A. Foundation 

    1. Nearly three thousands years ago, the Greeks started to emigrate 
    eastwards towards Ionia. They settled on the islands in the Aegean 
    Sea and on the coastline of Asia Minor.  

      a. The conditions found in Ionia were difficult.  

        (1) Backed by inhospitable mountain ranges, they settled in 
        small walled towns and supported themselves with dry farming, 
        capable of producing only some olives and a little wine.  

           (a) With farming ruled out as an option for survival, the 
           Greeks turned towards the sea and soon found that they were 
           the neighbors of two very large empires, the Babylonians and 
           the Egyptians.  

           (b) Trade with these two empires seemed to be the natural 
           solution to their problem, but they needed to resolve some 
           basic questions concerning the founding of their society.  

      b. Both Babylonian and Egyptian cultures had developed urban 
      civilizations based on an abundance of arable land and plenty of 

        (1) Their societies were theocratic, ruled by kings with magical 

           (a) There had been little technological or scientific 
           novelty, due to the extreme regularity of their physical 
           environment and the rigidity of their social structures, 
           which were based on the need to build and maintain vast 
           irrigation systems.  

           (b) Babylonian mathematics and astronomy were restricted 
           subjects whose study was permitted only to the priesthood.  
           Egyptian geometry served exclusively to build pyramids and 
           measure the area of inundated land or the volume of water 

        (2) Both cultures developed mythical explanations for Creation.  

           (a) With gods being responsible for all aspects of the world, 
           and with minimal science and technology developed for 
           practical necessities, their simple cosmology was complete.  

           (b) Unlike the Greeks, the environment made no demands on 
           them which they were not able to meet. So other than figuring 
           out how to kill their enemies more efficiently, there was no 
           inducement to learn to think or to develop their science and 
           technology further.  

      c. The colonial Greeks were forced by their environment to adopt a 
      more dynamic outlook.  

        (1) With no theocratic traditions to hold them back, they 
        rejected monarchies at an early stage.  

           (a) They opted, instead, for republican city-  states in 
           which a small number of slave-owners governed by mutual 

        (2) Babylonian astronomy, which had aided priests to make magic 
        predictions, was pressed into service as an aid to maritime 

        (3) Contact with the Egyptians had planted the seeds of wonder 
        in the intellectuals who accompanied the Greek traders on their 
        trips around the Aegean.  

           (a) Rejecting the cosmologies of the Egyptians they formed 
           the rudiments of what was to become philosophy.  

        (4) Seeking explanations to the world around them, they found 
        ways of exploring nature in order to explain and control it.  

           (a) The Ionians took the geometry developed by the Egyptians 
           and made a tool with many applications; such as measuring the 
           distance from the coast to a ship at sea.  

           (b) Geometry became the basic instrument for measuring all 
           things. All natural phenomena including light and sound, as 
           well as those of astronomy, existed and could be measured in 
           exclusively geometrical space.  

           (c) Simple analyses of natural phenomena such as water, 
           beaches, clay deposits, phosphorescence, magnetism, 
           evaporation and condensation as well as the behavior of the 
           winds and the changes of temperature throughout the year led 
           to the discovery that nature is made up of opposites.  

        (5) These simple analyses of phenomena and the observation of 
        the presence of opposites combined with the political and 
        economic structure of Ionian society produced the dominant 
        intellectual structure which is the basis of modern western 

           (a) Geometry rendered the cosmos accessible to examination 
           according to a common standard, quantitative scale.  

           (b) Together with the concept of pairs of opposites, geometry 
           was to become the foundation for a rational system of 
           philosophy that would underpin Western culture for thousands 
           of years.  

           (c) Rational thought followed a new logical technique 
           developed by Aristotle called the syllogism, which provided 
           an intellectual structure for the reconciliation of opposing 

           (d) In this way, the Ionians before him, and Aristotle, 
           produced a system of thought that would guide men from the 
           limited observations of personal experience to more general 
           truths about nature.  

  B. The Middle Ages 

    1. During the latter part of the Roman empire, interest in science 
    as founded by the Greeks waned and practically all Greek manuscripts 
    went to Arabia.  

      a. In a way, Greek science was preserved for posterity by the 
      Arabs, who themselves added very little to it.  

        (1) They did introduce to science the so called Arabic system of 
        numbers, which used the zero as a place holder.  

