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                           IN TIME OF EMERGENCY

                         a citizen's handbook on

                           EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

                   For additional information contact:

                         Office of Public Affairs
                   Federal Emergency Management Agency
                          Washington, D.C. 20472

                       ***FEMA Publication H-14***

                              Reprinted 1980

      Electronic entry 1991 by J.P. Wieser - Live Free International

                      P.O. Box 1743 Harvey IL 60426

                    This is a public domain document.

                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I: NUCLEAR ATTACK................................................vii

     Chapter 1: Understanding the Hazards of Nuclear Attack............1

     Chapter 2: Warning...............................................11

     Chapter 3: Fallout Shelters, Public and Private..................17

     Chapter 4: Improvising Fallout Protection........................29

     Chapter 5: Shelter Living........................................35

     Chapter 6: Fire Hazards..........................................45

     Chapter 7: The Relocation Option.................................49

     Chapter 8: Emergency Care of the Sick and Injured................57

 PART II: MAJOR NATURAL DISASTERS.....................................71

     Chapter 1: General Guidance......................................73
     Chapter 2: Floods................................................77

     Chapter 3: Hurricanes............................................83

     Chapter 4: Tornadoes.............................................87

     Chapter 5: Winter Storms.........................................89

     Chapter 6: Earthquakes...........................................93

     Chapter 7: Tidal Waves...........................................97

Page iii

     The  primary  purpose of this handbook, In Time Of Emergency,  is  to 
save  lives. It is addressed directly to the individual and the family  to 
provide them with information and guidance on what they can and should  do 
to  enhance  their survival in the event of nationwide nuclear  attack  or 
other major disasters.
     This  guidance  is general in nature and should  supplement  specific 
instructions  issued by local governments. Since special conditions  exist 
in  some communities, local instructions issued by local  governments  may 
differ  slightly  from  this general guidance. In such  cases,  the  local 
instructions should be followed.
     Cities  and  counties in all parts of the country, with  the  aid  of 
Federal  and  state  governments, have developed  and  are  continuing  to 
develop civil preparedness programs to reduce the loss of life and protect 
property  in  the event of major peacetime emergencies and  enemy  attack. 
Many  lives  have been saved and much suffering has been alleviated  as  a 
result of these programs. People have been warned of impending storms  and 
similar  dangers,  told  how to protect  themselves,  sheltered  from  the 
elements, fed, clothed, treated for injury and illness, and given help  in 
resuming their normal lives. 
     Part  I (pages viii - 68) is concerned with nuclear attack and  basic 
preparations to take.
     Part II (pages 71 - 98) discusses preparations and emergency  actions 
that  will  help individuals cope with major  natural  disasters-  floods, 
hurricanes, tornadoes, winter storms, earthquakes, and tidal waves.
     Special  advice  for rural families on emergency actions  related  to 
crops and livestock is available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

PAGE viii
                        PART ONE - NUCLEAR ATTACK

     In this uneasy age in which we live, strife abounds in many  troubled 
parts of the world. The weapons of modern warfare have become increasingly 
powerful  and numerous. Potential aggressors can deliver nuclear  warheads 
accurately on targets up to 8,000 miles away.
     Despite  continuing efforts to achieve and maintain peace, a  nuclear 
attack upon the United States remains a distinct possibility. In the  face 
of  this  threat,  a strong civil defense is needed  not  only  throughout 
government, but on the part of the individual and the family. And that  is 
what  this  first  section is all about- to help the  individual  and  the 
family prepare for the possibility of nuclear attack.
     Much  has been done to prepare for a possible nuclear attack.  Public 
fallout shelter space has been located for millions. Civil defense systems 
also  include warning and communication networks, preparations to  measure 
fallout  radiation, emergency operating centers to direct  lifesaving  and 
recovery  operations, emergency broadcasting stations,  local  governments 
organized for emergency operations, and large numbers of citizens  trained 
in emergency skills. 
     If  an enemy should threaten to attack the United States,  you  would 
not be alone. The entire Nation would be mobilizing to repulse the attack, 
destroy  the  enemy, and hold down our own loss of life.  Much  assistance 
would  be  available to you- from local, State, and  Federal  governments, 
from the U.S. Armed Forces units in your area, and from your neighbors and 
fellow  Americans.  If an attack should come, many lives  would  be  saved 
through effective emergency preparations and actions.
     You  can  give  yourself  and your family a  much  better  chance  of 
surviving  and recovering from a nuclear attack if you will take time  now 
     -Understand the dangers you would face in an attack.
     -Make your own preparations for an attack.
     -Learn what actions you should take at the time of an attack.
     Every family or individual should give special attention to plan  for 
shelter. depending upon your location and upon various circumstances,  one 
of three possible shelter options may be available to you:                                 
     1: Seek private shelter at home.
     2: Seek public shelter in your own community.
     3: Leave your community to seek shelter in a less dangerous area.

     Part  I of this handbook contains basic information on the threat  of 
nuclear attack. This guidance supplements specific instructions issued  by 
local  governments. Special conditions may exist in some communities,  and 
instructions  issued  by local governments may differ  slightly  from  the 
general  guidance in this handbook. In such cases, the local  instructions 
should be followed.


     The  first  step  in preparing for a possible nuclear  attack  is  to 
understand the major hazards you would face if attack should come.
     When  a nuclear bomb or missile explodes, the main  effects  produced 
are  intense light (flash), heat, blast, and radiation. How  strong  these 
effects  are depends on the size and type of the weapon; how far away  the 
explosion  is; the weather conditions (sunny or rainy, windy,  or  still); 
the  terrain (whether the ground is flat or hilly) and the height  of  the 
explosion (high in the air, or near the ground).
     All nuclear explosions cause light, heat, blast, and initial  nuclear 
radiation, which occur immediately. In addition, explosions that are on or 
close to the ground would create large quantities of dangerous radioactive 
fallout  particles, most of which would fall to earth during the first  24 
hours.  Explosions  high  in  the air  would  create  smaller  radioactive 
particles,  which  would  not have any real effect on  humans  until  many 
months or years later, if at all. (These smaller particles would drift  to 
earth  more slowly, losing much of their radioactivity before  they  reach 
the ground, and would be spread by the upper winds over vast areas of  the 

* overpressure in this zone > 12 P.S.I. 
0.24 miles.................................................crater diameter
0.70 miles.........................................maximum fireball radius
1.70 miles............destruction of all but specially designed facilities 
98% of people killed  2% of people injured

*overpressure in this zone 5 - 12 P.S.I.
3  miles......severe  damage  to commercial-type buildings  &  many  fires 
50% of people killed  40% of people injured  10% of people safe

*overpressure in this zone 2 - 5 P.S.I.
5  miles...moderate damage to commercial-type buildings, severe damage  to 
small residences & many fires initiated
5% of people killed  45% of people injured  50% of people safe

*overpressure in this zone 1 - 2 P.S.I.
7  miles...light damage to commercial-type buildings, moderate  damage  to 
small residences & potential fire spread
25% of people injured  75% of people safe

*overpressure in this zone 0 - 1 P.S.I
beyond 7 miles.......................................potential fire spread
100% of people safe

(If  burst is elevated to altitude maximizing the reach of  blast  damage, 
moderate  damage from blast and initial fires on a clear day are  extended 
from 5 miles to 8 miles.)


* overpressure in this zone >12 P.S.I.
0.70 miles.................................................crater diameter
2.50 miles.........................................maximum fireball radius
5 miles...............destruction of all but specially designed facilities
98% of people killed  2% of people injured

*overpressure in this zone 5 - 12 P.S.I.
8  miles...severe  damage  to  commercial-type  buildings  &  many   fires 
50% of people killed  40% of people injured  10% of people safe

*overpressure in this zone 2 - 5 P.S.I.
14 miles...moderate damage to commercial-type buildings, severe damage  to 
small residences & many fires initiated
5% of people killed  45% of people injured  50% of people safe

*overpressure in this zone 1 - 2 P.S.I.
22  miles...light damage to commercial-type buildings, moderate damage  to 
small residences & potential fire spread 
25% of people injured  75% of people safe

*overpressure in this zone 0 - 1 P.S.I.
beyond 22 miles......................................potential fire spread
100% of people safe
(If  burst is elevated to altitude maximizing the reach of  blast  damage, 
moderate  damage from blast and initial fires on a clear day are  extended 
from 14 miles to 22 miles.)

     (FEMA graphic transcribed into table by Live Free International)


     In  a nationwide nuclear attack, people close to a nuclear  explosion 
in  the  area of heavy destruction probably would be killed  or  seriously 
injured  by the blast, or by the heat or initial nuclear radiation of  the 
nuclear fireball. 
     People a few miles away- in the "light damage" area of the explosion- 
would be endangered by the blast and heat, and by fires that the explosion 
might  start. However, it is likely that most of the people in the  "light 
damage"  area  would  survive these hazards, but  they  would  be  further 
endangered by radioactive fallout.
     People  who  were  outside the immediate damage  area  would  not  be 
affected  by the blast, heat, or fire. Department of Defense studies  show 
that  in  any  nuclear attack an enemy might launch against  us,  tens  of 
millions  of  Americans would be outside the immediate  damage  areas.  To 
them-  and  to  the people in the "light damage" areas  who  survived  the 
blast, heat, and fire- radioactive fallout would be the main danger.
     What  would  happen to people in case of nuclear  attack,  therefore, 
would depend primarily upon their nearness to a nuclear explosion.

     People in the areas of heavy destruction would likely need protection 
from  various  combinations of blast, initial radiation, heat,  fire,  and 
radioactive fallout. This would call for shelters strong enough to  resist 
the  blast  pressure,  made of heat-  and  fire-resistant  materials,  and 
sufficiently  dense or heavy and thick to protect from  initial  radiation 
and  radioactive  fallout.  Usually, shelters  affording  protection  from 
blast,  heat,  and  fire would also provide  appreciable  protection  from 
radioactive  fallout.  Although many people in the  "light  damage"  areas 
would  likely survive the blast. heat, and fire effects, they would  still 
need  protection from radioactive fallout. By improvising blast  and  heat 
protection with attendant improvement in fallout protection, the lives  of 
millions of additional people could be saved.
     However, people caught in the area of the fireball would no doubt  be 
killed.  Therefore,  people living in or near likely target  or  high-risk 
areas may wish to relocate in safer areas and take fallout shelter  there. 
(See Chapter 7, "The Relocation Option".) This would be a serious option
for many to consider if a period of international tension permitting  time 
for such relocation should precede a nationwide nuclear attack.
     For  those  people outside the immediate damage areas and  for  those 
relocating  to lower-risk areas prior to an attack,  effective  protective 
measures can be taken against the danger of radioactive fallout.


     When  a nuclear weapon explodes near the ground, great quantities  of 
pulverized  earth and other debris are sucked up into the  nuclear  cloud. 
There the radioactive gases produced by the explosion condense on and into 
this debris, producing radioactive fallout particles. Within a short time, 
these  particles  fall back to earth- the larger ones first,  the  smaller 
ones  later.  On  the  way down, and after  they  reach  the  ground,  the 
radioactive particles give off invisible gamma rays- like X-rays- too much 
of which can kill or injure people. These particles give off most of their 
radiation  quickly; therefore the first few hours or days after an  attack 
would be the most dangerous period.
     In  dangerously  affected areas the particles themselves  would  look 
like grains of salt or sand; but the rays they would give off could not be 
seen  tasted, smelled, or felt. Special instruments would be  required  to 
detect the rays and measure their intensity.

     The  distribution of fallout particles after a nuclear  attack  would 
depend  on wind currents, weather conditions, and other factors. There  is 
no  way  of  predicting  in advance what areas of  the  country  would  be 
affected by fallout, or how soon the particles would fall back to earth at 
a particular location.
     Some  communities  might get a heavy accumulation of  fallout,  while 
others-  even in the same general area- might get little or none. No  area 
in the U.S. could be sure of not getting fallout, and it is probable  that 
some fallout particles would be deposited on most of the country.
     Areas close to a nuclear explosion might receive fallout within 15  - 
30 minutes. It might take 5 - 10 hours or more for the particles to  drift 
down on a community 100 or 200 miles away. 
     Generally, the first 24 hours after fallout began to settle would  be 
the  most  dangerous  period  to  a  community's  residents.  The  heavier 
particles  falling during that time would still be highly radioactive  and 
give off strong rays. The lighter particles falling later would have  lost 
much of their radiation high in the atmosphere.


