NOTES ON PREPAREDNESS FOR NATURAL
AND MAN-MADE DISASTERS WITH
EMPHASIS ON EARTHQUAKES
FOR ROSSMAN SCHOOL
Prepared by Ken Seger
With editorial assistance by Patt and Jerry Welk
Copyright Notice: All rights reserved. Except as permitted under
the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part
of this publication may be reproduced or
distributed in any form or by any means, or
stored in a data base or retrieval system,
without prior explicit written permission from
If you find the information in this file of use to you, would you please send
$10 to Rossman School, 12660 Conway Road, St. Louis,MO 63141 with the check
made out to Rossman Parents Club. The funds will be used to purchase
additional survival equipment for the children.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE PURPOSE OF THIS TEXT 1
WHAT ROSSMAN IS CURRENTLY DOING AND THE NATURE OF DECISIONS 2
PROBABILITY OF DAMAGE FROM AN EARTHQUAKE 3
VARIOUS SCENARIOS AND HAZARDS FROM AN EARTHQUAKE 5
TRAINING OPTIONS 8
EQUIPMENT OPTIONS 9
VARIOUS LEVELS OF PREPAREDNESS AVAILABLE 11
SUMMARY OF COST ESTIMATES FOR EQUIPMENT 15
PERSONAL PREPAREDNESS PACKS FOR FACULTY AND STAFF 17
RETROFITTING THE EXISTING BUILDINGS 18
ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN 21
Additional information packets
CLOSING COMMENTS 25
1. Nuclear War and how it relates to earthquake preparedness 26
2. Other cultures and preparedness 27
3. Sources for preparedness supplies with price estimates 28
4. Survivalist information resources 31
GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND PARTIAL EXPLANATION OF USES OF EQUIPMENT 33
When I first started writing this text it began as an 18
KiloByte outline of the steps Rossman School should take to be
prepared for an earthquake. This quickly grew to 28K with the
addition of more information. Soon a glossary and more
additional information was added bringing the total to 58K.
Additional activities were added bringing the K up to 70. At
that point the entire file was reorganized and an explanation of
what the term survivalism really means was included. Hopefully
this trend will continue through the future years as additional
information, techniques, supplies, and training are added to
improve the disaster preparedness capability of Rossman School.
I would like to thank Patt and Jerry Welk for their
encouragement and editing of this text. One of their criticisms
was the inclusion of the words survivalist and survivalism.
They felt, and rightly so, that the term survivalist has
acquired a notorious connotation recently. They suggested that
those terms should be replaced with blander, image-neutral terms.
While the negative connotation might be the accepted
definition for people who assume that everything they read or
hear in the mass media is the absolute truth, a more accurate
picture is acquired by those who search for what is true and
what is false concerning the survivalist movement.
There are individuals and groups, incorrectly labeled as
"survivalist" by the mass media, who are not worthy of the name.
These incorrectly labeled people tend to be political or
religious extremists who violate the principles of survivalism
(see appendix #4) by neither helping others nor advocating
freedom. Even though true survivalists outnumber the falsely
labeled "survivalists" by over 100 to 1, the true survivalists
get less than 5% of any mass media coverage. This merely
reflects the mass media's appetite for bad news versus good news.
Since the activities suggested in this text are PRECISELY
what true survivalism is all about, the terms survivalist and
survivalism have been retained, and rightfully so.
I have been studying the topic of survivalism since 1982.
Since 1983, I have been a member of LIVE FREE which is the
world's oldest (founded in the early 60's) and largest
survivalist organization, been a life member since 1985, been a
Certified Survival Instructor since 1988 (passing with the
second highest score ever), and have given lectures on
nutrition, nuclear war survival skills, and water purification
at various LIVE FREE seminars. I have an extensive library of
survivalist literature and subscriptions to all major
survivalist newsletters and magazines written in English in the
USA, Australia and Europe. I have participated in the various
survivalist computer/modem information networks since 1984 and
have been the SYStem OPerator and host node of a survivalist BBS
Anyone who would care to examine what real survivalists are
truly like should refer to appendix #4 for a brief explanation
of the topic and sources of additional information from which
they can derive their own conclusions.
Ken Seger, March 1990, St. Louis
THE PURPOSE OF THIS TEXT
WHAT THIS TEXT IS FOR
The purpose of these notes is neither to forecast a disaster
nor recommend a specific line of action, but to serve as a
framework for discussion of the different levels of earthquake
hazard, and show the many different methods and levels of
preparedness to cope with those hazards.
There is no way to predict, with any degree of confidence,
when or how strongly an earthquake will occur. While people
such as Dr. Iben Browning have predicted the New Madrid to quake
on Dec. 3, 1990 plus or minus 3 days, most other authorities
place their predictions in decades rather than in days.
Even in the highly unlikely event that this particular
disaster does occur between Oct.31 and Dec. 7th, other types of
disasters can certainly occur before and after those days.
If you are moderately prepared for a major earthquake, you
are very well prepared for smaller disasters, and at minimum,
partially prepared for other larger disasters.
Different levels of problems are identified as ideal, fair,
poor, and worst case conditions in the following categories:
time of day, time of year, weather, utilities, building damage,
support services, level of damage and duration of emergency
Levels of preparedness are organized around the topics of
shelter, lighting, water, food, sanitation, heating and cooling,
medical, communication and safety requirements. Each of these
topics is covered to illustrate how different levels of
preparedness can be obtained.
WHAT THIS TEXT IS NOT FOR
Just because the different categories of problems happen to
be lumped into a single problem level does NOT mean that this is
likely to be the case in an actual disaster situation. The
likelihood of a disaster staying within such nicely defined
parameters is practically nil. It is most likely to be a mixed
bag of events. In the same vein, the topics in the levels of
preparedness are grouped ONLY to show that different levels of
preparedness can be sought and they are not meant to be a rigid
set of goals. Different levels in different topics will be
chosen based on perceived needs and the amount of money and
man-hours available for the preparedness project.
WHAT ROSSMAN IS CURRENTLY DOING AND THE NATURE OF DECISIONS
If one accepts as true the saying, "The act of not making a
decision in itself is a form of making a decision", then one can
expand that to, "The act of not even considering a topic at all
is itself a form of a decision." If that is the case, then
Rossman has made the decision to be very unprepared for an
earthquake or any other major disaster.
