Urine as a Survival resource

     Urine can be very useful in survival situations.   Two main uses can be as
an emergency eyewash and a source of fertilizer for your plants.
     Urine  as  it comes from the urethra is a sterile, (unless there exists a
bladder, kidney or urinary tract infection), saline solution of about 6 pH 
(range 4.8-8.5). This makes a perfectly satisfactory eyewash in situations 
where water is unavailable or of questionable quality.  Since urine contains 
nutrients that can support the growth of harmful organisms, the eye should be
rinsed with a boric acid or other eyewash solution as soon as possible.
     Urine output is about 600-1,600 ml./24 hours with around 55-70 gms./24 hrs
of total solids.  Typical electrolytes are (per 24 hours)
 Sodium              130-260 mEq
 Chloride            110-250 mEq
 Potassium            25-100 mEq
 Calcium             100-250 mg.
 Magnesium            15-300 mg.
 Phosphorus,inorganic .9-1.3 Gm.
     Components that contain Nitrogen are (per 24 hours)
 Ammonia        20- 70 mEq
 Creatine        0-100 mg.
 Creatnine      .8-1.9 Gm.
 Protein        10-150 mg.
 Urea nitrogen  6 - 17 Gm.
 Uric acid     .25-.75 Gm.
     That  doesn't sound like much,  but take 1 quart of urine and add 3  or  4
quarts of water and pour that on a lawn, just one application, that hasn't been
fertilized  and  you will be amazed.  Do not use urine undiluted since the
heavy dose of nitrogen will "burn" the plants.
     Since  urine has so much nitrogen it could be added to a compost pile that
is long on carbon but short on nitrogen.
     In  absolutely desparate conditions urine can used for a beverage  if  you
are  low  on water and in danger of dehydration.   This shouldn't be  taken  to
extremes, but there are religious sects in India that advocate drinking ones
own urine once a day for mytiscal reasons and they do not seem to suffer from 
any ill effects.  I doubt that you will benefit from the mystical advantages 
claimed for this, but it may keep you alive.  Needless to say, you can not rely
solely on urine for fluids for an extended period of time since urine contains
waste products.  Urine can however be used to prevent dehydration in the same
manner as seawater or other saline or contaminated waters.  You can use the 
undrinkable water to cool your skin thereby reducing water loss from 
perspiration. Where dehydration is emminant, use the salty water to cool your
skin and clothes.  The phrase, "Ration your sweat, not your water.", is the 
idea here.  Every cup of water that you can prevent losing is just as good as
an additional cup of water that you drink as far keeping yourself properly