     The  invisible  gamma rays given off by fallout particles  can  cause 
radiation  sickness-  that  is, illness caused by  physical  and  chemical 
changes  in  the cells of the body. If a person receives a large  dose  of 
radiation,  he will die. But if he receives only a small or  medium  dose, 
his  body will repair itself and he will get well. The same dose  received 
over a short period of time is more damaging than if it is received over a 
longer period. Usually, the effects of a given dose of radiation are  more 
severe in very young and very old persons, and those not in good health.


     Following  are  estimated short-term effects on  humans  of  external 
exposure  to gamma radiation from fallout during a period of less  than  1 
week.  The total exposure is given in terms of Roentgens (R), a  unit  for 
measuring the amount of radiation exposure.

0 - 50 R...No visible effects.

50  -  200  R...Brief  periods  of nausea on  day  of  exposure.  50%  may 
experience radiation sickness (nausea); 5% may require medical  attention; 
no deaths expected.

200  -  450  R...Most will require medical attention  because  of  serious 
radiation sickness. 50% deaths within two to four weeks.

450  - 600 R...Serious radiation sickness; all require medical  attention. 
Death for more than 50% within one to three weeks.

Over 600 R...Severe radiation sickness. 100% deaths in two weeks.

     No  special clothing can protect people against gamma radiation,  and 
no  special drugs or chemicals can prevent large doses of  radiation  from 
causing  damage to the cells of the body. However, antibiotics  and  other 
medicines are helpful in treating infections that sometimes follow

excessive exposure to radiation (which weakens the body's ability to fight 
     Almost  all  of the radiation that people would absorb  from  fallout 
particles would come from particles outside their own bodies. Only  simple 
precautions  would  be necessary to avoid swallowing  the  particles,  and 
because  of  their  size (like grains of sand)  it  would  be  practically 
impossible to inhale them. 
     People  exposed  to fallout radiation do not become  radioactive  and 
thereby dangerous to other people. Radiation sickness is not contagious or 
infectious, and one person cannot "catch it" from another person.


     People  can protect themselves against fallout radiation, and have  a 
good chance of surviving it, by staying inside a fallout shelter. In  most 
cases,  the  fallout radiation level outside the  shelter  would  decrease 
rapidly enough to permit people to leave the shelter within a few days.
     Even  in  communities  that receive heavy  accumulations  of  fallout 
particles, people soon might be able to leave shelter for a few minutes or 
a few hours at a time in order to perform emergency tasks. In most places, 
it is unlikely that full-time shelter occupancy would be required for more 
than a week or two. 
     Information   from  trained  radiological  monitors,  using   special 
instruments  to  detect and measure the intensity  of  fallout  radiation, 
would be used to advise people when it is safe to leave shelter.


     The farther away you are from the fallout particles outside, the less 
radiation you will receive. Also, the building materials (concrete, brick, 
lumber,  etc.)  that are between you and the fallout  particles  serve  to 
absorb many of the gamma rays and keep them from reaching you.

     A  fallout shelter, therefore, does not need to be a special type  of 
building or an underground bunker. It can be any space, provided the walls 
and  roof  are thick enough to absorb many of the rays given  off  by  the 
fallout  particles outside, and thus keep dangerous amounts  of  radiation 
from reaching the people inside the structure.
     A  shelter  can  be  the basement or  inner  corridor  of  any  large 
building;  the basement of a private home; a subway or tunnel; or  even  a 
backyard trench with some kind of shielding material (heavy lumber, earth, 
bricks, etc.) serving as a roof.
     In addition to protecting people from fallout radiation, most fallout 
shelters also would provide some limited protection against the blast  and 
heat effects of nuclear explosions that were not close by.
     Chapter  3,  "Fallout Shelters, Public and  Private,"  discusses  the 
various  types  of  fallout  shelters  that  people  can  use  to  protect 
themselves in case of nuclear attack.

     From many studies, the Federal Government has determined that  enough 
food and water would be available after an attack to sustain our surviving 
citizens.  However,  temporary food shortages might occur in  some  areas, 
until food was shipped there from other areas. 
     Most of the Nation's remaining food supplies would be usable after an 
attack. Since radiation passing through food does not contaminate it,  the 
only  danger  would  be the actual swallowing of  fallout  particles  that 
happened to be on the food itself (or on the can or package containing the 
food), and these could be wiped or washed off. Reaping, threshing, canning 
and  other  processing would prevent any dangerous quantities  of  fallout 
particles  from  getting  into processed foods. If  necessary  to  further 
protect  the  population,  special  precautions would  be  taken  by  food 

     Water systems might be affected somewhat by radioactive fallout,  but 
the  risk  would  be small, especially if a few  simple  precautions  were 
taken. Water stored in covered containers and water in covered wells would 
not  be contaminated after an attack, because the fallout particles  could 
not  get into the water. Even if the containers were not covered (such  as 
buckets  or bathtubs filled with emergency supplies of water), as long  as 
they  were indoors it is highly unlikely that fallout particles would  get 
into them.
     Practically  all of the particles that dropped into open  reservoirs, 
lakes, and streams (or into open containers or wells) would settle to  the 
bottom.  Any  that  didn't would be removed when the  water  was  filtered 
before being pumped to containers. A small amount of radioactive  material 
might remain, but at the most it would be of concern for only a few weeks.
     Milk  contamination  from  fallout is not expected to  be  a  serious 
problem after an attack. If cows graze on contaminated pasture and swallow 
fallout particles that contain some radioactive elements, their milk might 
be harmful to the thyroid glands of infants and small children. Therefore, 
if possible, they should be given canned or powdered milk for a few  weeks 
if  authorities  say  that  the regular milk  supply  is  contaminated  by 
radioactive elements.
     In  summary, the danger of people receiving harmful doses of  fallout 
radiation  through  food, water, or milk is very small.  People  suffering 
from extreme hunger or thirst should not be denied these necessities after 
an  attack,  even  if the only available supplies  might  contain  fallout 

Chapter 2


     An enemy attack on the United States probably would be preceded by  a 
period  of international tension or crisis. This crisis period would  help 
alert all citizens to the possibility of attack.
     If  an  attack actually occurs, it is almost  certain  that  incoming 
enemy  planes  and missiles would be detected by our networks  of  warning 
stations in time for citizens to get into shelters or at least take cover. 
This warning time might be as little as 5 - 15 minutes in some situations, 
or as much as an hour or more in others.
     How  you  received  warning of an attack would depend  on  where  you 
happen  to be at that time. You might hear the warning given on  radio  or 
television, or even by word-of-mouth. Or your first notice of attack might 
come from the outdoor warning system in your city, town, or village.
     Many  U.S.  cities  and towns have  outdoor  warning  systems,  using 
sirens,  whistles,  horns,  or bells. Although they  have  been  installed 
mainly  to warn citizens of enemy attack, some local governments also  use 
them   in   connection  with  natural  disasters   and   other   peacetime 
     Different cities and towns are using their outdoor warning systems in 
different ways. Most local governments, however, have decided to 

use  a certain signal to warn people of an enemy attack, and  a  different 
signal to notify them of a peacetime disaster.


     The two "standard" signals that have been adopted in most communities 
are these:
     THE ATTACK WARNING SIGNAL. This will be sounded only in case of enemy 
attack. The signal itself is a 3- to 5-minute wavering sound on the siren, 
or a series of short blasts on whistles, horns, or other devices, repeated 
as deemed necessary. The Attack Warning Signal means that an actual  enemy 
attack  against the United States has been detected, and  that  protective 
action should be taken immediately. This signal has no other meaning,  and 
will be used for no other purpose.
     THE  ATTENTION  OR  ALERT  SIGNAL.  This  is  used   by  some   local 
governments  to get the attention of citizens in a time of  threatened  or 
impending natural disaster, or some other peacetime emergency. The  signal 
itself  is a 3- to 5- minute steady blast on sirens, whistles,  horns,  or 
other  devices. In most places, the Attention or Alert signal  means  that 
the local government wants to broadcast important information on radios or 
television concerning a peacetime disaster.


     1.  If you should hear the Attack Warning Signal- unless  your  local 
government  has  instructed  you otherwise- go  immediately  to  a  public 
fallout shelter or to your home fallout shelter. Turn on a radio, tune  it 
to  any  local  station  that is broadcasting,  and  listen  for  official 
information. Follow whatever instructions are given.

     If  you  are  at  home and there is  no  public  or  private  shelter 
available,  you may be able to improvise some last-minute  protection  for 
yourself  and  your  family by following the  suggestions  in  Chapter  4, 
"Improvising Fallout Protection."
     2. If you should hear the Attention or Alert Signal, turn on a  radio 
or  TV  set,  tune  it  to any local  station,  and  follow  the  official 
instructions being broadcast.


     Whichever  signal  is  sounding, don't use the  telephone  to  obtain 
further  information and advice about the emergency. Depend on  radio  and 
television, since the government will be broadcasting all the  information 
it  has available. The telephone lines will be needed for official  calls. 
Help keep them open.


     As  mentioned  before, not all communities in the U.S.  have  outdoor 
warning systems, and not all communities with outdoor warning systems have 
adopted the two "standard" warning signals.
     You  should  therefore  find out now from your  local  Civil  Defense 
Office what signals are being used in your community; hat they sound like; 
what they mean; and what actions you should take when you hear them.  Then 
memorize this information, or write it down on a card to carry with you at 
all  times. Also, post it in your home. Check at least once each  year  to 
see if there are any changes.


     It is possible- but extremely unlikely- that your first warning of an 
enemy attack might be the flash of a nuclear explosion in the sky some

distance  away.  Or there might be a flash after warning had  been  given, 
possibly while you were on your way to shelter.
     *TAKE COVER INSTANTLY. If there should be a nuclear flash- especially 
if you are outdoors and feel warmth at the same time- take cover instantly 
in  the  best  place you can find. By getting inside  or  under  something 
within  a few seconds, you might avoid being seriously burned by the  heat 
or  injured by the blast wave of the nuclear explosion. If  the  explosion 
were  some  distance  away, you might have 5 to 15  seconds  before  being 
seriously  injured  by the heat, and perhaps 15 to 60 seconds  before  the 
blast  wave  arrived. Getting under cover within these time  limits  might 
save your life or avoid serious injury. Also, to avoid injuring your eyes, 
never look at the flash of an explosion or the nuclear fireball.
     *WHERE TO TAKE COVER. You could take cover in any kind of a building, 
a storm cellar or fruit cellar, a subway station, or tunnel; or even in  a 
ditch or culvert alongside the road, a highway underpass, a storm sewer, a 
cave or outcropping of rock, a pile of heavy materials, a trench or  other 

tion.  Even  getting under a parked automobile, bus or train, or  a  heavy 
piece  of  furniture,  would protect you to some extent. If  no  cover  is 
available, simply lie down on the ground and curl up. The important  thing 
is to avoid being burned by the heat, thrown about by the blast, or struck 
by flying objects.
     *BEST POSITION AFTER TAKING COVER. After taking cover you should  lie 
on  your side in a curled-up position, and cover your head with your  arms 
and hands. This would give you some additional protection.
     *MOVE  TO A FALLOUT SHELTER LATER. If you protected yourself  against 
the  blast  and  heat  waves by instantly  taking  cover,  you  could  get 
protection  from  the radioactive fallout (which would  arrive  later)  by 
moving to a fallout shelter.

Chapter 3


     After  a nuclear attack, fallout particles would drift down  on  most 
areas of this country. To protect themselves from the radiation given  off 
by these particles, people in affected areas would have to stay in fallout 
shelters  for 2 or 3 days to as long as 2 weeks. Many people would  go  to 
public fallout shelters, while others- through choice or necessity-  would 
take refuge in private or home fallout shelters.


     Most communities now have public fallout shelters that would  protect 
many  of their residents against fallout radiation. Where there are  still 
not enough public shelters to accommodate all citizens, efforts are  being 
made  to locate more. In the meantime, local governments plan to make  use 
of the best available shelter.
     Most of the existing public shelters are located in larger  buildings 
and  are marked with the standard yellow-and-black fallout  shelter  sign. 
Other  public shelters are in smaller buildings, subways,  tunnels,  mines 
and  other facilities. These also are marked with shelter signs, or  would 
be marked in a time of emergency.


     An  attack might come at any hour of the day or night. Therefore  you 
should  find  out  now  the locations of  those  public  fallout  shelters 
designated  by the local government for your use. If no designations  have 
yet been made, learn the locations of public shelters that are nearest  to 
you when you are at home, work, school, or any other place where you spend 
considerable time.
     This  advice  applies  to all members of the  family.  Your  children 
especially  should  be  given clear instructions now on where  to  find  a 
fallout shelter at all times of the day, and told what other actions  they 
should take in case an attack should occur.