Let us look at what that decision entails. We have decided
that in a major disaster the students of Rossman will be without
safe drinking water, they will only have whatever form of
shelter happens to be available at the time, communications will
only be that which is usually available, if intact, if students
must stay overnight there will be no provision for emergency
light, bedding or shelter, and that easily corrected hazards
will not be eliminated causing great property damage to
carpeting, materials, books, etc.
Now that the topic has been brought up, I hope that the old
passive decision will be rejected and replaced with a new
actively made and acted upon decision. Hopefully this document
will make this change occur sooner than it would have otherwise
and long before it is needed.
As one seismologist stated, "You need to choreograph an
earthquake well in advance, otherwise you will NOT like the
SO WHAT ARE THE CHANCES OF A QUAKE?
According to a Memphis State University study, the chance
of a major earthquake from the New Madrid fault is:
Richter Scale Probability of occurrence by the year
6.7 50% 90%
7.6 10% 25%
8.3 1% 3%
A Southeast Missouri State University at Cape Girardeau
study gives the odds as:
Richter Scale Probability of occurrence by the year
6.3 50% 90%
7.6 10% 25%
8.6 1% 3%
Please note: the Richter scale is a logarithmic scale and
refers only to the power of the earthquake expressed as a power
of ten and by itself does not predict the level of damage. An
earthquake of Richter 8.0 has the same amount of power as 10 -
Richter 7.0 quakes or 100 - Richter 6.0 quakes or 1,000 -
Richter 5.0 quakes. In other words, to dissipate the amount of
energy that could be released by one single Richter scale 8.0
earthquake would require a Richter scale 4.0 earthquake to occur
every single hour for one year and two months or a Richter scale
5.0 earthquake to occur every hour for six weeks.
In 1985 Dr. Otto Nuttli, professor of geophysics at St.
Louis University, estimated that the New Madrid quakes in the 5
month period of 1811-1812, ranged as high as 8.0 to 8.8 Richter
and that 15 to 18 of the aftershocks ranged from 6.5 to 7.0
Richter. Others estimate that 5 of the two dozen or so quakes
were 8.0 or higher. In 1985, the amount of energy stored in the
fault was enough to produce an earthquake of 7.6 Richter
according to Dr. Nuttli. The last large quake was in 1895 and
estimated at 6.0 Richter. It is estimated that a quake of this
size should occur about every 80 years. Due to the difference
in structure, a quake in the midwest will have a damage area 20
times larger than the same quake would have in California.
It is virtually impossible to predict at what Richter scale
a major quake would occur. Even if it were, it would be equally
difficult to predict the precise damage level that would occur
in the Rossman School area.
CHANCES OF A QUAKE (con.)
If the New Madrid has a 6.7 Richter scale quake, the
greater St. Louis area can expect the following effects: people
have trouble standing upright, loose bricks fall from buildings,
heavy furniture overturns, many windows break and some buildings
For a 7.6 Richter scale quake: drivers have difficulty
steering, towers and chimneys fall, tree branches break and
some buildings partially collapse.
It is estimated that a 7.4 Richter scale quake will do
approximately six billion dollars in damage in just the state
For a 8.6 Richter scale quake: the ground is cracked
conspicuously, considerable damage in masonry structures
especially designed to withstand earthquakes, some buildings
collapse and underground pipes sometimes broken.
Estimations of damage to the West County area published by
authorities indicate that on a 8.6 Richter scale earthquake
damage levels of 7, 8 or 9 may occur.
Level 7 is described as: "Damage negligible in buildings of
good design and construction. Numerous windows and some
furniture are broken. Considerable damage occurs to concrete
Level 8 equals: "Trees shaken strongly with branches and
trunks broken off. Slight damage occurs in brick structures
built especially to withstand earthquakes. Buildings partially
collapse. Stone walls are cracked or broken seriously."
Level 9 equals: "Ground is cracked conspicuously.
Considerable damage occurs in masonry structures built
especially to withstand earthquakes. Some buildings collapse.
Underground pipes sometimes broken."
Please note that those damage levels will NOT be uniform
throughout the St. Louis area. Some areas will be devastated
while others nearby will suffer only minor damage.
However, even if there is only a 0.1% chance of an
earthquake happening, if it happens, it happens. One can not
control the likelihood of an earthquake occurring, but one can
control the amount of preparedness for an earthquake or other
WHAT IS THE RANGE OF POSSIBLE CONDITIONS?
When a quake happens, the magnitude of problems will be
dependent on the severity of the quake and other circumstances
not related to the quake: time of day, time of year, weather
conditions and the ability of governmental services and parents
to provide assistance.
Time of day - during the middle of the night when nobody is at
Time of year - during winter or spring break, summer vacation,
or on a weekend when nobody is here!
Weather - mild spring or fall, nice temperatures with no wind
Utilities - no loss of electricity, phone, gas, water, or sewer
Building - a few books and art projects knocked off of the
shelves, a few minor cracks in windows or walls
Police/fire/hospital - there and ready, available by phone and
everybody in the yellow pages waiting to take your money
Injuries - no people at school equals no injuries
Damage level - no major problems, quake was a small one
Duration - at no time were there emergency conditions
Time of day - before school when just staff and faculty are in
or after the PM carpool is over when there are a just a few
students and most of the staff and faculty are still here
Time of year - spring or fall during a school day
Weather - spring or fall with rain, or summer or winter with very
mild temperatures and winds and no precipitation
Utilities - no electricity, water pressure low, however, the
gas, phone and sewer are working
Building - numerous small cracks in drywall, a few windows
shattered, some windows with substantial cracks, many
windows with minor cracks, repairs not covered by insurance
covered by Board of Trustee's Discretionary funds
Police/fire/hospital - available but only for critical
emergencies, triage is much tighter than usual
Injuries - lots of bruises and scrapes, some minor cuts, just a
few significant injuries such as major cuts, sprained or
strained joints or broken bones
Damage level - the quake was significant, and some aftershocks
Duration - most students are picked up before sundown with just
a few being picked up the next day, utilities return to
normal in a day or so
VARIOUS SCENARIOS (con.)