           (a) To be sure, Alhazen produced a work on optics, but 
           generally speaking Greek science was not improved upon to any 
           appreciable extent by its translation into Arabic.  (b) 
           Science was still based upon the authority of Aristotle.  

    2. Between 700 and 1100 AD, a beginning was made toward a revival of 
    learning in Europe.  

      a. Large universities developed under the shelter of the Church.  

        (1) Trade spread, and both Greek and Arabian manuscripts 
        gradually found their way back into Europe.  

           (a) The Crusades assisted in this process.  

      b. Since the Church had survived the Roman state and had become 
      all powerful, it was natural that the revival of learning should 
      take place under its influence.  

        (1) Many of the scientific manuscripts were translated from the 
        original Greek into Latin by monks, in monasteries where 
        merchants and knights bringing treasures from the east would 
        often seek shelter for the night.  

           (a) These scholars were satisfied just to make exact 
           translations, and so the science which they passed on to the 
           world through the Church was the original Aristotelian 

        (2) Although the church had re-established science in the 
        various large universities, it is important to remember that 
        Church domination flavoured it to suit itself.  

           (a) The doctrines of Aristotle came to have the power of law 
           behind them.  

           (b) Truth was not discoverable, by that time truth was 
           dictated by the Church.  

           (c) It became a crime of the first order even to question the 
           Church sponsored views of Aristotle, to say nothing of 
           suggesting that experimentation might be a better way to 
           establish the truth.  

  C. The New Awakening 

    1. During the Renaissance, universities were able to free themselves 
    from Church rule and science was able to see the light of day 
    without being shrouded in theology.  

      a. All of the following produced revolutionary ideas which led to 
      their authors spending some part of their lives in prison because, 
      while the Church did not have a stranglehold on the human mind, it 
      still ruled with an iron fist and was always on the lookout for 

        (1) Copernicus developed the heliocentric theory of the 

        (2) Galileao, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler established the 
        fundamental ideas of modern celestial mechanics, based upon 
        observation first, and theorizing afterward, thus 
        revolutionizing scientific thought.  

           (a) Galileo in particular stressed the idea of controlled 
           experimentation to such a degree that today he is recognized 
           as the father of the modern scientific method based upon 
           inductive rather than deductive reasoning.  

           (b) Galileo carried observation to the quantitative stage by 
           making accurate measurements. He truly emphasized the 'how', 
           as contrasted with the 'why' of Aristotle.  

           (c) By quantitative observations on falling bodies and other 
           mechanical motions, assisted by instruments of his own 
           invention to improve the accuracy of his measurements, 
           Galileo laid the foundation for the discoveries of Newton.  

       (3) Sir Isaac Newton is considered by many to be the greatest 
       scientific genius the world has produced thus far.  

          (a) He crystallized the scientific thought of his time into a 
          few fundamental statements now accepted as laws of nature.  

          (b) These include three famous laws of motion and the law of 
          gravitation in the field of mechanics alone.  

          (c) In addition, he invented calculus and contributed greatly 
          to the field of optics.  

          (d) His role was primarily that of a co-ordinator of 
          information or a systematizer of knowledge. He formulated the 
          over all pattern by which scientific knowledge was to be 
          organized in the great classical period that was to follow his 

  D. Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Classical Period.  

    1. Science was really gathering momentum by this time and becoming 
    very complicated.  

      a. The various branches of physics received recognition as fields 
      that, while related, were becoming too complex to be included 
      under the general heading of physics.  

      b. Chemistry was coming into its own after a balky start as the 
      secret science of Alchemy.  

      c. Electricity was an infant science, with a great deal of 

  E. The Modern Period (1890 to Present) 

    1. With the discovery of radioactivity and x-rays, along with the 
    isolation of the electron, and the formulation of the concept of the 
    electrical structure of matter, science moved into today.  

      a. In the early days, science was concerned with the observation 
      of natural phenomena and the search for explanations of WHY they 

        (1) As the emphasis shifted to HOW the phenomena worked the body 
        of knowledge grew dramatically.  

           (a) Many varied disciplines developed to encompass general 
           fields of specialized knowledge and sciences such as geology, 
           oceanography, and meteorology came into their own.  

           (b) In the light of this tendency to form subgroups, the 
           mother of all sciences, which was and is dedicated to the 
           study of the physical world, came to be known as Physics.  

      b. The field of physics deals with three 'realities' of the 
      physical world and has developed three interconnected world views 
      to explain them.  

