 
makes you feel good. 

           (a) If you have studied the uses of oils and scents in 
magic, you might want to tune your additives to the work to be done. 

        (2) Turn off all the lights and light a single white taper. 

           (a) Make sure that it is in a candle holder that will 
handle it without you worrying about it setting fire to anything or 
spilling wax where you do not want it. Votive candles and holders work 
very well for this. 

        (3) Light a stick of incense or place some on a glowing coal 
in a censer that you can pick up. 

        (4) Place some sea salt in a white dish or small bowl. 

           (a) Being so close to the sea (southern California) it is 
easy to collect sea salt by just taking some ocean water home and 
letting it evaporate in the direct sunlight until all that is left is 
the salt crystals. 

           (b) If you cannot get sea salt, you might want to use some 
iodized or rock salt from the market. It is essentially the same thing 
but personally I like the idea of making or collecting my own salt. 

         (5) You should have some purified water in a cup or vial. 

            (a) Fresh spring water or stream water is ideal but most 
of us living in the desert have to make due with bottled water from 
the store. 

            (b) Rain water, collected, strained, and kept in glass 
bottles is a good substitute. 

            (c) It is definitely preferred that you not use tap water 
because of the additives in it. 

      b. The following is a very simple ritual for consecrating the 
ritual bath. 

        (1) Lock the doors and unplug the phone. 

           (a) This is to ensure that you are not disturbed. 

        (2) Once the bath is drawn and any oils have been added to it 
as desired, take the candle and make three slow passes over the water 
as you say the following evocation. 

           (a) "By this creature of fire do I purify this ritual bath. 
May all impurities flee before its light." 

           (b) Set the candle down so that it is out of the way but 
still sheds light on your work. 

        (3) Take up the dish of salt and, sprinkling three pinches of 
the salt into the water say the following. 

           (a) "By this creature of earth do I purify this ritual 
bath. All impure creatures may not approach it." 

        (4) Set the dish of salt aside and pick up the incense or 
censer and make three passes over the water as you say the following 

           (a) "By this creature of Air do I purify this ritual bath. 
May my hopes and aspirations rise upon the smoke to be carried by the 
winds to the Lady." 

        (5) Set the incense aside and pick up the water. Pour the 
water into the bath. You may form patterns that appeal to you if you 
like. Say the following. 

           (a) "By this creature of water do I purify this ritual 
bath. May this bath contain the Waters of Life that spring forth from 
the Heart of the Mother." 

        (6) Settle into the bath and soak until the water starts to 
get too cold to stay in or until you have fully relaxed and left the 
tensions of the world behind, which ever comes first. 

           (a) This is a good time to meditate on the work you wish to 

        (7) Dry off with a freshly cleaned white towel, that has been 
allowed to dry in the sunlight if possible. 

           (a) Again, the color of the towel can be coordinated with 
the work you intend to do. I prefer large bath sheets that I can wrap 
around myself until I am ready to dress. 

        (8) Apply any anointing oils that you plan to wear and dress 
in fresh clean clothes, or in robes if you do not have to travel to 
your working site. 

      c. There are provisions made for 'emergency' ritual baths in the 
event that you cannot take a real bath. 

        (1) These usually involve dousing yourself with specially 
prepared solutions that serve the purpose. 

           (a) These are not favored as they do not allow any time for 
relaxation and meditation. 

           (b) Any good 'formulary' should have the recipe for instant 
ritual bath solutions. 

  B. Handling Ritual Tools 

    1. A Witch's tools are more personal than her toothbrush. 

      a. Generally, it is considered extremely bad form to handle 
another persons tools without prior permission. 

        (1) Some witches charge their tools so that others who handle 
them incorrectly can receive a nasty jolt of psychic power to teach 
them to keep their hands to themselves. Personally, I do not approve 
of this practice as it may result in harming someone too innocent to 
know that they should not be handling the tools. 