     Public  fallout  shelters  usually offer some  advantages  over  home 
shelters.  However, in many places- especially suburban and  rural  areas- 
there  are  few  public shelters. If there is none near you  now,  a  home 
fallout shelter may save your life.
     The basements of some homes are usable as family fallout shelters  as 
they  now  stand, without any alterations or changes-  especially  if  the 
house has two or more stories, and its basement is below ground level.
     However, most home basements would need some improvements in order to 
shield their occupants adequately from the radiation given off by  fallout 
particles.  Usually, householders can make these improvements  themselves, 
with moderate effort and at low cost.


     If  you do not have information about the fallout protection of  your 
basement, you may obtain it quickly as follows:
     Select the answer in each multiple choice question which most  nearly 
applies  to  your home. Write the number of points selected in  the  blank 
space provided opposite each question. Add the numbers written 

in  the  blanks. Write the sum in the blank opposite  "TOTAL  POINTS"  and 
compare your total with the "Shelter Protection" table.

1. How many stories are above the ground level in this house?
( ) One story...............................................11 points_____
( ) One and one-half stories.................................9 points_____
( ) Two stories..............................................6 points_____
( ) Three stories or more....................................3 points_____

2.  What  is the maximum exposure of any basement wall above  the  ground? 
(Exclude exterior entrances of 3 feet width or less.)
( ) No basement (skip question 3)...........................15 points_____
( ) 3 feet or more...........................................8 points_____
( ) 2 to 3 feet..............................................3 points_____
( ) 1 to 2 feet..............................................1 point______
( ) less than 1 foot.........................................0 points_____

3. What is the principal material of the basement walls?
( ) Cinder block or concrete block...........................2 points_____
( ) Stone, brick, or poured concrete.........................0 points_____

4. What is the principal material of the first story walls?
( ) Solid brick or stone, concrete...........................3 points_____
( ) Other....................................................0 points_____

5. Is the home attached to or closer than 10 feet to another home or homes 
of similar size and construction?
( ) No.......................................................2 points_____
( ) Yes, 1 side..............................................1 point______
( ) Yes, 2 sides.............................................0 points_____
                                                         TOTAL POINTS_____
Shelter potential:  Up to 13 points- adequate
                    14 - 19 points- improvable at low cost
                    20 or more points- low

Remember,  in  this  type of survey, the lowest  number  of  points  means 
highest degree of fallout shielding.


     In  setting  up any home fallout shelter, the basic aim is  to  place 
enough  "shielding  material" between the people in the  shelter  and  the 
fallout particles outside.
     Shielding material is any substance that would absorb and deflect the 
invisible  rays given off by the fallout particles outside the house,  and 
thus reduce the amount of radiation reaching the occupants of the shelter. 
The  thicker,  heavier, or denser the shielding material is, the  more  it 
would protect the shelter occupants.

     Some radiation protection is provided by the existing, standard walls 
and  ceiling  of a basement. But if they are not thick  or  dense  enough, 
other shielding material will have to be added. 
     Concrete, bricks, earth, and sand are some of the materials that  are 
dense  or  heavy  enough to provide fallout  protection.  For  comparative 
purposes,  4 inches of concrete would provide the same  shielding  density 
-5 to 6 inches of bricks
-6 inches of sand or gravel___ may be packed into bags, cartons, boxes,
-7 inches of earth____________}or other containers for easier handling
-8 inches of hollow concrete blocks (6 inches if filled with sand)
-10 inches of water
-14 inches of books or magazines
-18 inches of wood.


     If there is no public fallout shelter near your home, or if you would 
prefer  to  use  a family-type shelter in a time  of  attack,  you  should 
prepare a home fallout shelter. Here is how to do it:

     *A  PERMANENT BASEMENT SHELTER. If your home basement- or one  corner 
of  it-  is below ground level, your best and easiest action would  be  to 
build  a  fallout shelter there. If you have basic  carpentry  or  masonry 
skills, you probably could buy the necessary shielding material and do the 
work  yourself  in  a short time. If you decide to set  up  one  of  these 
shelters,  first get the free plan for it by writing to the U.S.  Army  AG 
Publications  Center,  Civil  Preparedness Section,  2800  Eastern  Blvd., 
(Middle  River),  Baltimore, Maryland 21220. In ordering a plan,  use  the 
full name shown for it.
[The  FEMA sketches of these shelters have necessarily been omitted  here, 
as well as some of the related text. The names of the shelter plans are:

-Ceiling Modification Plan A
-Alternate Ceiling Modification Plan B
-Permanent Concrete Block or Brick Shelter Plan C
-Preplanned Snack Bar Shelter Plan D
-Preplanned Tilt-up Storage Unit Plan E

*A PERMANENT OUTSIDE SHELTER. If your home has no basement, or if you 
prefer to have a permanent-type home shelter in your yard, you can obtain 
free construction plans by writing to (the same address.)
-Outside Concrete Shelter, Plan H-12-1
-Aboveground Fallout Shelter, Plan H-12-2 ]
PAGES 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 FEMA sketches and explanatory text omitted

Chapter 4


     If  an enemy attack should occur when you are at home, and  you  have 
made no advance shelter preparations, you still might be able to improvise 
a shelter either inside or outside your house. In a time of emergency, the 
radio broadcasts may tell you whether you have time to improvise a shelter 
or whether you should take cover immediately.
     An improvised shelter probably would not give you as much  protection 
as  a  permanent  or a preplanned family shelter, but  any  protection  is 
better than none, and might save your life.
     The best place to improvise a shelter would be the basement or  storm 
cellar, if your home has one.


     To  improvise  a shelter you would need shielding materials  such  as 
those  mentioned  on page 20- concrete blocks, bricks,  sand,  etc.  Other 
things  could also be used as shielding material, or to support  shielding 
material, such as:
     -House doors that have been taken off their hinges (especially  heavy 
outside doors).

     -Dressers and chests (fill the drawers with sand or earth after  they 
are  placed  in position, so they won't be too heavy to  carry  and  won't 
collapse while being carried).
     -Trunks, boxes, and cartons (fill them with sand or earth after  they 
are placed in position).
     -Tables and bookcases.
     -Books, magazines, and stacks of firewood or lumber.
     -Flagstones from outside walks and patios.


     Here  are two ways of improvising fallout protection in the  basement 
of a home.
     Set  up  a  large, sturdy table or workbench in the  corner  of  your 
basement that is most below ground level.
     On the table, pile as much shielding material as it will hold without 
collapsing.  Around  the  table,  place  as  much  shielding  material  as 
     When  family  members are "inside the shelter"- that  is,  under  the 
table- block the opening with other shielding material.
     If  you don't have a large table or workbench available- or  if  more 
shelter space is needed- place furniture or large appliances in the corner 
of the basement so they will serve as the "walls" of your shelter.
     As a "ceiling" for it, use doors from the house that have been  taken 
off their hinges. On top of the doors, pile as much shielding material  as 
they  will support. Stack other shielding material around the  "walls"  of 
your shelter. 
     When all persons are inside the shelter space, block the opening with 
shielding material.


     A  below-ground  storm cellar can be used as  an  improvised  fallout 
shelter,  but  additional  shielding material may  be  needed  to  provide 
adequate protection from fallout radiation.
     If  the  existing roof of the storm cellar is made of wood  or  other 
light  material,  it  should  be covered with one  foot  of  earth  or  an 
equivalent thickness of other shielding material (see pages 21 and 22) for 
overhead  shielding  from fallout. More posts or braces may be  needed  to 
support the extra weight.
     After  the roof has been shielded, better protection can be  provided 
by blocking the entrance way with 8-inch concrete blocks or an  equivalent 
thickness  of sandbags, bricks, earth, or other shielding material,  after 
all  the  occupants are inside the shelter. After particles  have  stopped 
falling, the outside door may be left open to provide further ventilation.
     If shielding material is not available for the entrance way,  shelter 
occupants  should stay as far away from it as possible. They  also  should 
raise  the outside door of the storm cellar now and then to knock off  any 
fallout particles that may have collected on it. 


     Some  homes  without basements have "crawl space" between  the  first 
floor  and the ground underneath the house. If you have this  space  under 
your  house- and if the house is set on foundation walls, rather  than  on 
pillars- you can improvise fallout protection for your family there. 
     First, get access to the crawl space through the floor or through the 
outside  foundation  wall. (A trapdoor or other entry could be  made  now, 
before an emergency occurs.)
     As  the location for your shelter, select a crawl-space area that  is 
under  the  center of the house, as far away from the  outside  foundation 
walls as possible.

     Around   the  selected  shelter  area,  place   shielding   material- 
preferably  bricks  or blocks, or containers filled with earth-  from  the 
ground  level  up to the first floor of the house, so that  the  shielding 
material forms the "walls" of your shelter area. On the floor above, place 
other shielding material to form a "roof" for the shelter area. 
     If time permits, dig out more earth and make the shelter area deeper, 
so that you can stand erect or at least sit up in it.


     If your home has no basement, no storm cellar and no protected  crawl 
space, here are three ways of improvising fallout protection in your yard.


     An excellent fallout shelter can be built by excavating under a small 
portion of the house slab.
     First, dig a trench alongside the house, preferably alongside an eave 
to help keep out rainwater. Once the bottom of the slab foundation wall is 
reached, dig out a space under the slab. The area can very in size, but it 
should  not  extend  back more than 4 feet from the outside  edge  of  the 
foundation wall.
     Place  support  shoring under the slab, and pile dirt on top  of  the 
slab  inside  the  house  to improvise  overhead  shielding  from  fallout 
     You  can add to the protection by making a lean-to over the  entrance 
trench,  using  boards or house doors, covering them with  soil,  and  and 
covering this with a polyethylene sheet to keep out rainwater.


     Dig  an L-shaped trench, about 4 feet deep and 3 feet wide. One  side 
of  the  L,  which  will be the shelter area, should  be  long  enough  to 
accommodate  all family members. The other side of the L can  be  shorter, 
since its purpose is to serve as an entrance-way and to reduce the  amount 
of radiation getting into the shelter area.
     Cover  the entire trench with lumber (or with house doors  that  have 
been taken off their hinges), except for about 2 feet on the short side of 
the L, to provide access and ventilation.

     On top of the lumber or doors, pile earth 1 to 2 feet high, or  cover 
them with other shielding material.
     If necessary, support or "shore up" the walls of the trench, as  well 
as the lumber or doors, so they will not collapse.

     Dig a shallow ditch, 6 inches deep and 6 inches wide, parallel to and 
4 feet from the outside wall of your house.
     Remove  the heaviest doors from the house. Place the bottoms  of  the 
doors  in  the ditch (so they won't slip) and lean the doors  against  the 
wall of the house.
     On  the doors, pile 12 to 18 inches of earth or sand. Stack  or  pile 
other shielding material at the sides of the doors, and also on the  other 
side of the house wall (to protect you against radiation coming from  that 
     If  possible, make the shelter area deeper by digging out more  earth 
inside  it.  Also dig some other shallow ditches, to allow rain  water  to 
drain away.


     If no better fallout protection is available, a boat with an enclosed 
cabin  could be used. However, in addition to emergency supplies  such  as 
food, drinking water and battery-powered radio, you should have aboard the 
items  you would need (a broom, bucket, or pump-and-hose) to sweep off  or 
flush off any fallout particles that might collect on the boat.
     The  boat  should  be anchored or cruised slowly at  least  200  feet 
offshore,  where  the water is at least 5 feet deep.  This  distance  from 
shore would protect you from radioactive fallout particles that had fallen 
on  the  nearby  land.  A 5-foot depth would  absorb  the  radiation  from 
particles falling into the water and settling on the bottom.
     If particles drift down onto the boat, stay inside the cabin most  of 
the  time. Go outside now and then, and sweep or flush off  any  particles 
that have collected on the boat.

Chapter 5

                              SHELTER LIVING


     People  gathered  in public and private fallout  shelters  to  escape 
fallout  radiation  after a nuclear attack would have to  stay  there-  at 
least part of the time- for a week or two.
     During  this time they would need certain supplies and  equipment  in 
order  to stay alive and well, and to cope with emergency situations  that 
might occur in their shelters.
     This  chapter tells you what supplies and equipment to take with  you 
if  you go t a public fallout shelter, and what items you should  keep  on 
hand if you plan to use a family fallout shelter at home. 
     To  augment the supplies of water and food normally found in or  near 
large  structures  where public fallout shelter is  usually  located,  you 
should plan to take the following with you:
     -Special  medications  or foods required by members of  your  family, 
such as insulin, heart tablets, dietetic food, or baby food.
     -A blanket for each family member.
     -A  battery-powered radio, flashlight, extra batteries for each,  and 
writing materials for taking notes on information given over the radio.
     -As  much potable liquids (water, fruit and vegetable  juices,  etc.) 
and ready-to-eat food as you can carry to the shelter.