        (1) Classical Newtonian Model of the Universe 

           (a) This model of the universe works well when you deal with 
           objects consisting of large numbers of atoms, and velocities 
           which are small compared to the speed of light. In other 
           words, our mundane world.  

        (2) Einstein's Relativistic Model of the Universe 

           (a) This model works well when considering objects on a 
           planetary and larger scale that may be many light years away 
           from each other. In this model the shortest distance between 
           two points is not always a straight line, because gravity 
           curves space.  

        (3) Quantum Theory of the Universe 

           (a) Quantum theory was developed to explain the behavior of 
           subatomic particles. It is similar to Relativistic physics in 
           that it deals with speeds approaching, and sometimes 
           exceeding, the speed of light, but it considers small groups 
           and singular particles at a time.  


  A. Craft cosmology is rooted in the paleolithic Shaman's insight of 
  the universe being made up of swirls of energy.  

    1. Everything is seen as vortexes of moving forces which are either 
    swirling into existence or out again.  

      a. These vortexes of force set up currents in a sea of 
      everchanging possibilities.  

    2. The appearance of separateness exists where fixed objects exist 
    within a linear stream of time.  

      a. Reality, as we know it, is actually a temporary solidification 
      of a field of energies into a physical form.  

  B. Rationale of the Two Principles 

    a. Stewart Farrar has proposed the following explanation of how 
    Crafters integrate every phenomenon from chemistry to clairvoyance 
    into a philosophical framework that allows them to constantly 
    explain, examine, develop and improve their philosophy.  

      (1) The Theory of Levels maintains that a reality exists and 
      operates on many planes.  

         (a) That each of these levels has its own laws.  

         (b) That these sets of laws, while special to their own levels, 
         are compatible with each other.  

         (c) That mutual resonance governs the interaction between the 
         different levels.  

      (2) The Theory of Polarity maintains that all activity, all 
      manifestation, arises from the interaction of pairs and 
      complementary opposites.  

         (a) Pairs of opposites such as positive and negative, light and 
         dark, content and form, male and female are not conflicts 
         between 'good and evil', but a creative tension like that 
         between the earth and the sky in a lightning storm.  


  A. Ordinary Waking Consciousness 

    1. Sees the world as made up of separate parts of matter.  

      a. While some of the arrangements of matter are recognized as 
      living, few are recognized as intelligent.  

        b. Evolved as a means of survival.  

          (1) Allows a differentiation between things that are 
          potentially threatening and those that are not.  

             (a) It works by narrowing the field of conscious perception 
             to one thing at a time, isolating it from its surroundings.  

             (b) Starhawk describes it as viewing a dark forest with a 
             narrow beam flashlight that illuminates a lone leaf or a 
             solitary stone.  

        c. It casts a net across reality which allows us to break the 
        whole down into pieces which can be examined one at a time or 
        fitted together to get the 'whole picture'.  

          (1) It is based on a culturally transmitted system of 
          classification which acknowledges the existence of phenomena 
          that is perceived as valid by the majority and ignores 
          anything that is not.  

  B. Extraordinary Waking Consciousness 

    1. Views the world as broad, holistic and undifferentiated.  

      a. Allows us to see patterns and relationships between all the 
      vortexes of energy that make up the universe.  

        (1) Frees us from the constraints of our culture, but prevents 
        us from sharing it with others who have not experienced it.  

           (a) The psychic and magical aspects of the Craft are 
           concerned with shifting into and out of this mode of 
           perception at will.  

  C. The Hemispheres of the Brain 

    1. The brain is actually composed of two specialized organs, which 
    provide us with our perception of reality.  

      a. The brain is made up of several different structures, which are 
      believed to have evolved as we became more adaptive to our 

        (1) The Spinal Cord 

           (a) This is the oldest part of the brain, stretching from the 
           neck down to the base of the spine.  

           (b) The two principle functions associated with the spinal 
           cord are simple reflexes and to provide an electrical 
           connection between the brain which controls the body and the 
           nerves which cause the muscles to move the body and provide 
           feedback to the brain.  

        (2) The Brain Stem 

           (a) This is situated on top of the spinal cord. It still 
           possesses the tubular form of the spinal cord and in some 
           respects can be thought of as an extension of it.  

           (b) There is a very intricate network of nerves in the 
           brainstem known as the reticular formation. The reticular 
           formation is the central point from which and to which all 
           nerves run between the body and the brain.  