Time of day - around AM or PM carpool when there are many
parents at school available to help
Time of year - summer with rain and wind or winter with snow
Weather - a hot summer or a cold winter
Utilities - only the phone is working, and it is overloaded
with long delays for connections
Bbuilding - significant damage, most windows broken or cracked,
some deformation at a few door frames, repairable, but
expensive, a loan is needed to cover repairs and expenses
until lawsuit with insurance company is resolved
Police/fire/hospital - difficult to get to or contact, services
are very overburdened
Injuries - numerous minor cuts, abrasions and bumps, several
significant injuries and one life threatening injury such
as sucking chest wound, severe bleeding, shock, etc.
Damage level - major quake, aftershocks are numerous but smaller
Duration - moderate number of students have been picked up by
9PM but the balance are not picked up until noon of the
next day with a few distant students not picked up for
another day or so
WORST CASE POSSIBLE SCENARIO
Time of day - between 9AM and 2AM when there are the fewest
number of parents available for assistance
Time of year - either the heat of summer or the cold of winter
Weather - summer/no clouds, high heat, drying winds or
winter/clouds, 35-40 degrees with rain
Utilities - none except gas (leaking), no water, electricity or
Building - Profound damage to older building. Due to the
collapse of pantry wall, the gas shut-off valve is
inaccessible with strong smell of gas around valve. Gym &
the new wing have damage of brickwork and deformation at
corners. Both are suitable for shelter with some risk,
however children are afraid to enter. Older building may
not be financially worth fixing. Insurance company files
for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
Police/fire/hospital - No phones to call for assistance,
besides all services hopelessly swamped with other
demands. Conway road hopelessly clogged due to cracked
pavement and people trying to get to St.John's & St.Luke's
VARIOUS SCENARIOS (con.)
WORST CASE (con.)
Injuries - bleeding major and minor, sucking chest wounds, eye
injuries, broken arms, legs of students, faculty and
staff. Some cases of hysteria, panic and catatonia of
students, faculty and staff.
Damage level - high!, 8+ Richter as in the early 1810's
Duration - majority of parents unable to retrieve children until
next day with several faculty, staff and students who live
farther out unable to go home for a few days, electricity
and phone will be out for at least week
PLEASE NOTE: Estimations of damages in all cases are HIGHLY
speculative. Actual damage to building is dependent on quality
of land or landfill under the building and underlying rock
formations on which the preparer has no meaningful data. Also
the degree of resistance of buildings to seismic shock is
unknown to the preparer of this report.
FACULTY AND STAFF
Minimum - Review "duck and cover" techniques, review evacuation
drills and check that all Red Cross First Aid and CPR
cards are current.
Good - Above plus retake standard classes
Better - Above plus see if 50 hour Red Cross course could be
arranged, view Practical Preparedness video and listen to
the, What you Should Know About Earthquakes, audiotape.
Best - Over the summer loan VCR (if needed) and view Nuclear War
Survival Skills video tapes 1-4 and Soviet Civil Defense
video tapes 1-7. See appendix #1
Minimum - Incorporate "duck and cover" earthquake safety
routines into the fire/evacuation drill
Good - Talk about earthquakes and how they are rare, with
effects usually limited to minor building damage
Better - Tell about Rossman's preparations as is appropriate to
age. Talk about what you would do if you didn't have
utilities for an hour or a day etc.
Best - Practice skills in a drill, perhaps as an after school
activity. Have the children talk to Rowan-Woods students
about their experiance of going to school without having
Minimum - Give all parents a sheet explaining what preparedness
steps Rossman School has taken.
Good - Offer general preparedness information to all parents
Better - Offer a special evening in which preparations are
discussed and demonstrated. Offer more detailed
Best - Form a Parent's Preparedness Club in which members can
learn in more detail about preparedness. Develop a Parent
Volunteer list for communications, assistance and housing
of remote students, faculty and staff during a disruption
of normal transportation facilities.
Equipment is needed to fulfill the basic human needs of
shelter, water, food, sanitation, heating or cooling and
medical needs. The secondary needs of light and safety are
important for the well being of the children as well.
Shelter is needed to protect the children, faculty and
staff from hypothermia, hyperthermia, rain, snow and wind.
While high quality shelter would be preferred, it should be
remembered that the scope of this preparedness plan only covers
keeping the children from harm until their parents can take over
the children's needs.
Water that is both potable and palatable is needed for
drinking, sanitation, and possible food preparation.
Food is needed for psychological aid more than
physiological need if the duration is a few hours. It is highly
useful for group activity, a sense of normalcy, comfort, etc.
"When ya gotta go, ya gotta go!" There will be enough
stress in an emergency without forcing the kids to use a trench
toilet. Also, this will speed cleanup after the disaster.
HEATING AND COOLING
This demand will be minimal if reasonable shelter is
provided. Cold and hot packs might be needed in special cases
for medical purposes.
At least the basics are needed. A higher level of
preparedness in this topic allows greater safety.
EQUIPMENT NEEDS (con.)
At least inward communications should be available to
listen to AM and FM radio. If units with an outward ability are
purchased, SSB CBs would be the minimum. Mobile and portable
phones might be utilitized, if still functioning.
Illumination is needed for group activities, private
activities, a sense of security, special cases, etc.
Since Rossman is located in a low density, upper income
area, this need is unlikely. However, protection from rodents,
dogs, other animals and humans may always be a possibility.
LEVELS OF PREPAREDNESS
EASIEST PREPARATIONS ARE NO PREPARATIONS, BUT ALSO THE WORST
CURRENT LEVEL OF PREPAREDNESS
Shelter - What is on everybody's back
Light - Are there candles and working flashlights?
Water - How much do the water heaters hold?
Food - What is in the kitchen on average or lowest point?
Sanitation - Those two large bushes in the woods over there and
hopefully a shovel.
Heat/cooling - hmmmmm.....
Medical - First aid kits, oxygen system, splints, venom
extractors, Epi-pen and whatever is in the faculty and
Communication - clock radios, hope the phones still work, two
three channel standard CB's used for car pool with all
three channels hopelessly clogged by more powerful
transmitters; therefore, if no phones, communication with
outside world consist of Ms. Czech and Mr. Huusko
transporting slips of paper.
Safety - There are trees from which switches can be cut.