     If  you  intend  to use a home fallout  shelter,  you  should  gather 
together  now all the things you and your family would need for  2  weeks, 
even  though you probably wouldn't have to remain inside the  shelter  for 
the entire period.
     All  these items need not be stocked in your home shelter area.  They 
can be stored elsewhere in or around your house, as long as you could find 
them  easily  and  move them to your shelter area quickly  in  a  time  of 

     *THE ABSOLUTE NECESSITIES. There are a few things you must have. They 
are  water, food, sanitation supplies, and any special medicines or  foods 
needed  by family members such as insulin, heart tablets,  dietetic  food, 
and baby food.

     *THE  COMPLETE LIST. In addition to the absolute  necessities,  there 
are  other important items. Some of them may be needed to save  lives.  At 
the least, they will be helpful to you. Here is a list of all major items- 
both essential and desirable.

     WATER.  This is even more important than food. Each person will  need 
at least one quart of water per day. Some will need more. As explained  on 
pages  39  and  40,  do not ration drinking water.  Store  it  in  plastic 
containers, or in bottles or cans. All should have tight stoppers. Part of 
your  water  supply  might be "trapped" water in the pipes  of  your  home 
plumbing system, and part of it might be in the form of bottled or  canned 
beverages,  fruit  or vegetable juices, or milk. A  water-purifying  agent 
(either  water-purifying  tablets, or 2 percent tincture of iodine,  or  a 
liquid household chlorine bleach) should also be stored, in case you  need 
to purify any cloudy or "suspicious" water that may contain bacteria.

     FOOD.  Enough  food  should  be kept on  hand  to  feed  all  shelter 
occupants for 14 days, including special foods needed by infants,  elderly 
persons, and those on limited diets. Most people in shelter can get  along 
on  about half as much as usual and can survive without food  for  several 
days  if  necessary. If possible, store canned or  sealed  package  foods, 
preferably  those not requiring refrigeration or cooking. These should  be 
replaced  periodically. Here is a table showing the suggested  replacement 
periods,  in months, for some of the types of food suitable to  store  for 
emergency  use.  (This table, and other suggestions  concerning  emergency 
supplies  of  food and water, is contained in "Family Food  Stockpile  for 
Survival," Home and Garden Bulletin No. 77, available to individuals free, 
from  the  U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  Office  of  Communications, 
Washington, D.C. 20250.)

     Nonfat dry or whole dry milk, in metal container.................6

Canned meat, poultry, fish:
     Meat, poultry...................................................18
     Mixtures of meats, vegetables, cereal products..................18
     Condensed meat and vegetable soups...............................8

Fruits and vegetables:
     Berries and sour cherries, canned................................6
     Citrus fruit juices, canned......................................6
     Other fruit and fruit juices, canned............................18
     Dried fruit, in metal container..................................6
     Tomatoes, sauerkraut, canned.....................................6
     Other vegetables, canned (including dry beans and dry peas).....18

Cereals and baked goods:

Ready-to-eat cereals:
     In metal container..............................................12
     In original paper package........................................1

Uncooked cereal (quick-cooking or instant):
     In metal container..............................................24
     In original paper package.......................................12

Sugars, sweets, and nuts:
     Sugar......................................will keep indefinitely
     Hard candy, gum................................................18
     Nuts, canned...................................................12
     Instant puddings...............................................12

     Coffee, tea, cocoa (instant)...................................18
     Dry cream product (instant)....................................12
     Bouillon products..............................................12
     Flavored beverage powders......................................24
     Salt.......................................will keep indefinitely
     Flavoring extracts (e.g., pepper)..............................24
     Soda, baking powder............................................12
     Hydrogenated (or antioxidant-treated) fats, vegetable oil......12

     SANITATION  SUPPLIES. Since you may not be able to use  your  regular 
bathroom  during  a  period of emergency, you should keep  on  hand  these 
sanitation supplies: A metal container with a tight-fitting lid to use  as 
an emergency toilet; one or two large garbage cans with covers (for  human 
wastes   and  garbage);  plastic  bags  to  line  the  toilet   container; 
disinfectant; toilet paper; soap; wash cloths and towels; a pail or basin; 
and sanitary napkins.

     MEDICINES  AND FIRST AID SUPPLIES. This should include any  medicines 
being regularly taken, or likely to be needed, by family

members. First aid supplies should include all those found in a good first 
aid kit (bandages, antiseptics, etc.) plus all the items normally kept  in 
a  well-stocked  home medicine chest (aspirin, thermometer,  baking  soda, 
petroleum jelly, etc.). A good first aid handbook is also recommended.

INFANT SUPPLIES. Families with babies should keep on hand a two-week stock 
of  infant  supplies  such  as canned milk  or  baby  formula,  disposable 
diapers, bottles and nipples, rubber sheeting, blankets and baby clothing. 
Because  water  for washing might be limited, baby  clothing  and  bedding 
should be stored in larger-than-normal quantities.

     COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Emergency supplies should include  pots, 
pans,  knives, forks, spoons, cups, napkins, paper towels, measuring  cup, 
bottle opener, can opener, and pocket knife. If possible, disposable items 
should be stored. A heat source also might be helpful, such as an electric 
hot plate (for use if power is available), or a camp stove or  canned-heat 
stove  (in case power is shut off). However, if a stove is  used  indoors, 
adequate ventilation is needed.

     CLOTHING. Several changes of clean clothing- especially undergarments 
and socks or stockings- should be ready for shelter use, in case water for 
washing should be scarce.

     BEDDING. Blankets are the most important items of bedding that  would 
be  needed in a shelter, but occupants probably would be more  comfortable 
if they also had available pillows, sheets, and air mattresses or sleeping 

     FIRE  FIGHTING  EQUIPMENT.  Simple  fire  fighting  tools,  and   the 
knowledge  of  how  to use them, may be very useful.  A  hand-pumped  fire 
extinguisher of the inexpensive, 5-gallon, water type is preferred. Carbon 
tetrachloride  and  other  vaporizing-liquid type  extinguishers  are  not 
recommended  for  use in small enclosed spaces, because of the  danger  of 
fumes.  Other useful fire equipment for home use includes  buckets  filled 
with sand, a ladder, and a garden hose.

     GENERAL  EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS. The essential items in this list are  a 
battery-powered  radio and a flashlight or lantern, with spare  batteries. 
the  radio might be your only link with the outside world, and  you  might 
have to depend on it for all your information and instructions, especially 
for advice on when to leave shelter. Include writing materials for  taking 
notes  on information given over the radio. Other useful items: a  shovel, 
broom, axe, crowbar, kerosene lanterns,

short  rubber hose for siphoning, coil of half-inch rope at least 25  feet 
long, coil of wire, hammer, pliers, screwdriver, wrench, nails and screws.

     MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. In addition to such practical items as  matches, 
candles,  and civil defense instructions, some personal convenience  items 
could  be  brought  into the home shelter if space  permits.  These  might 
include  books  and magazines, a clock, and calendar, playing  cards,  and 
hobby  materials,  a  sewing kit, and  toiletries  such  as  toothbrushes, 
cosmetics, and shaving supplies.


     At  all  times  and  under all conditions,  human  beings  must  have 
sufficient  water,  adequate food and proper sanitation in order  to  stay 
alive  and  healthy. With people living in a shelter- even for a  week  or 
two- water and food might be scarce, and it would be difficult to maintain 
normal  sanitary  conditions.  Water and food supplies would  have  to  be 
"managed" - that is, kept clean, and used carefully by each person in  the 
shelter. Sanitation also would have to be managed and controlled,  perhaps 
by  setting  up emergency toilets and rules to insure that they  are  used 
     de the risk area, but within a reasonable distance, go there as  soon 
as  possible.  As  relocation  gets  underway,  it  may  be  difficult  or 
impossible to get to the location of your choice.

     *If you do not have a definite location to go to...
     You  should proceed to the nearest reception area indicated  by  your 
government officials.
     *If you are a key worker...
     If  you have been designated by your employer as a key worker  in  an 
essential  industry,  you  may be expected to go with  your  family  to  a 
reserved nearby reception area. You would probably not be expected to stay 
in  location at your high-risk area, but you would probably commute  daily 
to  work from your assigned reception area. Protection would  be  provided 
for  you while in your high-risk location, and you would be able  to  join 
your family after work.


     If  you have a car, truck, camper, or recreational vehicle, drive  it 
to  your  designated reception area, using the route given by  your  local 
officials. Remember that several days should be available  for  relocating 
all those living in the high-risk area. Take the time you need to  prepare 
and pack.
     Relocation routes will be designated to assure that residents will be 
equally  distributed  among the reception counties so that there  will  be 
adequate food and lodging for you and your family. If you use a route  not 
assigned  to  you,  you may find the reception area  you  have  chosen  is 
filled,  and  there  is  no room or accommodations  for  you.  Follow  the 
relocation  route  to  the reception county as  indicated  by  your  local 
officials.  Wherever possible, police officers will be on duty  to  advise 
and direct you. Obey all instructions by law enforcement officers.

     If  you get caught in a traffic jam, turn off your engine, remain  in 
your car, listen for official instructions, and be patient. Do not get out 
of  the  line to find an alternate route. All routes will be  crowded.  If 
traffic  is  stopped for an hour or more, do not leave your  car  for  any 
     Be sure you have adequate gasoline when you start out. DO NOT BUY ANY 
MORE GAS THAN YOU WILL NEED. Gasoline will be in short supply and will  be 
needed  to provide you with food and other essential supplies. But if  you 
run out of gas or have other mechanical difficulties, move your car to the 
side  of  the  road out of traffic lanes to  allow  traffic  to  continue. 
Service  to stalled autos will be available during the evacuation  period. 
Leave  your  hood  up  as a sign that you are stalled,  and  you  will  be 
assisted as soon as possible.
     If you have no private means of transportation, public transportation 
will probably be provided to move you to your reception area.
     If  you  are  physically  unable  to  get  to  transportation,   make 
arrangements to be picked up and be transported to your reception area.


     When  you reach a major community or town in your assigned  reception 
county, proceed immediately to your assigned reception area.
     At  the center you will register yourself and your family.  Reception 
county officials will make every effort to assign you to a place to sleep, 
in  a  larger  building  or possibly with a  private  household  that  has 
volunteered to share their home.

Lodging in Public Buildings...
     If you are assigned to a public building such as a school, church, or 
other  temporary  lodging center, do everything you can to  help  maintain 
order  and  sanitary living conditions. Elect a leader  and  form  working 
groups to help local officials and volunteers with such tasks as:
     *Cooking and feeding services
     *Providing water supply
     *Cleaning up trash and garbage
     *Maintaining order
     *Assuring quiet during sleeping hours
     *Organizing recreation and religious activities
     *Arranging medical care for the sick and assisting the handicapped


     Listen to the radio for information and advice from national,  State, 
and local officials. You will be told when you should return home. DO  NOT 
RETURN  HOME BEFORE YOU ARE ADVISED TO DO SO. It is impossible to  predict 
how long you will have to stay in the reception area. It could be only for 
a few days or could last for a week or more.
     If  a  nuclear  attack should occur and  the  Emergency  Broadcasting 
System  (EBS) is in operation, a number of radio stations will  remain  on 
the air to provide emergency information.
All other radio stations will stop broadcasting. Those emergency  stations 
remaining  on the air will provide you with information  and  instructions 
that you will need.