           (c) Visualizing the reticular formation as a telephone 
           operators switchboard helps to understand its function. It 
           sends all stimuli that has not proven to be benign to the 
           brain for immediate attention and suppresses all other 

           (d) The brain is still aware of all of the other stimuli, but 
           it need not focus on all of it at once.  

        (3) The Cerebellum 

           (a) Connected to the brainstem is the cerebellum, which 
           somewhat resembles the cortex in terms of its neuronal 
           structure though it is much older than the cortex.  

          (b) The cerebellum is primarily concerned with the co-
          ordination of movements. It seems to integrate the information 
          coming from all the senses with all the muscles so as to 
          produce smooth, finely tuned movements rather than jerky unco-
          ordinated movements.  

       (4) The Midbrain 

          (a)  The midbrain consists of the Thalamus, the Limbic System, 
          and the Hypothalamus.  

          (b) The Thalamus sits on top of the brain and relays 
          information from the sensory organs to the cortex and between 
          different portions of the cortex and the reticular formation 
          and the limbic system.  

          (c) The Limbic System is a group of structures in the middle 
          of the brain that play an important role in emotion and 
          motivation. Included in the limbic system is the pineal gland, 
          which is thought by some to be the 'third eye.' 

          (d) Just below the thalamus is the Hypothalamus, which 
          regulates the internal balance of the body.  The pituitary 
          gland is located here and it is the gland which tells all the 
          other glands when to produce hormones.  

        (5) The Neocortex 

           (a) The Neocortex, or Cortex, as it is commonly called, makes 
           up only one quarter of the brains total volume, but it 
           contains 75% of all the neurons that make up the brain.  

           (b) The cortex is also known by its greyish color which is a 
           result of a greater density of blood cells in this region. 
           For this reason, the cortex is sometimes called  'grey 
           matter' and the rest of the brain is called 'white matter.' 

           (c) Some areas of the cortex play particular roles in sensory 
           activity. The rear of the cortex is associated with the 
           processing of visual information, a small area on the side 
           with auditory information, and a strip extending from the top 
           center of the cortex down each side is concerned with the 
           sense of touch and also with muscular control.  

    2. Large parts of the cortex do not appear to be very specific in 
    their function.  

      a. Rather, they seem to be concerned with the integration of 
      information from several different senses.  

      b. In other words, the cortex builds up a total world view based 
      on all the information that is relayed by the body's senses.  

      c. In reality, the cortex is not just one structure, but two, 
      which appear to have developed separate, but complementary, 

        (1) The left side of the cortex seems to have specialized in 

           (a) It is here that math ability is found, along with 
           understanding language and a sense of linear time.  

        (2) The right side of the cortex seems to have specialized in 

           (a) Creativity, all forms of art, the sense of rhythm and 
           music and a distinct lack of time sense characterize the 
           states of consciousness which are attributed to the right 
           side of the cortex.  

      d. To make things really interesting, these two sides of the 
      cortex are connected by a mass of nerves, which form what is 
      called the corpus callosum.  

        (1) It just so happens that the corpus callosum wires the brain 
        up so that the right side of the body is controlled by the left 
        side of the brain and vice versa.  


  A. Classical Psychoanalysis 

    1. Freudian and Jungian Psychology 

      a. The Id and the Personal and Collective Unconscious 

        (1) Contains sensations, emotions, basic drives, image memory, 
        intuition and diffuse perception.  

      b. The Ego 

        (1) Organizes the impressions of the unconscious, gives those 
        impressions names, and classifies them into systems.  

      c. The Super-Ego 

        (1) A set of verbally understood precepts, that encourages us to 
        make judgments about right and wrong according to the society in 
        which we reside.  

    2. Transactional Analysis (T/A) 

      a. Child 

        (1) Corresponds to the Id and the Personal and Collective 

      b. Adult 

        (1) Corresponds to the Ego 

      c. Parent 

        (1) Corresponds to the Super-Ego 

  B. The Craft Concept of the Three Selves 

    1. Younger Self or Child 

      a. Corresponds to the Child mode of T/A 

        (1) Indirectly experiences the world, through the holistic 
        awareness of the right hemisphere of the brain.  

           (a) Due to its limited verbal ability, Younger Self 
           communicates through images, emotions, sensations, dreams, 
           visions, and physical symptoms.  

    2. Talking Self 

      a. Corresponds to Adult and Parent modes of T/A 

        (1) Speaks through words, abstract concepts, and mathematics.  