SHOE STRING, MAKE DO JURY RIGGED
Shelter - A few rolls of 5 mil plastic and some rope (in the
science room) are a lot better than nothing for expedient
Light - A good plastic flashlight costs $6 at Wal-Mart, Cheap D
cells can be purchased, but need to be rotated.
Water - a crystalline iodine "generator", a 5 gallon jug with
tap and a container of paper cups would help
Food - a 5 pound bag of hard candy is cheap and will last for
Sanitation - for $10, two box style portapotties can be
purchased via mail order
Heat/cooling - a few instant cold packs and hot packs for the
first aid kit would be nice
Medical - additional supplies added to the current medical kit
would be nice
Communication - at least one AM/FM radio with batteries to
match, again the batteries need to be rotated
Safety - mace, tear gas, cap-stun or other sprays are fairly
LEVELS OF PREPAREDNESS (con.)
Shelter - a few large good tarps with ropes and tent spikes
would be better than plastic
Light - numerous plastic flashlights with 20 year storage
batteries plus a battery operated fluorescent light
Water - a few iodine purifiers with 25 gallons of water stored
at all times in various locations would be nice and cost
Food - Purchasing some foods that require no water or heat (if
you don't mind eating cold chicken with gravy, etc.)
Sanitation - The box style portapotties again but with the
addition of a portable sink (5 gal.)
Heat/cooling - quite a few heat and cold packs + some aluminized
mylar sheets (the so-called "space-blankets")
Medical - a second kit can be added
Communication - one radio for scanning AM and another for FM,
20 year storage D cells
Safety - a higher grade of anti-personnel incapacitating gas
Shelter - a tent that would house two dozen children or any
injured can be purchased for $300
Light - numerous plastic flashlights with 20 yr. D cells,
several fluorescent lights with 20 year D cells, several
cyalume sticks of various types
Water - Several iodine purifiers, with filter papers and
activated charcoal to improve palatability, some "Tang" or
"Wylers" would be nice and multiple stored water
mylar/boxes in several locations
Food - a large meal in an MRE can be had for about $3.50 and
will store for years, a cheaper method would be to purchase
Sanitation - 3 box style portapotties, 2 - 5 gallon portable
sinks and a "solar" shower for cleaning spills and accidents
Heat/cooling - heat and cold packs, numerous space-blankets plus
numerous "space" sleeping bags
Medical - medical kit should contain all possible supplies that
faculty and staff are qualified to use
Communication - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV band radio with 20 yr D cells
Safety - a flare gun for signaling, or in a worst case
LEVELS OF PREPAREDNESS (con.)
WELL BUDGETED, CONVENTIONAL
Shelter - an army surplus 16' x 32' tent can be boought for $500
Light - numerous Mag-lite flashlights with 20 year storage
batteries, fluorescent lanterns with 20 yr. batteries,
cyalume sticks - several bright white 30 minute units for
special applications and various colored 12 hour units for
night identification of people and objects
Water - Water storage as above with Katadyn microfiltration
purifier and activated charcoal filters
Food - one or two MREs for everybody, with additional foods for
Sanitation - 2 or 3 plastic hassock style portapotties,
3 - 5 gal. portable sinks, 2 "solar" showers
Heat/cooling - all of the above with a small stove or immersion
heater for heating water. A kerosene lamp can also be used
to heat water.
Medical - all medical supplies to cover a large number of minor
problems, plus a kit that would be useful for a General
Communication - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV band, 1 - 40 channel SSB CB
Safety - sidearm locked in "gunsafe" with safety bullets ASSUMING
several of the faculty and staff are trained to use it in a
proper safe and legal manner.
VERY WELL BUDGETED, U.S.A. STYLE SURVIVALIST'S PREPARATIONS
Shelter - Standard "Fighting Chance" style blast/fallout/
bio-chem war shelter consisting of below ground
cylindrical steel tank outfitted with hammocks for all
occupants and air blowers with purifiers.
Light - Protected deep-discharge battery operated fluorescent
lights for the shelter, with portable fluorescents and
Mag-Lite with 20 year cells
Water - Shelter would be equipped with a well for cooling,
sanitation and drinking.
Food - For short-term, MREs, MR8s and freeze dried. For long
term year-long, Morman 4, Kearney Diet or Morman 4 + 40.
Sanitation - Each shelter equipped with chemical toilet and
pump to a holding tank buried outside shelter.
Heat/cooling - The shelter air and water systems can control
any heating or cooling needs.
Medical - as above plus a kit that would be useful for the
highest qualified M.D./parent in their various fields of
LEVELS OF PREPAREDNESS (con.)
VERY WELL BUDGETED (Con.)
Communication - as above plus protected from lightning and EMP
with antennas for maximum range and clarity, plus phones
Safety - sidearm with shotshells for rodents, snakes and other
short range (5 to 20 feet) problems plus a longarm for
dogs, skunks and other problems which need to be removed
at a longer range (20 - 100 feet). Both properly stored
in a locked safe with safety ammunition.
FIRST CLASS PREPAREDNESS, TYPICAL SWISS GRADE SCHOOL
Shelter - Standard Swiss below ground blast/fallout/chem-biowar
shelter consisting of below ground reinforced concrete
rooms with bunks for all occupants with wartime air
handling system. See appendix #2 for details. As an
alternative, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's 3,400 SQ.
FT. Blast-upgradable Hazard-resistant Earth Sheltered
Residence could be easily modified for a totally
underground use at a savings of 20%.
Light - protected fluorescent lights run from generator or deep
discharge batteries plus all of the above portable lights
Water - A well as per Technical Directive 1966 2-7 which can
provide 100 grams water per hour per shelter space.
Food - Nestles Corp. Uberlebens Nahrung (survival rations)
Sanitation - A well and a septic system
Heat/cooling - standard Swiss blowers and filters for dust,
radioactivity, chemical and biological warfare
air-bornes, blankets on all of the bunks
Medical - Standard "First Aid Post" (also known as a Protected
Practice) with 32 beds for triage and first aid with
supplies, or "First Aid Station" with 120 to 140 beds or
bunks with an operating table for triage, first aid, and
final treatment of lightly wounded patients
Communication - EMP hardened radios, separate units for AM, FM,
TV, Emergency channels, SSB CB, HAM and shortwave
Safety - "All facilities can operate for several days
independent from the outer world." - OUR CIVIL DEFENSE p.16,
plus a standard soldier's kit of full-auto military rifle,
helmet, backpack, etc. for all males. See Appendix #2 for
ADDITIONAL ITEMS FOR PREPAREDNESS - Detached building for
supplies, chainsaw, kerosene lights and perhaps a heater,
military ammo boxes or PVC tubes for storing supplies
WELL THAT'S REAL NICE.........................HOW MUCH?!?