    2. Some Covens maintain ritual tools that they only allow their 
own members to handle. 

      a. If you are a guest, it is always best to avoid offending 
anyone by not handling anything unless it is specifically offered to 

  C. Entering and Leaving the Circle 

    1. A witch's magic circle is designed to keep the power raised 
within it contained and concentrated. 

      a. Leaving and entering the circle during the ritual tends to 
weaken it and for this reason it is not encouraged. 

        (1) Animals and small children can pass through the barrier of 
the circle because they live in a 'state of grace' under the 
protection of the Goddess. 

           (a) Even so, animals and children should be kept out of the 
ritual area unless they are a specific part of the ritual because they 
are distracting. 

      b. When it cannot be helped, the High Priestess will open, or 
'cut' a door in the circle so that people who need to, can pass into 
or out of it. 

        (1) Naturally, after the person has passed through the High 
Priestess will set a guard or close (seal) the circle. 

      c. Walking across the barriers of the circle is considered to be 
extremely disrespectful and only someone who wants to test the 
patience of the High Priestess will do it knowingly. 

  D. Movement Within the Circle 

    1. Movement within the circle is in accordance to the order found 
in nature. 

      a. As you face South you can track the Sun and Moon from your 
Left to your Right. 

        (1) This is the order of how  we move in the circle, from side 
to side when doing things such as lighting candles, etc. 

      b. Continuing the movement from the West to the North and back 
to the East we have inscribed a circle in a clockwise or Deosil (for 
'as the sun travels') motion. 

        (1) Deosil is the direction the Circle is cast in, and all 
circular movement within the Circle should be in a clockwise 

           (a) There are times when we would move in a counter 
clockwise direction but that would be only under the specific 
directions of the High Priestess and even then only after explaining 
why we were doing it. 

           (b) The general rule is  "Always move in a clockwise 

    2. Each Coven maintains its own practices for giving salutes 
during invocations, evocations and blessings.  

      a. Invoking and banishing pentagrams are also used in setting up 
the Circle and during other rituals acts. 

        (1) Imitating the others in the group is a 'safe' way to avoid 
any social blunders. 

           (a) When in doubt, do not do anything that you feel 
uncomfortable about. 


  A. Creating Sacred Space 

    1. We define a new space and a new time whenever we cast a Circle 
in the Craft to begin a ritual. 

      a. The Circle exists outside the boundaries of ordinary space 
and time. We say it is between the worlds of the seen and the unseen. 

        (1) It is a space in which alternate realities meet, in which 
the past and future are open to us. 

      b. Casting the Circle is an enacted meditation. 

        (1) We create an energy form which serves as a boundary that 
limits and contains the movement of subtle forces. 

           (a) In group work, it is usually the High Priestess or her 
assistant who casts the Circle. 

    2. Casting the Circle is the formal beginning of the ritual. 

      a. It is the complex 'cue' that tells us to switch our awareness 
into a deeper mode. 

        (1) In ritual, we 'suspend disbelief' just as we do when we 
are watching a play or reading fiction. 

    3. In the permanent stone circles of the Megalithic era, where 
rituals were enacted for hundreds of years, great reservoirs of power 
were built up. 

      a. There was no need to draw out the circle as we do today, 
because the stones defined the sacred space. 

        (1) Casting a temporary circle as we do today probably began 
during the time of persecution when tearing down stone circles was a 
popular sport of christian mobs. 

           (a) To further the 'destruction' of our circles, the church 
ordered that christian churches be erected over the old sacred spots 
in the countryside. 

  B. Evoking The Guardians of the Watchtowers 

    1. The concept of the quartered circle is basic to the craft, as 
it is to many cultures and religions. 

      a. The four directions each correspond to and resonate with a 
quality of the self, to an Element, a time of day and year, to tools 
of the craft, symbolic animals and forms of personal power. 

        (1) These correspondences are usually set down in a table 
similar to the one in the back of The Spiral Dance and provide the 
basis for visualizations throughout the ritual. 

           (a) Constant visualizations of these connections create 
deep internal links, so much so that physical actions during ritual 
can trigger the desired inner states. 