    3. High Self 

      a. Does not easily correspond to any 'scientific' concept, because 
      science refuses to accept the existence of a non-physical soul.  

        (1) The High Self, or God Self, is the Divine within the Self.  

           (a) It is the ultimate and original essence, the Spirit that 
           exists beyond time, space and matter.  

           (b) It is our deepest level of wisdom and compassion and is 
           conceived of as being both male and female, two forms of 
           consciousness united as one.  

  C. Interactions Between the Three Selves 

    1. High Self is connected directly to Younger Self, and does not 
    know how to communicate with Talking Self in a direct manner.  

      a. In order to communicate between High Self and Talking Self, we 
      must learn to speak in Younger Self's language.  

        (1) We utilize symbols, art, poetry, music, myth, and the 
        actions of ritual.  

           (a) These translate abstract concepts into the language of 
           the unconscious and thus we can communicaate to the High Self 
           through the Child Self.  


  A. As in everything else in the world, nothing is free.  

    1. There are four prices that a Wiccan must pay in return for the 
    wisdom and power that they can gain through the Craft.  

      a. Paying these prices awakens our true potentials and allows us 
      to be 'as gods', and thus help us to creat a better universe.  

        (1) Discipline and Responsibility 

           (a) To awaken the extra-ordinary mode of consciousness is a 
           natural step in any Wiccan development but it requires a 
           great deal of practice to develop and train it properly.  

           (b) Powers and abilities gained through this heightened 
           awareness must also be used responsibly, for  otherwise they 
           will destroy their possessors.  

        (2) A Willingness to Play 
           (a) We unleash a great power when we are willing to let go of 
           our adult dignity and laugh for no particular reason, without 
           worrying about looking foolish.  

           (b) For example, we can make believe that a wand has magic 
           power, and it becomes a channel for energy.  

           (c) Humour and play awaken the sense of wonder that 
           characterizes Wiccans, and is the basic attitude that the 
           Craft takes into the World.  

        (3) The need to maintain a balance between the different states 
        of consciousness.  

           (a) The difference between magic and psychosis lies in 
           maintaining the ability to step back, by an act of will, into 
           the ordinary mode of perception.  

        (4) A willingness to face the most frightening of all beings, 
        one's own self.  

           (a) The depth of our inner selves are not all sunlit.  

           (b) To see clearly, we must be willing to dive into the dark, 
           inner abyss and acknowledge the creatures that we may find 
           there as being a part of what makes us what we are.  


  A. The Creation Myth which is located at the beginning of the Chapter 
  Two of "The Spiral Dance" by Starhawk, expresses the attitude of 
  wonder, to the world which is Divine and to the Divine which is the 

    1. In the beginning, the Goddess is the All, virgin, complete within 

      a. The female nature of the ground is stressed because the process 
      of creation is a birth process.  

        (1) The world is born, not made, and definately not commanded 
        into existence.  

    2. The Goddess sees Her reflection in the curved mirror of space.  

      a. Water is the original mirror on earth.  

        (1) The image conveyed is similar to that of the Moon floating 
        over the dark sea, watching Her reflection in the waves.  

      b. There is yet another aspect of the mirror.  

        (1) A mirror is a reversed image. It is the same but opposite, 
        of reverse polarity.  

           (a) The image in the mirror is the embodiment of the 
           universal paradox.  

           (b) All things are one yet each is separate, individual and 

    3. The Goddess falls in love with Herself, drawing forth Her own 
    emanations which take on a life of its own.  

      a. Love of self for self is the creative force of the universe.  

        (1) Desire is the primal energy that motivates and that energy 
        is erotic.  

           (a) It has been expressed as the attraction of lover to the 
           beloved, moon to plant, and electron to proton.  

        (2) Blind Eros becomes Amor 

           (a) The love that is personal, directed towards an individual 
           rather than the universal sexless charity of the Christian 
           Agape or indescriminaate sexual desire.  

          (b) The Goddess' reflection takes on its own Being and is 
          given a Name.  

          (c) Love is not only an energizing force but an 
          individualizing force as well. It dissolves separation and yet 
          creates individuality. Again, it is the universal paradox.  

    4. The sense of wonder, of joy and delight in the natural world is 
    the essence of the Craft.  

      a. The world is not seen as a flawed creation from which we must 
      escape, nor is it in need of salvation or redemption.  

      b. However it may appear from day to day by the nature of its 
      deepest being, the world fills us with wonder.  