These prices should be considered low estimates as shipping
will have to be added to items not available locally. See
appendix #3 for details.
CURRENT LEVEL OF PREPAREDNESS
Shelter - $0.00
Light - 0.00
Water - 0.00
Food - 0.00
Sanitation - 0.00
Heat/cooling - 0.00
Medical - 0.00
Communication - 0.00
Safety - 0.00
TOTAL $0.00 PER PUPIL WORTH $0.00
Remember: You get what you pay for! TANSTAAFL
SHOE-STRING, MAKE DO, JURY RIGGED
Shelter - $20 some plastic sheeting and rope
Light - $92 12 good flashlights & cells, $33 for cheap ones
Water - $20 1 iodine purifier, 2 - 5 gallon containers
Food - $5 a bag of hard candy
Sani. - $10 2 box style toilets with paper
Heat/cool - $10 2 heat packs, 3 cold packs
Medical -$100 various
Communi. - $10 portable AM/FM with alkaline batteries
Safety - $30 3 small units of Cap-Stun for $30 or
in bulk for 26 various sizes for $144
TOTAL $238-411 PER PUPIL WORTH $1.22 - $2.11
Shelter - $120 tarps instead of plastic sheeting
Light - $480 24 good flashlights, 2 fluor. & 20 yr cells
Water - $40 more water storage
Food - $120 a bigger bag of candy and 24 MREs
Sani. - $70 5 box toilets and paper, 1 solar sink & soap
Heat/cool - $92 cold & heat packs,10 each, 24 space blankets
Medical - $200 various
Communi. - $104 another radio and better batteries
Safety - $144 26 units purchased wholesale
TOTAL $1,370 PER PUPIL WORTH $7.02
Shelter - $300 used army tent with poles and stakes
Light - $550 33 good FL's,4 fluor.,20 yr cells & 12 cyalumes
Water - $110 more purifiers & storage, acti. charcoal filter
Food - #350 100 MREs
Sani. - $92 3 box toilets, 2 sinks, 1 shower
Heat/cool- $364 20 each cold & heat packs, 36 blankets & 24 bags
Medical - $400 various
Communi. - $156 another radio for the audio portion of TV VHF
Safety - $268 26 Cap-Stuns + a signal flare gun with 4 flares
TOTAL $2,590 PER PUPIL WORTH $13.29
Shelter - $500 a used military tent
Light - $826 as above plus 12 Mag-Lites and 24 cyalumes
Water - $300 as above plus microfiltration unit
Food - $800 250 MREs plus a few freeze dried meals
Sani. - $424 3 toilets, 3 sinks,2 showers, 10-5 gal bags
Heat/cool- $425 above + kerosene lantern or immersion heater
Medical -$1000 various
Communi. - $350 as above plus one 40 chan. SSB CB
Safety - $600 as above plus a sidearm with gunsafe
TOTAL $5,225 PER PUPIL WORTH $26.80
VERY WELL BUDGETED, USA SURVIVALIST STYLE
(see EQUIPMENT OPTIONS for details)
Shelter - $75,000
Light - $1,500
Water - $2,000
Food - $10,000 3,500 MREs, OR 1 year of Morman 4 $62,500
Sani. - $3,000
Heat/cool - $5,000
Medical - $5,000
Communi. - $3,000 as above plus EMP protectors, ant.& tower
Safety - $1,500 as above plus longarm and safe for longarm
TOTAL $106,000 PER PUPIL WORTH $543.59
FIRST CLASS PREPAREDNESS
(see EQUIPMENT OPTIONS & Appendix #2 for details)
Light - $5,000
Water - $4,000
Food - $80,000 1 yr. of Kearney diet + freeze dried foods
Sani. - $6,000
Heat/cool - $10,000
Medical - $20,000 estimate is probably too low
Communi. - $7,000
Safety - $5,000
TOTAL $337,000 PER PUPIL WORTH $1,728.21
PERSONAL PREPAREDNESS PACK FOR THE 33 FACULTY AND STAFF
If the staff and faculty are expected to care for our
children during the first phase of an emergency, we parents
should, at least, provide materials for the care of the faculty
In order for normal school functions to resume as soon as
possible, it is in our best interests to minimize the effects of
an emergency on the home lives of the faculty and staff. It is
fairly unlikely that staff and faculty members are personally
prepared for a major quake. It would be advantageous to develop
emergency packs for them. Stored at the school, these packs
would be taken by the faculty and staff when they return home.
For faculty and staff who live far away, volunteer parents
should arrange temporary housing until normal transportation
The following would be in the pack the 33 faculty and
staff would carry home with them.
They represent a strictly MINIMUM kit to be upgraded and
expanded as time and funds permit. A few upgrade items are
listed in ().
Crystalline iodine water purification kit
Trash sack for expedient poncho (heavy duty military poncho)
Trash sack to carry all items in (backpack - medium ALICE, no frame)
How to live without utilities book NUCLEAR WAR SURVIVAL SKILLS
Aluminized mylar sleeping bag
Aluminized mylar 5 gallon water container
Box/bag/disinfectant for expedient toilet
Zip-lock bag, large for large items
Zip-lock bag, small for small items
1 MRE (2, 3 or more)
Flashlight with batteries & spare bulb (Mag-lite with 20 year cells)
Matches, water resistant (lifeboat matches)
Trioxane cooking fuel tabs
For a minimal kit TOTAL $1,980 $60 per kit
For partially upgraded kit TOTAL $3,894 $118 per kit
For a more thorough look at emergency kits, review the
various kits available from Preparedness Products Inc. and The
Emergency Lifeline Inc. Also, various survivalist recommended
backpacks lists and lists of home survival suppllies are
available from Ken Seger.