     Many larger buildings have been designed as public fallout  shelters. 
They are marked by signs like this:

[yellow-and-black  sign  with trefoil radiation symbol on  top  and  words 
"Fallout Shelter" with directional arrows on bottom]

     Host  areas  usually  do  not have  enough  shelters  for  their  own 
residents.  Consequently, it will be necessary for many residents of  host 
counties  AND  FOR  MOST CITY EVACUEES to upgrade  to  protection  in  the 
building  they  are to stay in or to try to improvise  their  own  fallout 
     Residents  of  host  areas are encouraged to share  their  homes  and 
shelter  facilities  as far as possible. Both the residents  of  the  host 
areas  and the city evacuees will have to WORK HARD FOR A DAY OR  MORE  to 
construct  improvised shelters to protect against fallout. In  this  case, 
radiation  protection  would  be  "cheap  as  dirt."  Upgrading   existing 
structures  by piling earth outside them can be done by adding an  average 
of one cubic yard of earth for each 10 square feet of shelter space to  be 
developed (more for some buildings, less for others.) Moving a cubic  yard 
of  earth is not easy- it's about 80 to 100 buckets full- but can be  done 
if everyone works for their survival.
     Generally, shelter in host areas can be found in the following:
     *Buildings which have been identified in the National Shelter  Survey 
and marked with a shelter sign.
     *Home basements
     *Buildings which can be upgraded to improve the fallout protection by 
placing earth overhead and against the walls.
     *Caves, mines, and tunnels.
     *Expedient  fallout shelters involving digging of trenches,  movement 
of  earth, or use of materials at hand, such as tables, doors, bricks,  or 
     For  specific  information  on improvising  fallout  protection,  see 
Chapter 4, "Improvising Fallout Shelters."

Chapter 8


     A  nuclear attack on the United States would cause great  numbers  of 
casualties,  and  there  would be fewer  doctors,  nurses,  and  hospitals 
available  to  care  for  them. Even in areas  where  no  nuclear  weapons 
exploded,  radioactive  fallout  could prevent  doctors  and  nurses  from 
reaching sick or injured persons for a considerable period of time. People 
would  have  to help each other during the emergency, and  would  have  to 
depend on their own knowledge of first aid and emergency medical care.
     Both  adults and teenagers can acquire these valuable skills  now  by 
taking free courses that are offered in many communities, such as a  First 
Aid course.
     The following information is no substitute for one of these  courses. 
The basic guidance may save lives during a nuclear emergency, however,  by 
helping  untrained  persons  take  care  of  the  sick  and  injured  when 
professional medical assistance may not be immediately available.


     1.  First  of  all, DO NO HARM.  Often,  well-meaning  but  untrained 
persons  worsen  the  injury or illness in their  attempts  to  help.  Get 
competent  medical assistance, if possible. Do not  assume  responsibility 
for  a patient if you can get the help of a doctor, nurse, or  experienced 
first-aid worker. But if no one better qualified is available, take charge 
are  the two most life-threatening conditions you can do something  about. 
They demand IMMEDIATE treatment (see pages 59 and 62).
     3.  PREVENT SHOCK, OR TREAT IT. Shock, a serious condition  of  acute 
circulatory  failure,  usually accompanies a severe or painful  injury,  a 
serious  loss of blood, or a severe emotional upset. If you EXPECT  shock, 
and  take prompt action, you can prevent it or lessen its  severity.  This 
may save the patient's life. (Treatment of shock is discussed on page 63.)
the  patient receiving further injury where he is, he should not be  moved 
until  breathing  is restored, bleeding is stopped, and  suspected  broken 
bones are splinted.
     5.  KEEP  CALM,  AND REASSURE THE PATIENT. Keep him  lying  down  and 
comfortably warm, but do not apply heat to his body, or make him sweat.
not able to swallow, he may choke to death or drown. Also, don't give  him 
any liquids to drink if he has an abdominal injury.


     Quick  action  is  required. You must get air into  his  lungs  again 
immediately  or he may die. The best and simplest way of doing this is  to 
use mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration. Here is how to do it.
     1. Place the patient on his back. Loosen his collar.
     2. Open his mouth and use your fingers to remove any food or  foreign 
matter, If he has false teeth or removable dental bridges, take them out. 
     3. Tilt the patient's head back so that his chin points upward.  Lift 
his lower jaw from beneath and behind so that it juts out. This will  move 
his tongue away from the back of his throat, so it does not block the  air 
passage  to  his  lungs.  Placing a pillow or  something  else  under  his 
shoulders  will help get his head into the right position.  Some  patients 
will start breathing as soon as you take these steps, and no further  help 
is necessary.
     4. Open your mouth as wide as possible, and place it tightly over the 
patient's  mouth,  so his mouth is completely covered by yours.  With  one 
hand, pinch his nostrils shut.

With your other hand, hold his lower jaw in a thrust-forward position  and 
keep  his head tilted back. With a baby or small child, place  your  mouth 
over both his nose and mouth, making a tight seal.
     5.  Blow  a  good  lungful of air  into  an  adult  patient's  mouth, 
continuing  to keep his head tilted back and his jaw jutting out  so  that 
the  air  passage is kept open. (Air can be blown through  an  unconscious 
person's teeth, even though they may be clenched tightly together.)  Watch 
his chest as you blow. When you see his chest rise, you will know that you 
are getting air into his lungs.
     6. Remove your mouth from the patient's mouth, and listen for him  to 
breathe out the air you breathed into him. You also may feel his breath on 
your cheek and see his chest sink as he exhales. 
     7. Continue your breathing for the patient. If he is an adult, blow a 
good  breath  into his mouth every 5 seconds, or 12 times  a  minute,  and 
listen for him to breathe it back out again. Caution: If the patient is an 
infant  or small child, blow small puffs of air into him about 20 times  a 
minute. You may rupture his lung if you blow in too much air at one  time. 
Watch  his chest rise to make sure you are giving him the right amount  of 
air with each puff.

     8.  If you are not getting air into the patient's lungs, or if he  is 
not breathing out the air you blew into him, first make sure that his head 
is tilted back and his jaw is jutting out in the proper position. Then use 
your  fingers to make sure nothing in his mouth or throat  is  obstructing 
the air passage to his lungs. If this does not help, then turn him on  his 
side  and  strike  him sharply with the palm of your  hand  several  times 
between  the shoulder blades. This should dislodge any obstruction in  the 
air  passage. Then place him again on his back, with his head tilted  back 
and  his jaw jutting out, and resume blowing air into his mouth.  If  this 
doesn't work, try closing his mouth and blowing air through his nose  into 
his lungs.
     9. If you wish to avoid placing your mouth directly on the  patient's 
face, you may hold a cloth (handkerchief, gauze, or other porous material) 
over  his  mouth and breathe through the cloth. But don't  waste  precious 
time looking for a cloth if you don't have one. 
     10.  Important: Even if the patient does not respond,  continue  your 
efforts for 1 hour or longer, or wait until you are completely sure he  is 
dead. If possible, have this confirmed by at least one other person.


     1.  Apply  firm, even pressure to the wound with  a  dressing,  clean 
cloth,  or sanitary napkin. If you don't have any of these, use your  bare 
hand  until you can get something better. Remembers, you must  keep  blood 
from  running  out  of  the patient's body. Loss of 1  or  2  quarts  will 
seriously endanger his life.
     2.  Hold the dressing in place with your hand until you  can  bandage 
the  dressing  in  place. In case of an arm or leg wound,  make  sure  the 
bandage  is not so tight as to cut off circulation; and raise the  arm  or 
leg above the level of the patient's heart. (But if the arm or leg appears 
broken, be sure to splint it first.)
     3. Treat the patient for shock.
     4.  If blood soaks through the dressing, do not remove the  dressing. 
Apply more dressings.
     5.  SPECIAL ADVICE ON TOURNIQUETS: Never use a tourniquet unless  you 
cannot  stop  excessive, life-threatening bleeding by  any  other  method. 
Using a tourniquet increases the chances that the arm or leg will have  to 
be  amputated  later. If you are forced to use a tourniquet  to  keep  the 
patient from bleeding to death (for example, when a hand or foot has  been 
accidentally cut off), follow these instructions carefully:
     -Place the tourniquet as close to the wound as possible, between  the 
wound and the patient's
     -After  the  tourniquet  has been applied, do not  permit  it  to  be 
loosened  (even temporarily, or even though the bleeding has  stopped)  by 
anyone  except a physician, who can control the bleeding by other  methods 
and replace the blood that the patient has lost.
     -Get a physician to treat the patient as soon as possible.


     Being  "in  shock" means that a person's circulatory  system  is  not 
working properly, and not enough blood is getting to the vital centers  of 
his brain and spinal cord.
     These  are  the  symptoms of shock: The patient's pulse  is  weak  or 
rapid, or he may have no pulse that you can find. His skin may be pale  or 
blue,  cold, or moist. His breathing may be shallow or irregular.  He  may 
have chills. He may be thirsty. He may get sick at his stomach and vomit.
     A person can be "in shock" whether he is conscious or unconscious.
     Important: All seriously injured persons should be treated for shock, 
even  though  they appear normal and alert. Shock may cause death  if  not 
treated  properly, even though the injuries which brought on  shock  might 
not  be serious enough to cause death. In fact, persons may go into  shock 
without having any physical injuries.
     Here is how to treat any person who may be in shock:
     1. Keep him lying down and keep him from chilling, but do not apply a 
hot water bottle or other heat to his body. Also, loosen his clothing. 
     2. Keep his head a little lower than his legs and hips. But if he has 
a head or chest injury, or has difficulty in breathing, keep his head  and 
shoulders slightly lower than the rest of his body.

     3.  Encourage  him  to  drink  fluids if  he  is  conscious  and  not 
nauseated,  and if he does not have abdominal injuries. Every  15  minutes 
give  him a half-glass of this solution until he no longer wants  it:  One 
teaspoonful  of salt and a half-tablespoonful of baking soda to one  quart 
of water.
     4. Do not give him alcohol.


     Any  break in a bone is called a fracture. If you think a person  may 
have a fracture, treat it as though it were one. Otherwise, you may  cause 
further  injury.  For example, if an arm or leg is injured  and  bleeding, 
splint it as well as bandage it.
     With  any fracture, first look for bleeding and control it. Keep  the 
patient comfortably warm and quiet, preferably lying down. If you have  an 
ice  bag,  apply  it to the fracture to ease the pain.  Do  not  move  the 
patient (unless his life is in danger where he is) without first  applying 
a  splint or otherwise immobilizing the bone that may be fractured.  Treat 
the patient for shock.

     A  FRACTURED  ARM  OR  LEG should be  straightened  out  as  much  as 
possible,  preferably by having 2 persons gently stretch it into a  normal 
position.  Then it should be "splinted"- that is, fastened to a  board  or 
something  else,  to prevent motion and keep the ends of the  broken  bone 
together.  As  a  splint, use a board, a trimmed branch  from  a  tree,  a 
broomstick,  an  umbrella,  a roll of newspaper, or  anything  else  rigid 
enough  to  keep  the arm or leg straight. Fasten the arm or  leg  to  the 
splint with bandages, strips of cloth, handkerchiefs, neckties, or  belts. 
After splinting, keep the injured arm or leg a little higher than the rest 
of the patient's body. From time to time, make sure that the splint is not 
too tight, since the arm or leg may swell, and the blood circulation might 
be  shut off. If the broken bone is sticking out through the skin but  the 
exposed part of it is clean, allow it to slip back
naturally  under  the skin (but don't push it in) when the limb  is  being 
straightened. However, if the exposed part of the bone is dirty, cover  it 
with a clean cloth and bandage the wound to stop the bleeding. Then splint 
the  arm  or leg without trying to straighten it out, and try  to  find  a 
doctor or nurse to treat the patient.

     A  FRACTURED COLLARBONE should also be prevented from  moving,  until 
the patient can get professional medical attention. It can be  immobilized 
by placing the arm on that side in a sling and then binding the arm  close 
to the body.

     A  FRACTURED  RIB should be suspected if the patient has  received  a 
chest  injury  or  if he has pain when he moves his  chest,  breathes,  or 
coughs.  Strap the injured side of his chest with 2-inch adhesive tape  if 
available, or with a cloth bandage or towel wrapped around and around  his 
entire chest.

     Fractured  bones in the NECK OR BACK are very serious,  because  they 
may injure the patient's spinal cord and paralyze him or even kill him. He 
should  not  be moved until a doctor comes (or a person trained  in  first 
aid),  unless  it is absolutely necessary to move him to  prevent  further 
injury. If a person with a back injury has to be moved, he should be place 
gently  on his back on a stiff board, door, or stretcher. His head,  back, 
and legs should be kept in a straight line at all times.

     A  person  with a neck injury should be moved gently with  his  head, 
neck, and shoulders kept in the same position they were when he was found. 
His neck should not be allowed to bend when he is being moved.