    5. Divine ecstasy becomes the fountain of creation and creation is 
    seen as an orgasmic process.  

      a. Ecstasy is at the heart of the Craft.  

        (1) During ritual we turn the paradox inside out, and become the 
        Goddess, sharing in the primal throbbing joy of union.  

      b. The Craft is a shamanistic religion, and the spiritual value 
      placed on ecstasy is a high one.  

        (1) It is seen as the source of union, healing, creative 
        inspiration, and communion with the Divine.  

           (a) Ecstasy brings about harmony.  

    6. By its very nature matter sings.  

      a. The song is carried forth on waves that become spheres.  

        (1) The waves are the waves of orgasm, light waves, ocean waves, 
        pulsating electrons, waves of sound.  

           (a) The waves form spheres as swirling gases in space 
           coalesce and form stars.  

      b. It is a basic insight of the Craft any energy, whether 
      physical, psychic or emotional, moves in waves, in cycles that are 
      themselves spirals.  

    7. The Goddess swells with love and gives birth to a rain of bright 

      a. It is a rain that awakens consciousness in the world as 
      moisture awakens green growth on earth.  

        (1) The rain is the fructifying menstrual blood, the Moon's 
        blood that nourishes life.  

           (a) It is also the bursting waters that herald birth.  

           (b) And birth is the ecstatic giving forth of life.  

    8. The motion or vibration becomes so great that Miria is swept 

      a. As She moves further and further from the point of union She 
      becomes more polarized and more differentiated, until She become 
      mostly male.  

        (1) The Goddess has projected Herself.  

           (a) Her projected Self becomes the Other, Her Opposite, who 
           eternally yearns for reunion.  

        (2) The energy field of the cosmos becomes polarized.  

           (a) It becomes a conductor of forces exerted in opposite 


  A. The rituals of the eight Solar Holydays, the Sabbats of the year, 
  are derived from the Myth of the Wheel of the Year.  

    1. The cycle of the Goddess which occurs on a monthly basis is 
    contrasted to the slower cycle of the God, which takes a full solar 
    year to complete.  

      a. The Goddess reveals Her threefold aspects as--

        (1) Maiden 

           (a) She is the Virgin, Patroness of birth and initiation.  

        (2) Nymph 

           (a) She is the sexual temptress, lover, siren, and 

        (3) Crone 

           (a) She is the dark force of life, which demands death and 
           personal sacrifice.  

      b. The God changes -- from Son to Brother to Lover, and eventually 
      becomes His own Father.  

        (1) He is the eternal sacrifice who is eternally reborn into a 
        new life.  

           (a) All things are divine as manifestations of the Goddess.  

           (b) The death of the grain in the harvest, or the death of a 
           deer in the hunt, was considered to be a divine sacrifice 
           freely made out of love so that life might go on.  


  A. The view of the All as an energy field polarized by two great 
  forces is common to almost all traditions of the Craft.  

    1. These forces have been named Female and Male. And Goddess and 

      a. Which in their ultimate being are aspects of each other.  

        (1) It is important to separate the concept of polarity from our 
        culturally conditioned images of female and male.  

           (a) The Female and Male forces represent a difference, yet 
           they are not different in essence.  

           (b) They are the same force, flowing in opposite, but not 
           opposed, directions.  

    2. The Female force is seen as the Life-giving force.  

      a. It is the power of manifestation, of energy flowing into the 
      world to become force.  

    3. The Male force is seen as the Death-giving force.  

      a. This is death in a positive rather than a negative way.  

        (1) Death is seen as the Force of Limitation that is necessary 
        to provide a balance to unbridled creation.  

           (a) It is the force of dissolution, of return to 

      b. Each principle contains the other.  

        (1) Life breeds death and feeds on death.  

        (2) Death sustains life and makes evolution and new creation 

      c. They are opposing halves of a complete cycle.  

        (1) They area each dependent upon the other.  

    4. Existence is sustained by the on/off pulse, the alternating 
    current if you will, of the two forces in perfect balance.  

      a. Unchecked the life force is a cancer whereas the death force 
      becomes unbridled war and genocide when allowed to go unbalanced.  

        (1) When held in balance they are in harmony and work to renew 
        and sustain life.  