RETROFITTING THE EXISTING BUILDINGS
RETROFITTING THE BUILDING'S CONTENTS
Many small modifications can be made that will reduce
injury and property loss for a small expenditure of time and
material. The best way to accomplish minor retrofits would be
to examine all rooms, hallways, closets and storage areas and
consider what would happen if there was a sudden horizontal or
For each area an inventory sheet should be made with two
main categories: physical injury and property loss. Each of these
categories having a major threat and minor threat division. For
example, under major injury: the need to secure tall, top-heavy
bookcases, filing cabinets that could cause injury on impact, or
water heaters, kilns or kitchen equipment that could generate a
fire or explosion. Under minor threat: the need to secure frames
that have glass or computer printers. Under major property: the
need to secure computer equipment, copiers, video equipment,
heating and cooling devices, etc. Under minor property: the need
to secure records, and other breakables.
While Mr. Yokley most certainly has the ability to effect
these improvements, having the time to implement them, in
addition to normal services within normal working hours, is
unlikely. His terms of employment could be expanded if he is
willing and finances are available, or a task force of moms and
dads handy with tools could come in on scheduled weekends.
RETROFITTING THE BUILDINGS THEMSELVES
Both the necessity and the feasibility of major retrofits
on the structures need to be studied by a qualified engineer or
architect. Carmen Johnson has lists of publications that might
aid this activity. If one of the Rossman parents is qualified
for this activity, and is willing to waive their fee, the school
should purchase any needed materials and reimburse expenses.
If Rossman parents, faculty and staff were typical people,
the results of viewing this information would be, "Yup that's a
good idea. Somebody should do some of that stuff sometime.", and
that would be the end of it. We would continue at our current
state of unpreparedness.
Rossman people are not typical people. Otherwise, Rossman
would not be the unique quality institution that it is.
I am certain that all of us would like to see the children
of Rossman have the same chance of surviving an emergency that a
Swiss child has. Unfortunately our society does not place as
great an emphasis on safety as the Swiss do. If we did, this
report would be unnecessary.
Unlike the Swiss, we can not expect funding from either the
Federal, State, county or city government. Like everything else
at Rossman, if we want it done, we need to do it ourselves.
While manhours and funds can, and will, be made available
for preparedness, their amount is not unlimited. Therefore, we
should first put our time and money into items that will make the
greatest amount of difference. This would be the area of medical
While food and shelter are quite important, a child can die
from a sucking chest wound or cut blood vessel much faster than
they can from hypothermia or starvation. After the possible
critical injury needs have been prepared for, attention should be
paid to items that can afford the greatest amount of safety for
the least amount of time and money. This would be shelter from
After this need has been at least minimally prepared for,
the remaining topics can be covered as time and money permit.
Please note that much of the equipment can provide great utility
at very low cost. Example, portable lighting items for each staff
member will cost at minimum over $100, whereas sanitation
requirements for human waste can be dealt with for less than $30.
A wildcard that can frustrate preparedness planning is the
arrival of additional people not considered part of the original
plan. This problem has two aspects. First, while it is hoped
"more hands make lighter work", those hands are attached to a
body that needs food, water, sanitation, shelter, and perhaps,
medical attention. Second, the additional individuals will not
have taken part in the preparedness training. This places an
added burden on managers to maintain control and perform
expedient training during the emergency.
Since the individuals are outside of the system, their sense
of willingness and ability to follow orders may be less than
ideal if not outright disruptive. Care should be taken not to
offend others who desire shelter as they may be ideal candidates
for various tasks that one does not want to employ the trained
staff and faculty on, such as, menial tasks, scouting, heavy
Discrete inquires should be made to nearby populations such
as Lucky Lane and Missouri Baptist College to determine their
level of planning. If their attitude towards preparedness
planning is positive, then a possibility of combining resources
and purchasing power would be very advantageous to all parties.
If their attitude towards preparedness is negative, pains should
be taken to denote the limited scope of Rossman resources.
The illustrated degrees of preparedness, are meant to
demonstrate the different levels of preparedness available.
Sticking to one level on all topics cannot be assumed to be the
most effective use of money. Depending on varying opinions as
to the degree of need in each area, different topics can be
prepared for at different levels.
As stated in the overview, these notes are merely a
framework for discussion. Cost estimates of different levels
should be used like a menu for a 7 person dinner at a Chinese
restaurant. Choose one appetizer, one soup, several entrees
and one dessert. The mix of preparedness levels will be
determined by the perceived degree of need.
SUGGESTED ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN
After this information folder has been presented to Mrs.
Betz, and she has had time to read and digest the material
herein, a demonstration of the various survival supplies and
kits may be necessary so she will have a clearer idea of the
concepts involved. From thereon Mrs. Betz can determine the best
course of action.
Some suggested courses of actions might be: duplicating this
folder for the Board of Directors, arranging a demonstration of
survival supplies for the Board of Directors after they have had
the time to study this folder or requesting a smaller folder be
constructed for faculty, staff and parents.
It should be pointed out that this folder, with its glossary
and supply source list, is very useful as a source book for
individuals who wish to improve their home preparedness;
therefore, it is hoped that it will be distributed in its present
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOLDERS
Ultimately, there are two sets of information folders that
may need to be created for the preparedness plan. One set for
information before a disaster and another for use during the
Preparing for disaster: This set of folders should contain
informational checklists to help various people and groups
prepare to mitigate the effects of a disaster. Obvious targets
would be the various task force members, faculty and staff and
parents who wish to enhance their home preparedness level.
Each folder should include a bibliography of additional
Executing preparedness plans: During a disaster, everybody's
adrenaline is up and people who could recite their disaster plans
backward and forward on a typical day are incapable of
remembering the priorities of their own plan under the extremely
stressful circumstances. Instead of a bulky folder that might be
misplaced or not carried along due to its size, a laminated 3"x5"
or larger card with the essentials printed on both sides might be
very helpful. This could be put in a glove compartment, taped to
the CB, etc.
A similar card, stating in simple terms how to use the
supplies, should be included in the preparedness supplies.
While it is tempting to use 8 point or smaller type face and
make the card an encyclopedic warehouse of information, it should
be remembered that the card is not intended to be used under
SUGGESTED ACTIONS (con.)
ideal conditions, but under the worst possible conditions where
lost or broken eyeglasses or with a flashlight whose batteries
should have been replaced many months ago might be the case.