     Non-serious  or  superficial  (first  degree)  burns  should  not  be 
covered-  in  fact,  nothing need be done for them. However,  if  a  first 
degree  burn covers a large area of the body, the patient should be  given 
fluids to drink as mentioned in item 2 following.
     Some  of the radioactive fallout on exposed skin may cause burns  for 
which the same action should be taken as for normal heat burns.
     The  most  important  things to do about  serious  (second  or  third 
degree) burns are: (a) Treat the patient for shock, (b) Prevent infection, 
and (c) Relieve pain. These specific actions should be taken:

     1. Keep the patient lying down, with his head a little lower than his 
legs  and  hips  unless he has a head or chest wound,  or  has  difficulty 

     2.  Have him drink a half-glass every 15 minutes of  a  salt-and-soda 
solution (one teaspoonful of salt and a half-teaspoonful of baking soda to 
a  quart of water). Give him additional plain water to drink if  he  wants 

     3. Cover the burned area with a dry, sterile gauze dressing. if gauze 
is not available, use a clean cloth, towel, or pad.

     4.  With soap and water, wash the area around the burn (not the  burn 
itself)  for a distance of several inches, wiping away from the burn.  The 
dressing  will help prevent surface washings from getting into the  burned 

     5. Use a bandage to hold the dry dressing firmly in place against the 
burned  area.  This will keep moving air from reaching the burn  and  will 
lessen the pain. Leave dressings and bandage in place as long as possible.

     6. If adjoining surfaces of skin are burned, separate them with gauze 
or cloth to keep them from sticking together (such as between
toes or fingers, ears and head, arms and chest).

     7.  If  the burn was caused by a chemical- or  by  fallout  particles 
sticking  to the skin or hair- wash the chemical or the fallout  particles 
away  with  generous  amounts  of plain water,  then  treat  the  burn  as 
described above.

What NOT to do about burns:

     -Don't  pull  clothing  over  the  burned  area  (cut  it  away,   if 
     -Don't try to remove any pieces of cloth, or bits of dirt or  debris, 
that may be sticking to the burn. 
     -Don't  try to clean the burn; don't use iodine or other  antiseptics 
on it; and don't open any blisters that may form on it.
     -Don't  use grease, butter, ointment, salve, petroleum jelly, or  any 
type of medication on severe burns. Keeping them dry is best.
     -Don't  breathe on a burn, and don't touch it with anything except  a 
clean dressing.
     -Don't change the dressings that were initially applied to the  burn, 
until absolutely necessary. Dressings may be left in place for a week,  if 


     Radiation  sickness  is  caused by the invisible rays  given  off  by 
particles of radioactive fallout. If a person has received a large dose of 
radiation in a short period of time- generally, less than a week- he  will 
become seriously ill and probably will die. But if he has received only  a 
small or medium dose, his body will repair itself and he will get well. No 
special clothing can protect a person from gamma radiation, and no special 
medicines can protect him or cure him of radiation sickness.
     Symptoms  of radiation sickness may not be noticed for several  days. 
The  early  symptoms  are lack of  appetite,  nausea,  vomiting,  fatigue, 
weakness,  and headache. Later, the patient may have sore mouth,  loss  of 
hair, bleeding gums, bleeding under the skin, and diarrhea. But these same 
symptoms  can  be  caused  by other diseases, and  not  everyone  who  has 
radiation sickness shows all these symptoms, or shows them all at once.

                                 PART TWO

                         MAJOR NATURAL DISASTERS


                                 PART TWO

                         MAJOR NATURAL DISASTERS

     Disasters and other emergencies affecting large areas and many people 
can sometimes develop quickly. Flash floods and earthquakes, for  example, 
can strike with little or no advance warning.
     Other  types of disasters and emergencies are preceded by a  build-up 
period  that provides more time for taking effective protective  measures. 
For  example, the paths of a hurricane are traced for days, and people  in 
likely  danger  areas  are  notified several hours  before  the  storm  is 
expected  to strike land. In many cases, floods can also be  predicted  to 
provide considerable warning time for people in the danger areas. Even  in 
cases of tornadoes, the forecast of weather conditions frequently  permits 
some warning of possible disaster. Winter storms, blizzards, heavy  snows, 
ice  storms,  or  freezing  rains-  also  may  pose  hazards  of  disaster 
proportions which lend themselves to reasonable prediction.
     Some  of these disasters or emergencies are more likely to  occur  in 
certain  parts  of the country. For example, hurricanes  are  more  common 
along the Gulf and Atlantic Coast States, and tornadoes are more  frequent 
in  midwestern  and southern States. Yet, no area is  entirely  free  from 
possible disasters or emergencies of one type or another.
     Many  of the actions recommended in Part 1 of this handbook  to  help 
you  prepare for and live through a nuclear attack- such as  learning  the 
warning signals, stocking emergency supplies, taking a course in emergency 
skills,  and  knowing how to fight fires at home- also would help  you  in 
case a major natural disaster occurs in your area.
     Part  II of this handbook is intended to help you prepare  for  those 
natural  disasters  that may occur in your area, and tell  you  the  right 
actions to take if they occur.

Chapter 1

                             GENERAL GUIDANCE

     There are certain things you can learn and do that will help you  get 
ready for, and cope with, almost any type of emergency.
     Perhaps  the most basic thing to remember is to keep calm.  This  may 
mean the difference between life and death. In many disasters, people have 
been  killed or injured needlessly because they took  thoughtless  actions 
when they should have done something else- or or done nothing at all  just 
     In a time of emergency, taking proper action may save your life. Take 
time  to  think, and then take the considered action  that  the  situation 
calls  for. Usually, this will be the action you have planned in  advance, 
or the action you are instructed to take by responsible authorities.
     Here  is  other  guidance that applies to  most  types  of  peacetime 


     LEARN  YOUR COMMUNITY'S WARNING SIGNALS. In most  communities  having 
outdoor warning systems, the Attack Warning Signal is a wavering sound  on 
the  sirens,  or  a series of short blasts on whistles,  horns,  or  other 
devices.  This signal will be used only to warn of an attack  against  the 
United States.
     Many communities also are using an Attention or Alert Signal, usually 
a  3- to 5- minute steady blast to get the attention of their people in  a 
time  of threatened or impending peacetime emergency. In most places,  the 
Attention or Alert Signal means that people should turn on their radio  or 
television set to hear important emergency information being broadcast.
     You  should find out now, before any emergency occurs,  what  warning 
signals are being used in your community, what they sound like, what  they 
mean, and what actions you should take when you hear them.

     Also,  whenever a major storm or other peacetime disaster  threatens, 
keep  your radio or television set turned on to hear weather  reports  and 
forecasts (issued by the National Weather Service of the National  Oceanic 
and  Atmospheric Administration), as well as other information and  advice 
that may be broadcast by your local government.
     When  you  are warned of an emergency, get your  information  on  the 
radio  or television. Use your telephone only to report  important  events 
(such  as  fires,  flash  floods,  or  tornado  sightings)  to  the  local 
authorities. If you tie up the telephone lines simply to get  information, 
you may prevent emergency calls from being completed.


     A  major disaster of almost any kind may interfere with  your  normal 
supplies  of  food,  water, heat, and other  day-to-day  necessities.  You 
should keep on hand, in or around your home, a stock of emergency supplies 
sufficient to meet your needs for a few days or preferably for a week. 
     If you stayed at home during the disaster, these supplies would  help 
you live through the period of emergency without hardships. If you had  to 
evacuate  your  home  and  move  temporarily  to  another  location,  your 
emergency supplies could be taken with you and used en route or after  you 
arrived at the new location (where regular supplies may not be available). 
Even  if you only had to move to an emergency shelter station set up by  a 
local  agency, these supplies might be helpful to you, or make  your  stay 
     The  most  important items to keep on hand are water  (preferably  in 
plastic  jugs  or other stoppered containers);  canned  or  sealed-package 
foods  that  do not require refrigeration or heat for  cooking;  medicines 
needed by family members, and a first aid kit; blankets or sleeping  bags, 
flashlights  or lanterns, a battery-powered radio; and perhaps  a  covered 
container  to  use as an emergency toilet. In addition, an  automobile  in 
good operating condition with an ample supply of gasoline may be necessary 
in case you have to leave your home.
     In those parts of the country subject to hurricanes or floods, it  is 
also  wise  to keep on hand certain emergency materials you  may  need  to 
protect your home from wind and water- such as plywood sheeting or  lumber 
to board up your windows and doors, and plastic sheeting or tarpaulins  to 
protect furniture and appliances.


     Fires  are a special hazard in time of disaster. They may start  more 
readily, and the help of the fire department may not be available quickly. 
Therefore, it is essential that you:
     1.  Follow  the  fire  prevention rules given  on  page  45,  and  be 
especially careful not to start fires. 
     2. Know how to put out small fires yourself. (See pages 45 to 48.)
     3. Have on hand simple tools and equipment needed for fire  fighting. 
(See page 38.) 
     4. Install smoke or heat detectors to save lives and protect property 
by detecting fires promptly.


     Use extreme caution in entering or working in buildings that may have 
been  damaged  or weakened by the disaster, as they may  collapse  without 
warning. Also, there may be gas leaks or electrical short circuits.
     Don't  take lanterns, torches, or lighted cigarettes  into  buildings 
that  have been flooded or otherwise damaged, since there may  be  leaking 
gas lines or flammable material present.
     Stay  away from fallen or damaged electric wires, which may still  be 
     Check  for  leaking gas pipes in your home. Do this  by  smell  only- 
don't  use  matches or candles. If you smell gas, do this:  (1)  Open  all 
windows and doors, (2) Turn off the main gas valve at the meter, (3) Leave 
the  house immediately, (4) Notify the gas company or the police  or  fire 
department, (5) Don't re-enter the house until you are told it is safe  to 
do so.
     If any of your electrical appliances are wet, first turn off the main 
power  switch  in your house, then unplug the wet appliance, dry  it  out, 
reconnect it, and finally, turn on the main power switch. (Caution:  Don't 
do  any of these things while you are wet or standing in water.) Is  fuses 
blow  when the electric power is restored, turn off the main power  switch 
again and then inspect for short circuits in your home wiring, appliances, 
and equipment.
     Check  your  food and water supplies before using  them.  Foods  that 
require  refrigeration may be spoiled if electric power has been  off  for 
some time. Also, don't eat food that has come in contact with

flood  waters.  Be sure to follow the instructions  of  local  authorities 
concerning the use of food and water supplies.
     If  needed, get food, clothing, medical care or shelter at Red  Cross 
stations or from local government authorities.
     Stay away from disaster areas. Sightseeing could interfere with first 
aid or rescue work, and may be dangerous as well.
     Don't  drive  unless  necessary, and drive with  caution.  Watch  for 
hazards to yourself and others, and report them to local authorities.
     Write, telegraph, or telephone your relatives, after the emergency is 
over,  so  they will know you are safe. Otherwise  local  authorities  may 
waste  time  locating you- or if you have evacuated to a  safer  location, 
they may not be able to find you. (However, do not tie up the phone  lines 
if they are still needed for official emergency calls.)
     Do not pass on rumors or exaggerated reports of damage.
     Follow  the advice and instructions of your local government on  ways 
to help yourself and your community recover from the emergency.

Chapter 2


     The  National  Oceanic and Atmospheric  Administration,  through  its 
Weather Service River Forecast Centers and River District offices,  issues 
flood  forecasts and warnings when rainfall is enough to cause  rivers  to 
overflow  their  banks  or when melting snow  combines  with  rainfall  to 
produce similar effects.
     Flood  warnings are forecasts of impending floods, and are  given  to 
you by radio and television and through local government emergency forces. 
The  warning  message  tells the expected  severity  of  flooding  (minor, 
moderate,  or major), the affected river, and when and where the  flooding 
will begin. Careful preparations and prompt response will assure  personal 
safety and reduce property loss.


     1.  Find out how many feet your property is above or  below  possible 
flood  levels  so  when  predicted flood levels  are  broadcast,  you  can 
determine if you may be flooded.
     2.  Keep  a  stock  of food which  requires  little  cooking  and  no 
refrigeration. Regular electric service may be disrupted.
     3.   Keep  a  portable  radio,  emergency  cooking   equipment,   and 
flashlights in working order.
     4.  Keep  first aid supplies and any medicines needed by  members  of 
your family.
     5. Keep your automobile fueled. If electric power is cut off, filling 
stations may not be able to operate pumps for several days.
     6.  Keep  materials  like sandbags, plywood,  plastic  sheeting,  and 
lumber handy for emergency waterproofing. But if flooding is imminent,  do 
not stack sandbags around the outside walls of your house to

keep flood waters out of your basement. Water seeping downward through the 
earth  (either  beyond the sandbags or over them) may collect  around  the 
basement  walls and under the floor, creating pressure that  could  damage 
the walls or else raise the entire basement and cause it to "float" out of 
the ground. In most cases, it is better to permit the flood waters to flow 
freely into the basement (or flood the basement yourself with clean water, 
if you feel sure it will be flooded anyway). This will equalize the  water 
pressure  on the outside of the basement walls and floors, and thus  avoid 
structural damage to the foundation and the house.
     7.  Store drinking water in closed, clean containers.  Water  service 
may be interrupted.
     8. If flooding is likely, and time permits, move essential items  and 
furniture  to  upper  floors  of your  house.  Disconnect  any  electrical 
appliances  that  can't be moved- but don't touch them if you are  wet  or 
standing in water.