    2. The Guardians of the Watchtowers are energy forms. 

      a. They are the Spirits or Wraiths of the four Elements. 

        (1) They bring the elemental energy of Earth, Air, Fire, and 
Water into the circle to augment our human power. 

           (a) The vortex of power created when we evoke the four 
Quarters guards the circle from intrusions and draws in the higher 
powers of the Goddess and God. 

  C. Each Movement in a Ritual has Meaning 

    1. When we move deosil or sunwise we follow the direction the sun 
appears to move in, and draw in power. 

      a. Deosil is the direction of increase, of fortune favour and 

        (1) When we move widdershins, or counter clockwise, we move 
against the path of the sun. 

           (a) This direction is used for decrease or banishing. 

  D. Cosmic Power Times 

    1. Some traditions assign one of the four seasons to each of the 
four Elements. 

      a. When this is done, they will orient their altar to face that 
quarter which represents the season that is being honored. 

        (1) Tthe East is associated with Air and the Spring, South is 
associated with Fire and Summer, West with Water and the Autumn and 
the North with Earth and Winter. 

    2. Depending on the time of day or night, some traditions 
encourage facing towards one of the four directions to draw power and 
perform magic appropriate to the Element used. 

      a. From sunrise to noon you should face East, Noon until sunset 
face South, sunset to midnight face West and midnight to sunrise face 

  E. Raising the Cone of Power 

    1. Energy is raised in coven rituals and most often molded into 
the form of a Cone. 

      a. This is called the Cone of Power. The base of the cone is the 
circle of coveners; its apex can focus on an individual, an object, or 
a collectively visualized image. 

        (1) At times the cone is allowed to rise and fall naturally 
without being sent anywhere. 

           (a) At these times the cone is used to renew the coveners 
personal power. 

        (2) It may also be sent off in a burst of Force, directed by 
one person who may be a part of the circle or may stand in the center 
serving as the focal point. 

      b. Rhythmical drumming, hand claps and dance movements may all 
be used to raise the Cone of Power. 


  A. Creating Sacred Space 

    1. The High Priestess or assistant casts the circle. 

      a. The circle can be marked out by stones, chalk, salt or any 
other natural material. 

        (1) No one is allowed to enter the circle until it has been 
properly cast. 

           (a) Once cast, other members of the ritual enter the circle 
through a pre-arranged 'door' in the circle. Usually in the north. 

  B. Evoking the Guardians of the Watchtowers 

    1. The guardians are evoked, one at a time and welcomed. 

      a. The circle can be purified by that Element assigned to each 
Guardian, as the Guardian is evoked or later, after all the Guardians 
have been evoked. 

  C. Invoking the Goddess and the God 

    1. Many traditions invoke the Goddess in all their rituals. 

      a. Some invoke the Goddess and God at Sabbats and the Goddess 
only at Esbats. 

        (1) Some traditions invoke either the Goddess or the God, in 
accordance with the Season. 

  D. Feasting 

    1. The ritual feast can consist of eating a simple meal of ritual 
cakes and wine or a full blown feast in honor of the Goddess and God 
and the season. 

      a. It is traditional to pour a libation from the chalice out 
onto the ground 'for the Goddess' before anyone else has a drink. 

        (1) Some traditions have a modest meal of cakes and wine and 
then, after the circle is over, settle down for some serious feasting. 

  E. Working Magic/Raising the Cone 

    1. Any magical work or healing is usually done at this time. 

  F. Grounding of the Cone of Power 

    1. Some traditions perform a ritual to rejuvenate the Earth Mother 
by grounding any unused energy raised during the formation of the Cone 
of Power. 

  G. Thanking the Goddess and/or the God 

    1. A formal declaration of thanks for attending the rites and for 
any special favors granted. 

  H. Thanking and releasing the Guardians 

    1. A formal thanking and leave taking of the Guardians. 

  I. Closing the circle 

    1. Either the circle will be banished so that it cannot be 
discovered or a maintenance spell will be placed upon it to allow it 
to retain and grow in power. 




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