Since Parent's Club meetings already have a full agenda, a
separate evening meeting of parents who wish to become involved
in school disaster preparedness would probably be best. Those
parents who choose to come should be given this folder several
days before the meeting so topics can be covered more fully.
One of the more important aspects of that, and subsequent,
preparedness meetings, would be the creation and activation of
various parent task forces. These task forces would carry out
the needed activities to implement whatever level of preparedness
is desired. Below is a list of some of the possible task forces.
RETROFITTING - This could consist of several teams
depending on skills. One team could catalog retrofits
concerning the contents of the building. Another team
could implement the recommendations of the first. If
there are parent volunteers who have the training, a
study of the present building's seismic fragility could
be made. If not, this would have to be contracted out.
PURCHASING AGENTS - Most of the prices of preparedness
items are listed at retail. Very little price
reduction can be effected on items purchased in small
quantities. However, on items purchased in quantities
of one-half or one full gross, a sizable discount might
be available if purchased directly.
CB NETWORK - If the school purchases a 40 chan. SSB CB,
it would be helpful to have a network of parents who
have similar equipment. Ideally each node of the
network would be located a significant distance from
each other throughout the area of parents homes so that
each Rossman parent would know whom they could go
to for communication with the school. A primary,
secondary and tertiary channel should be for school to
parent communication. Another set of channels should
be established for parent to parent communication.
This might be especially needed if certain nodes have
difficulty communicating directly with the school.
SUGGESTED ACTIONS (con.)
PORTABLE PHONE NETWORK- While the CB network would be
totally independent of utilities, there is a
possibility that car and handheld phone service might
either be uneffected or the first to be repaired.
This network would not be as reliable as the CB
network, but if it is available it would be of great
KIT MAKERS - These people will create and assemble the
TEMPORARY HOUSING - These would be volunteers who would
agree to house students, faculty, and staff who have
difficulty getting home after most others have left.
These might be considered way stations for traveling
home. These volunteers should have stored bedding,
water, food, sanitation and shelter for the number of
people they choose to house.
4WD OWNERS - Since transportaion might be quite a
problem if the quake is large enough, a volunteer group
of owners of 4 wheel drive vehicles with adequate
ground clearance should arrange an expanded carpool
based on the capability of their vehicle. One
possibility would be a shuttle service from school to
the way station houses to reduce the distance parents
without 4WD would have to go to pick up their children
should transportation be limited to 4WD in certain
areas. Establishing this emergency carpool would also
be a good idea if there were ever a blizzard-like storm
in which 2WD travel becomes difficult.
SUGGESTED ACTIONS (con.)
It should be very clearly stressed that financing for
preparedness be above and beyond normal school finances. It
simply won't work for a parent to say, "Well, this year I'll
give to the preparedness fund instead of annual giving."
This will not work. Annual giving supports the day to day
operation of the school. The endowment giving is strictly for
the endowment fund. Any donations to the preparedness fund
needs to be above and beyond normal giving patterns least the
rest of the school functions suffer.
The funds for preparedness should be considered similar to
a single premium insurance policy. Funds to purchase an item
that will need to be replaced in five years are similar to a
single premium 5 year term non-renewable policy. Funds for an
item that will last for decades would be like a single premium
paid life policy.
A PREPAREDNESS PLAN IS INSURANCE. If you are fortunate
enough not to have cause to use it, it was an unnecessary
purchase. But it is too late to purchase it after the need
arises. What you purchase is piece of mind. By having a
preparedness plan implemented, each parent knows they have
fulfilled their moral obligation to care for their child to the
best of their ability.
This paper can not possibly convey all of the information
needed to create a preparedness system. There are many fine
texts available from various sources that the serious student
of preparedness should study. Demonstrations of survival products
are available from Ken Seger by appointment.
Ken Seger does not sell or have any economic interest in
any sales of survival supplies. While Ken Seger is a Certified
Survival Instructor for LIVE FREE, the material presented here,
or in any demonstrations, are strictly Ken Seger's personal
viewpoints and opinions and do not necessarily represent the
opinion of LIVE FREE INTERNATIONAL.
Ken Seger can be contacted at 763 Haw Thicket Lane, Des
Peres,Mo 63131 or (314)821-9147 (voice line).
Preparedness planning necessitates working around a big
"Catch 22". If the quake is small, the extensive preparations
are not needed. Utilities are all intact, police, EMTs,
hospitals, ambulances and other emergency services are all
there, but not needed. If the quake is large, no amount of
preparedness planning will be able to solve every single
problem. Utilities, police, EMTs, hospitals, ambulances and
other emergency services will all be desperately needed, but
Planning for the worst case, can lead to, what may be
considered, "overdoing it". If all disasters occurred under
ideal conditions, preparedness planning, and the attendant
expenses, would be greatly reduced. Real life situations rarely
have easy answers.
ON THE TOPIC OF NUCLEAR WAR
Why should books and videos on the subject of nuclear war
be included here?
1) A confidence building mechanism. If a teacher
acquires the knowledge and skills to survive a full
scale nuclear war, they then know that surviving a much
smaller catastrophe like a major earthquake is
certainly within their capabilities.
2) It focuses the mind on what is and (perhaps more
importantly) what is not needed for survival.
3) To put our activities in perspective. 1/4th of the
world's population has effective Civil Defense (the
U.S. does not). There do exist other cultures that are
willing to dedicate more manpower and money to
protecting their children than we do at present. When
comparing their preparations to the ones that we are
considering, our efforts are not that expensive or
4) A realization that the topic of emergency
preparedness, if it is to cover one situation in a
thorough manner, must cover all aspects of emergencies.
To a large extent the techniques and research that are
helpful to earthquake preparedness stem from developing
the technology and skills to survive a nuclear war.
It is useful to know how a techinique evolved, rather
than to simply know the answer.
5) Thinking about a nuclear war is an excellent method
of making a checklist of needed skills and materials
for other disasters. By comparing the needs of
surviving a nuclear war with the needs of a lesser
emergency you can make more effective use of time and
material. There are many survivalists who have
absolutely no expectation of a nuclear war; however,
they prepare for one as a method of preparing for
future emergencies they do expect to occur. If you
are prepared for a nuclear war, you are prepared for
anything else that might happen.