           (a) We see the effects of this balance in the changing cycle 
           of the seasons, and in the ecological balance of the natural 


  A. The Craft does not maintain, like the first Truth of Buddhism, that 
  "All life is suffering." On the contrary, we maintain that life is a 
  thing of wonder.  

    1. Old age is a natural and highly valued part of the cycle of life, 
    the time of greatest wisdom and understanding.  

      a. We look forward to the time when we are freed from the cycle of 
      reproduction so that we may devote more time to our preparation 
      and contemplation of the journey into death at the end our years.  

        (1) This does not mean that the joys of sex become lost to us 
        but that the urgency that wells up in the Spring and rides us 
        through until the Autumn subsides and we get to go at our own 

           (a) While the quantity sometimes decreases, the quality 
           invaribly increases.  

    2. The Crone serves as a role model for both women and men in their 
    later years.  

      a. A tendency to withdraw from society to a certain degree is 
      coupled with a diminishing of compassion in favor of a little more 
      emphasis on justice and balance.  

        (1) People soon find that appealing to the Goddess as the Mother 
        brings help tempered by a mother's willingness to overlook the 
        fact that most children bring problems upon themselves.  

           (a) Appealing to the Goddess as Crone however, gets a full 
           measure of justice for all parties involved.  

           (b) The Crone does not play favorites, She has the severity 
           of a strong will to see justice done, that prevents Her from 
           doting on any of Her grandchildren.  

    3. Old age sometimes brings suffering.  

      a. Where suffering is a natural part of the cycle of birth and 
      decay, it is relieved by understanding and acceptance. By a 
      willingness to give over to both the dark and the light in turn.  

        (1) Disease can cause misery and suffering but it is not seen as 
        something to be inevitably suffered.  

           (a) The practice of the Craft has always been connected with 
           the healing arts, herbalism, and midwifery.  

      b. When suffering is the result of the social order or human 
      injustice, the Craft encourages active work to relieve it.  

        (1) Witches are naturals for getting involved in the ecology 
        movement and other movements that try to address the issues that 
        they feel make society as a whole ill, both physically and 

    4. Nor is death fearful in old age.  

      a. It is seen simply as the dissolution of the physical form.  

        (1) It allows the spirit to prepare to be reborn into a new 


  A. The experience of death is a lesson for the living.  

    1. The people most affected by death are the people left behind who 
    must learn to deal with their sense of loss.  

      a. In the Craft, death in this world is seen as a birth into the 
      "other" world that has been given many names.  

        (1) The Summerland, Tirn-nan-og, and Avalon are all names given 
        to a pleasant land, usually in the West, where people go to 
        examine their past lives, grow young again, and prepare to be 
        born into this world again.  

           (a) There are two theories about why the world beyond is 
           thought to be in the west. One is that the last rays of the 
           setting sun 'die' in the west and lead the way into the dark. 
           While the other is that since the invaders always came from 
           the east, the people who were being invaded came to think of 
           the west as being safe because it was the direction they were 
           running toward in order to get away from the invaders.  

      b. Rebirth is not considered to be condemnation to an endless, 
      dreary round of suffering as in Eastern religions.  

       (1) Instead it is seen as the great gift of the Goddess who is 
       manifest in the physical world.  

          (a) Life and the world are not separate from the Godhead. They 
          are immanent in the divinity.  

    2. Since death is seen as a part of the natural order of things and 
    the Witch is taught that the departed spirits go on to the next life 
    to be watched over by the Goddess and the God until they are reborn, 
    a Witch should not grieve over the loss of a loved one.  

      a. The realization of how much the departed person meant to the 
      ones who are left behind is gauged by the memories that live on in 
      the people still living.  

        (1) It is said that the departed do not die as long as their 
        memory lives on in the hearts of the ones left behind them.  

           (a) Keeping the memory alive and participating in the 
           seasonal celebrations prepares the people left behind for 
           being visited by the departed when the two worlds come close 
           to one another at Hallows.  

           (b) It is always important to remember that a death in this 
           world is a birth in the other world, and just as you did not 
           have a lot of time for anything other than learning to 
           function in this world when you were young, newly departed 
           people have to learn to function in their new world and may 
           not be able to visit as often as you would like.  

    3. The belief the Karma ties a certain number of souls together over 
    and over again in many lives reassures people of the Craft that they 
    will meet the departed in a new life.  

      a. Part of the training of the Craft is learning to see your own 
      past lives in relation to the people around you and their past 
      lives as well as discerning patterns of Karma in your everyday 



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