     If you are warned to evacuate your home and move to another  location 
temporarily,  there  are certain things to remember and do. Here  are  the 
more important ones:
are  told to evacuate, do so promptly. If you are instructed to move to  a 
certain  location,  go there- don't go anywhere else.  If  certain  travel 
routes  are specified or recommended, use those routes rather than  trying 
to  find  your own. (It will help if you have previously  become  familiar 
with  the  routes  likely to be used.) If you are told to  shut  off  your 
water, gas, or electric service before leaving home, do so. Also find  out 
on  the  radio  where  emergency housing and  mass  feeding  stations  are 
located, in case you need to use them.
     *SECURE  YOUR HOME BEFORE LEAVING. If you have time, and if you  have 
not  received  other instructions from your local government,  you  should 
take the following actions before leaving your home:

     -Bring  outside  possessions  inside  the house,  or  tie  them  down 
securely.  This  includes outdoor furniture, garbage cans,  garden  tools, 
signs and other movable objects that might be blown or washed away.

     -As  already suggested, move furniture and other movable  objects  to 
the  upper  floor of your house. Disconnect any electrical  appliances  or 
equipment  that  cannot be moved- but don't touch them if you are  wet  or 
standing in water.

     -Lock  house  doors  and  windows. Park your car  in  the  garage  or 
driveway,  close the windows, and lock it (unless you are driving to  your 
new temporary location).

     *TRAVEL   WITH   CARE.  If  your  local   government   is   arranging 
transportation for you, precautions will be taken for your safety. But  if 
you are walking or driving your own car to another location, keep in  mind 
these things:

     -Leave early enough so as not to be marooned by flooded roads.

     -Make sure you have enough gasoline in your car.

     -Follow recommended routes.

     -As   you  travel,  keep  listening  to  the  radio  for   additional 
information and instructions from your local government.

     -Watch  for washed-out or undermined roadways, earth  slides,  broken 
sewer  or  water  mains, loose or downed electric wires,  and  falling  or 
fallen objects.

     -Watch out for areas where rivers or streams may flood suddenly.

     -Don't  try  to  cross a stream or a pool of  water  unless  you  are 
certain that the water will not be over your knees, or above the middle of 
your  car's  wheels, all the way across. Sometimes the water will  hide  a 
bridge or a part of the road that has been washed out. If you decide it is 
safe to drive across it, put your car in low gear and drive

very  slowly to avoid splashing water into your engine and causing  it  to 
stop.  Also, remember that your brakes may not work well after the  wheels 
of  your  car have been in deep water. Try them out a few times  when  you 
reach the other side.


     1. Do not use fresh food that has come in contact with flood waters.
     2. Test drinking water for potability. Wells should be pumped out and 
the water tested before drinking.
     3.  Do  not visit disaster area. Your presence will  probably  hamper 
rescue and other emergency operations.
     4.  Do not handle live electrical equipment in wet areas.  Electrical 
equipment should be checked and dried before being returned to service.
     5.  Use  battery-powered  lanterns or flashlights,  not  oil  or  gas 
lanterns or torches, to examine buildings. Flammables may be inside.
     6. Report broken utility lines to police, fire, or other  appropriate 
     7.  Keep  tuned to your radio or television station  for  advice  and 
instructions  of  your local government on where to obtain  medical  care, 
where  to  get assistance for such necessities as housing,  clothing,  and 
food, and how to help yourself and your community to recover.


     In  many  areas,  unusually heavy rains may cause  quick  or  "flash" 
floods.  Small creeks, gullies dry streambeds, ravines, culverts, or  even 
low-lying  ground frequently flood quickly and endanger people,  sometimes 
before any warning can be given.
     National  Weather  Service  offices issue two types  of  flash  flood 
advisories:  a flash flood watch and a flash flood warning. A flash  flood 
watch means that heavy rains occurring or expected to occur may soon cause 
flash  flooding  in  certain areas, and citizens should be  alert  to  the 
possibility  of a flood emergency which will require immediate  action.  A 
flash flood warning means that flash flooding is occurring or imminent  on 
certain  streams  or  designated areas, and precautions  should  be  taken 
immediately by those threatened.
     In  a period of heavy rains, be aware of the hazard of  flash  floods 
and be prepared to protect yourself against it. If you see any possibility 
of  a  flash flood occurring where you are, move immediately  to  a  safer 
location (don't wait for instructions to move) and then notify your  local 
authorities of the danger, so other people can be warned.

     Especially during periods of heavy rainfall:

     -STAY  AWAY  FROM  NATURAL STREAMBEDS, arroyos,  and  other  drainage 
channels during and after rainstorms. Water runs off the higher elevations 
very rapidly, causing the natural drainage system to overflow with rushing 
floodwaters and their deadly cargo of rocks, mud, smashed trees, and other 

     -USE  YOUR MAPS. Know where you are, and whether you are  on  locally 
low ground. Remember: You don't have to be at the bottom of a hill to be a 
target for the dangers of flash flooding.

    -KNOW  WHERE  THE  HIGH GROUND IS and how to get  there  in  a  hurry. 
Remember:  many roads and trails parallel existing drainage patterns,  and 
may be swept away by flood waters.

     -STAY  OUT OF FLOODED AREAS; the water may still be rising,  and  the 
current is unusually swift. Never try to cross a flowing stream on foot if 
the water is above your knees.

     -ABANDON  STALLED VEHICLES IN FLOODED AREAS if you can do so  safely. 
Flood waters may rise and sweep the vehicle (and its occupants) away. Many 
deaths have resulted from attempts to move stalled vehicles.

Chapter 3


     The  National Weather Service issues advisories when  hurricanes  are 
approaching the United States mainland.
     A  hurricane watch means a hurricane may threaten coastal and  inland 
areas.  A  hurricane  watch means that hurricane  conditions  are  a  real 
possibility;  it  does not mean that they are imminent. When  a  hurricane 
watch  is issued, everyone in the area covered by the watch should  listen 
for  further  advisories and be prepared to act promptly  if  a  hurricane 
watch is issued. 
     A  hurricane warning becomes part of advisories when a  hurricane  is 
expected  to  strike  an  area  within  24  hours.  Advisories  containing 
hurricane  warnings  may  also include an assessment of  flood  danger  in 
coastal  and  inland areas, small craft warnings, gale  warnings  for  the 
storm's  periphery,  estimated storm effects,  and  recommended  emergency 


     When your area reads a hurricane warning:
     1. Keep your radio or television on and listen for the latest Weather 
Service  advisories  as  well  as special  instructions  from  your  local 
government.  Also  listen  for tornado  watches  and  warnings.  Tornadoes 
spawned by a hurricane are among the storm's worst killers.
     2. Plan your time before the storm arrives and avoid the  last-minute 
hurry which might leave you marooned or unprepared.
     3.  Leave  low-lying areas that may be swept by high tides  or  storm 
     4.  Leave mobile homes for more substantial shelter. Unless  properly 
anchored,  mobile homes are particularly vulnerable to overturning  during 
strong winds.
     5. Moor your boat securely before the storm arrives, or move it to  a 
designated safe area. When your boat is moored, leave it, and don't return 
once the wind and waves are up.
     6.  Board  up windows or protect them with storm  shutters  or  tape. 
Danger  to small windows is mainly from wind-driven debris. Large  windows 
may be broken by wind pressure.
     7.  Secure  outdoor objects that might be blown away.  garbage  cans, 
garden tools, toys, signs, porch furniture, and a number of other harmless 
items  become missiles of destruction in hurricane winds. Anchor  them  or 
store them inside before the storm strikes.

     8. Store drinking water in clean bathtubs, jugs, bottles, and cooking 
utensils.  Your town's water system may be contaminated or damaged by  the 
     9. Check your battery-powered equipment. Your radio may be your  only 
link  with  the  world  outside  the  hurricane,  and  emergency   cooking 
facilities  and  flashlights  will be essential if  utility  services  are 
     10.  Keep  your car fueled. Service stations may  be  inoperable  for 
several  days after the storm strikes, because of flooding or  interrupted 
electrical power.
     11.  Stay  at home if it is sturdy and on high ground.  If  not-  and 
especially if local authorities order an evacuation of your area- move  to 
a designated shelter and stay there until the storm is over.
`12.  Remain indoors during the hurricane. Travel is  extremely  dangerous 
when  winds and tides are whipping through your area. Don't be  fooled  by 
the "eye" of the hurricane. if the storm center passes directly  overhead, 
there  will  be a lull in the wind lasting from a few minutes to  half  an 
hour or more. Stay in a safe place unless emergency repairs are absolutely 
necessary.  But  remember, at the other side of the "eye" the  winds  will 
increase  rapidly  to  hurricane force, and will come  from  the  opposite 


     If you are advised to evacuate your home and move to another location 
temporarily  (including  predesignated  hurricane  shelters),  there   are 
certain things to remember and do. Here are the most important ones:

are  advised  to evacuate, do so promptly. If you are told to  move  to  a 
certain  location,  go there- don't go anywhere else.  If  certain  travel 
routes  are specified or recommended, use these routes rather than  trying 
to  find short cuts of your own. If you are told to shut off  your  water, 
gas,  or electric service before leaving home, do so. Also, find out  from 
the radio or television where emergency housing and mass feeding  stations 
are located, in case you need to use them.

     *TRAVEL   WITH   CARE.  If  your  local   government   is   arranging 
transportation for you, precautions will be taken for your safety. But  if 
you  are walking or driving your own car to another location,  keep  these 
things in mind.

     -Leave early enough so as not to be marooned by flooded roads, fallen 
trees, and wires.

     -Make sure you have enough gasoline for your car.

     -Follow recommended routes.

     -As   you  travel,  keep  listening  to  the  radio  for   additional 
information and instructions from your local government.


     When the hurricane has passed:
     1.  Remain in shelter until informed by local authorities that it  is 
safe to leave.
     2.  Keep tuned to your local radio or television station  for  advice 
and instructions from your local government on:

     -Where to go to obtain emergency medical care in your area.

     -Where  to  go  for  necessary  emergency  assistance  for   housing, 
clothing, food.

     -Ways to help yourself and your community recover from the emergency.

     3. Stay out of disaster areas. Sightseeing interferes with  essential 
rescue and recovery work, and may be dangerous as well.
     4.  Drive  carefully  along  debris-filled  streets.  Roads  may   be 
undermined and may collapse under the weight of a car.
     5. Avoid loose or dangling wires, and report them immediately to your 
power company or to the local police or fire department.
     6. Report broken sewer or water mains to the water department.
     7.  Prevent  fires.  Lowered water pressure may  make  fire  fighting 
     8.  Check  refrigerated food for spoilage if the power has  been  off 
during the storm.
     REMEMBER:  Hurricanes moving inland can cause severe  flooding.  Stay 
away from river banks and streams until all potential flooding is past.

Chapter 4


     A tornado is a violent storm with whirling winds of tremendous speed. 
It  appears  as  a rotating, funnel-shaped cloud, from gray  to  black  in 
color, which extends towards the ground from the base of a thundercloud. A 
tornado spins like a top and may sound like the roaring of an airplane  or 
locomotive.  These shortlived storms are the most violent  of  atmospheric 
phenomena,  and over a small area, the most destructive.  They  frequently 
accompany the advance of hurricanes.

     *When  a  tornado  watch (forecast) is  announced,  this  means  that 
tornadoes are expected in or near your area. Keep your radio or television 
set  tuned to a local station for information and advice from  your  local 
government  and  the  Weather  Service.  Also,  keep  watching  the   sky, 
especially to the south and southwest. (When a tornado watch is  announced 
during the approach of a hurricane, however, keep watching the sky to  the 
east).  If  you see any revolving, funnel-shaped clouds,  report  them  by 
telephone  immediately to your local police department, sheriff's  office, 
or Weather Service office. But do not use the telephone to get information 
and advice- depend on radio and television.

     *When  a  tornado warning is issued, take  shelter  immediately.  The 
warning  means  that  a tornado has actually been  sighted,  or  has  been 
indicated  by  radar,  and  this or other tornadoes  may  strike  in  your 
vicinity. You must take action to protect yourself from being blown  away, 
struck  by  falling  objects,  or injured  by  flying  debris.  Your  best 
protection  is  an underground shelter or cave, or  a  substantial  steel-
framed or reinforced concrete building. But if none of these is available, 
there are other places where you can take refuge:

     *  IF  YOU ARE AT HOME, go to your underground storm cellar  or  your 
basement fallout shelter, if you have one. If not, go to a corner of  your 
home  basement and take cover under a sturdy workbench or table  (but  not 
underneath  heavy  appliances  on the floor above). If your  home  has  no 
basement, take cover in the center part of the house, on the lowest floor, 
in  a small room such as a closet or bathroom, or under sturdy  furniture. 
Stay away from windows to avoid flying debris. Do not remain in a  trailer 
or mobile home if a tornado is approaching; take cover elsewhere. 

     * IF YOU ARE AT WORK in a building, go to an interior hallway on  the 
lowest floor, or to the designated shelter area.

     *   IF  YOU  ARE  AT  SCHOOL,  follow  the  instructions  of   school 
authorities. These usually involve taking shelter in interior hallways  on 
the  lowest  floor,  and staying out of structures  with  wide,  free-span 
roofs, such as auditoriums and gymnasiums.

     *  IF YOU ARE OUTSIDE IN OPEN COUNTRY, drive away from the  tornado's 
path,  at a right angle to it. If there isn't time to do this- or  if  you 
are walking- take cover and lie flat in the nearest depression, such as  a 
ditch, culvert, excavation, or ravine.

Chapter 5

                              WINTER STORMS

     Here  is advice that will help you protect yourself and  your  family 
against the hazards of winter storms- blizzards, heavy snows, ice  storms, 
freezing rain, or sleet.

     * KEEP POSTED ON WEATHER CONDITIONS. Use your radio, television,  and 
newspapers to keep informed of current weather conditions and forecasts in 
your  area.  Even a few hours warning of a storm may enable you  to  avoid 
being  caught in it, or at least be better prepared to cope with  it.  You 
should also understand the terms commonly used in weather forecasts:

     -A  blizzard is the most dangerous of all winter storms. It  combines 
cold  air, heavy snow, and strong winds that blow the snow about  and  may 
reduce  visibility to only a few yards. A blizzard warning is issued  when  
the  Weather Service expects considerable snow and winds of 35  miles  per 
hour  or more. A severe blizzard warning means that a very heavy  snowfall 
is  expected, with winds of at least 45 miles per hour and temperature  of 
10 degrees or lower.

     -A heavy snow warning usually means an expected snowfall of 4  inches 
or  more  in a 12-hour period, or 6 inches or more in  a  24-hour  period. 
Warnings of snow flurries, snow squalls, or blowing and drifting snow  are 
important  mainly because visibility may be reduced and roads  may  become 
slippery or blocked.

     -Freezing rain or freezing drizzle is forecast when expected rain  is 
likely  to freeze as soon as it strikes the ground, putting a  coating  of 
ice  or  glaze  on  roads  and everything  else  that  is  exposed.  If  a 
substantial layer of ice is expected to accumulate from the freezing rain, 
an ice storm is forecast. 

     -Sleet is usually small particles of ice, usually mixed with rain. If 
enough sleet accumulates on the ground, it will make the roads slippery.

     *  BE  PREPARED FOR ISOLATION AT HOME. If you live in a  rural  area, 
make  sure  you could survive at home for a week or two in  case  a  storm 
isolated you and made it impossible for you to leave. You should:

     -Keep  an  adequate  supply  of  heating fuel  on  hand  and  use  it 
sparingly. Your regular supplies may be curtailed by storm conditions.  If 
necessary,  conserve  fuel by keeping the house cooler than usual,  or  by 
"closing  off' some rooms temporarily. Also, have available some  kind  of 
emergency  heating equipment and fuel so you could keep at least one  room 
of  your house warm enough to be livable. This could be a camp stove  with 
fuel, or a supply of wood or coal if you have a fireplace. If your furnace 
is controlled by a thermostat and your electricity is cut off by a  storm, 
the furnace probably would not operate and you would need emergency heat. 

     -Stock  an emergency supply of food and water, as well  as  emergency 
cooking equipment such as a camp stove. Some of this food should be of the 
type that does not require refrigeration or cooking.

     -Make  sure you have a battery-powered radio and extra  batteries  on 
hand,  so  that  if your electric power is cut off you  could  still  hear 
weather forecasts, information, and advice broadcast by local authorities. 
Also, flashlights or lanterns would be needed.

     - Keep on hand the simple tools and equipment needed to fight a fire. 
Also, be certain that all family members know how to take precautions that 
would  prevent fire at such a time, when the help of the  fire  department 
may not be available. 

     *DRESS FOR THE SEASON. If you spend much time outdoors, wear  several 
layers  of loose-fitting, lightweight, warm clothing rather than a  single 
layer  of  thick clothing. Mittens are warmer than gloves. Use a  hood  to 
protect your head and face, and to cover your mouth to protect your  lungs 
from the extremely cold air.

     * TRAVEL ONLY IF NECESSARY. Avoid all unnecessary trips. If you  must 
travel, use public transportation if possible. However, if you are  forced 
to use your automobile for a trip of any distance, take these precautions:

     -Make  sure  your car is in good condition,  properly  serviced,  and 
equipped with chains or snow tires.

     -Take another person with you if possible.

     -Make  sure  someone  knows where you  are  going,  your  approximate 
schedule, and your estimated time of arrival at your destination.

     -Have  emergency  "winter  storm  supplies" in the  car,  such  as  a 
container  of sand, shovel, windshield scraper, tow chain, or rope,  extra 
gasoline, and a flashlight. It is also good to have with you heavy  gloves 
or  mittens, overshoes, extra woolen socks, and winter headgear  to  cover 
your head and face.

     -Travel  by daylight and use major highways if you can. Keep the  car 
radio turned on for weather information and advice.

     -Drive with all possible caution. Don't try to save time by traveling 
faster than road and weather conditions permit.

     -Don't  be  daring  or foolhardy. Stop, turn back, or  seek  help  if 
conditions  threaten that may test your ability or endurance, rather  than 
risk  being stalled, lost, or isolated. If you are caught in  a  blizzard, 
seek refuge immediately.

* KEEP CALM IF YOU GET IN TROUBLE. If your car breaks down during a storm, 
or if you become stalled or lost, don't panic. Think the problem  through, 
decide  what's the safest and best thing to do, and then do it slowly  and 
carefully. If you are on a well-traveled road, show a trouble signal.  Set 
your directional lights to flashing, raise the hood of your car, or hang a 
cloth from the radio aerial or car window. Then stay in your car and  wait 
for help to arrive. If you run the engine to keep warm, remember to open a 
window enough to provide ventilation and protect you from carbon  monoxide 
     Wherever  you  are, if there is no house or other source of  help  in 
sight,  do not leave your car to search for assistance, as you may  become 
confused and get lost.

     *  AVOID  OVEREXERTION. Every winter many  unnecessary  deaths  occur 
because people- especially older persons, but younger ones as well- engage 
in  more  strenuous physical activity than their bodies  can  stand.  Cold 
weather  itself,  without any physical exertion, puts an extra  strain  on 
your heart. If you add to this physical exercise, especially exercise that 
you are not accustomed to- such as shoveling snow, pushing an  automobile, 
or even walking fast or far- you are risking a heart attack, a stroke,  or 
damage  to your body. In winter weather, and especially in winter  storms, 
be aware of this danger, and avoid overexertion.

Chapter 6


     An earthquake is the shaking or trembling or the crust of the  earth, 
caused by underground volcanic forces or by breaking and shifting of  rock 
beneath  the surface. In recent years considerable progress has been  made 
towards  developing the science of earthquake prediction,  but  techniques 
for making precise predictions of earthquakes do not yet exist.
     The  actual  earth movement of an earthquake, frightening as  it  is, 
seldom is a direct cause of death or injury. The earth does not yawn open, 
gulp down a neighborhood, and slam shut. The earth movement, however,  can 
cause buildings and other structures to shake or collapse. Most casualties 
result from falling objects and debris, splintering glass, and fires.


     1. Stay calm. Don't run or panic. If you take the proper precautions, 
the chances are you will not be hurt. 

     2.  Stay where you are. If outdoors, stay outdoors. If indoors,  stay 
indoors. Most injuries occur as people are entering or leaving buildings.

     3. If the shaking catches you indoors, stay indoors. Take cover under 
a desk, table, bench, or against inside walls and doorways. Stay away from 
glass, windows, and outside doors.
     4. Don't use candles, matches, or other open flames either during  or 
after the tremor. Douse all fires.

     5.  If the earthquake catches you outside, move away  from  buildings 
and utility wires. Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops.

     6.  Don't  run through or near buildings. The  greatest  danger  from 
falling debris is just outside doorways and close to outer walls.

     7. If you are in a moving car, stop as quickly as safety permits, nut 
stay in the vehicle. A car may jiggle fearsomely on its springs during  an 
earthquake,  but it is a good place to stay until the shaking stops.  When 
you drive on, watch for hazards created by the earthquake, such as  fallen 
or  falling  objects,  downed  electric wires,  or  broken  or  undermined 


     1.  Check  for  injuries. Do not attempt to  move  seriously  injured 
persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. 
     2.  Check utility lines and appliances for damage. If you smell  gas, 
open  windows and shut off the main gas valve. The leave the building  and 
report gas leakage to the authorities. Don't re-enter the building until a 
utility official says it is safe.
     3. If water pipes are damaged, shut off the supply at the main valve. 
Emergency  water  may be obtained from such sources as  hot  water  tanks, 
toilet tanks, and melted ice cubes. 
     4.  Check  to  see that sewage lines  are  intact  before  permitting 
continued flushing of toilets.
     5. If electrical wiring is shorting out, shut off current at the main 
meter box.
     6. Check chimneys for cracks and damage. Unnoticed damage could  lead 
to  a  fire. The initial check should be made from  a  distance.  Approach 
chimneys with great caution.
     7. Stay out of severely damaged buildings. Aftershocks can shake them 
     8.  Do not heed or spread rumors. They often do great harm  following 
disasters. Stay off the telephone, except to report an emergency. Turn  on 
your radio or television to get the latest emergency information. 
     9.  Don't  go sightseeing. Respond to requests  for  assistance  from 
police, firefighting, and relief organizations, but do not go into damaged 
areas  unless  your assistance has been requested.  Cooperate  fully  with 
local authorities.
     10. Be prepared for additional earthquake shocks.

Chapter 7

                               TIDAL WAVES

     A  tsunami  (pronounced soo-nam'-ee) is actually a  series  of  waves 
caused by an underwater disturbance. Although most tsunamis are associated 
with  large  earthquakes  whose epicenters underlie or  border  the  ocean 
floor,  the generating mechanism is not positively known. In this  century 
more  than 200 tsunamis have been recorded in the Pacific. Some  of  these 
resulted  in coastal waves more than 100 feet high that smashed into  land 
with tremendous destructive power. 
     The  major  tsunami  detection and warning  system  is  the  National 
Oceanic  and Atmospheric Administration's Pacific Tsunami Warning  System, 
with headquarters at Ewa Beach Observatory near Honolulu, Hawaii.


     1. All earthquakes do not cause tsunamis, but many do. When you  hear 
that an earthquake has occurred, stand by for a tsunami emergency.

     2.  An earthquake in your area is a natural tsunami warning.  Do  not 
stay in low-lying coastal areas after a local earthquake. 

     3. A tsunami is not a single wave but a series of waves. Stay out  of 
danger areas until an "all clear" is issued by competent authority.

     4.  Approaching tsunamis are sometimes heralded by a noticeable  rise 
or  fall of coastal water. This is nature's tsunami warning and should  be 

     5.  A  small tsunami at one beach can be a giant a  few  miles  away. 
Don't let the modest size of one make you lose respect for all.

     6.  The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center does not issue  false  alarms. 
When a warning is issued, a tsunami exists.

     7.  All tsunamis are potentially dangerous, even though they may  not 
damage every coastline they strike.

     8.  Never go down to the beach to watch for a tsunami. When  you  can 
see the wave you are too close to escape it. 

     9.  Sooner or later, tsunamis visit every coastline in  the  Pacific. 
Warnings apply to you especially if you live in any Pacific coastal area.

     10.  During  a tsunami emergency, follow the  instructions  of  local 
authorities  on  what  to  do  and what not to  do  with  respect  to  the 



                              P.O. BOX 1743

                             HARVEY, IL 60426