6) If the estimates by the CIA do come true, and there
are 20 nations in the year 2000 that have
InterContinental Ballistic Missiles (in comparison to
the current 5), then this small, limited introduction
will be of assistance to any additional steps of
preparedness that may be chosen in the future.
ADDITIONAL NOTES ON SWISS SHELTERS
The Swiss have the best all-hazards preparedness system in
the world, followed closely by the Scandinavian countries, USSR,
Red China, and Israel.
Below are some specification extracted verbatim from
Federal Swiss law.
The shelter shall not exceed 5% of total building cost,
excluding the purchase of ground (as per Swiss Federal Law
BUILDING MEASURES FOR CIVIL DEFENSE dated 4 October, 1963 Article
8 - 1) with the Federal government providing 30-70% costs of
building and equipment (same law Article 5 - 1) with canton
(state) and community (city) assuming the remaining costs (same
law Article 6-1). Shelter spaces shall be 2/3rds the number of
seats in school as per Swiss Federal Department of Justice and
Police, Office of Civil Defense - Technical Directive for the
Construction of Private Air Raid Shelters 15 November 1966
Chapter 22.214.171.124 - upgraded to one space per person as per Report
of the Federal Council to Parliament on the 1971 Conception of
Civil Defense 11 August, 1971 Chapter 4.3.4 with one fully
protected space for each member of the nation by 1985/1990.
As per Technical Directives etc. 1966 there shall be per shelter
space - from 126.96.36.199 - 10.8 sq ft floor space, 88 cu ft volume,
10.8 sq ft per ventilator, 0.54 sq ft floor space for air lock,
0.76 sq ft for decontamination room - from 188.8.131.52.2 the shelter
shall be divided into gas tight cells each containing a maximum
of 50 people with a total capacity of 200 persons. Several
shelter groups may be situated next to or on top of each other
if decentralization is not possible - from 184.108.40.206 if shelter has
101-200 spaces separate decontamination and air rooms are
mandatory - from 220.127.116.11 for 101-200 place there shall be at
minimum 1 category I escapeway, 1 or 2 (depending on cell
configuration) category II escapeshaft(s) and 1 category IV
escapetube with all entrances, exits and ventilation openings
able to withstand 1 ATM ie. a Hiroshima level of blast
(12KiloTon) at 0.4 mile <0.2 miles>, a 100 KiloTon blast at 0.8
miles <0.4 miles>, a 1 MegaTon blast at 1.6 miles <0.9 miles> or
10 MegaTon blast at 1.6 miles <0.9 miles>.
All laws and technical construction notes are available
from the Federal Office for Civil Defense, WRITTEN IN ENGLISH,
in Berne, Switzerland.
The inclusion of the above information is to put a small
earthquake preparedness plan into perspective as far as what
can and what can not be done.
Please note that the Swiss system is NOT just a theoretical
abstraction of what should be done. There are fallout shelters
for over 115% of the Swiss population and fallout/blast/biochem
shelters for 90+% of the Swiss population installed and
operational as of 1988.
PRICES OF PREPAREDNESS SUPPLIES
(Please note; some of these prices might be out of date)
40 channel SSB CB - $160 with antenna and battery pack, Santa Fe
Distributing, 14400 West 97th Terrace, Lenexa,KS 66215
orders only 1-800-255-6595
45 ACP revolver & shotshells - used $150, refurbished $200, new
Activated charcoal filter - depends on size and packaging
Aluminized mylar blanket - Ie."space blanket" $3 from Cabela's,
812-13th Ave., Sidney,NE 69160 orders only 1-800-237-4444
Aluminized mylar sleeping bag - Ie. "space" bag $9 Cabela's
AM/FM radio - small unit that runs on AA or C cells $5-10 any
discount store larger units that run on D cells have better
sound since they have considerably larger loudspeakers, $40
AM/FM radio, solar/generator powered - $30 from Preparedness
AM/FM/TV radio - as above with TV audio band $20-30
Ammo cans, military - smalls $3-10, larges $15-50, many stores
Audiotape, How to Survive a Major Earthquake, 32 min. $5.00 The
Emergency Lifeline,1514 E. Edinger, Suite 1, Santa Ana,CA
Book, Emergency/survival Handbook by the American Outdoor Safety
League, $3.45 from Preparedness Products, 3855 South 500
West, Bldg. G, Salt Lake City,UT 84115 (801)261-8823
Book, The Preparedness Handbook $2.40 from Preparedness Products
Book, Reader's Digest First Aid Book $1.25 from Prepared. Prod.
Book, Earthquake Preparedness $4.00 from The Emergency Lifeline
Brinkman (imitation Mag-Lite) (3 D cells) Wal-Mart $18
Cap-stun - $10-25 in 5 different sizes, Phoenix Systems Inc
P.O. Box 3339, Evergreen,CO 80439 for individual sales,
Guardian Security Products Dept.SH-3 8350 North 7th Street,
Phoenix,AZ 85020 for $144 26 unit package
Cyalume sticks - 12 hour 10/$10 from Sierra Supply P.O.Box 1390,
Durango,CO 81302, $2.50 other sources
D cells standard - Wal-Mart $3/8 cells
D cells alkaline - Wal-Mart $5/6 cells
D cells 20 year - $228/96 cells The Emergency Lifeline, 1425
Culver Drive, Suite A-474, Irvine,CA 92714 (714)558-8940
EMP protector - $35 Kootenai Radio & Energy, best prices in USA, Box 215,
Kootenai, Idaho 83840 Also has solar panels and radios.
Flare gun - $80, shells $11 from Phoenix Systems Inc.
Flashlight, incandescent, plastic, cheap - Any dept.store $2
Flashlight, incandescent, plastic, good quality - Any store $6
Fluorescent lantern - Wal-Mart Ray-O-Vac $20
Gas valve shut-off wrench, domestic $5.29 from Preparededness
Products or $8.50 from Emergency Lifeline
APPENDIX #3 (con.)
Generator flashlight - $7 from S.I. Outdoor, Food, &
Equipment, P.O.Box 3796, Gardena,CA 90247 orders
1-800-533-7415, questions (213)324-8855 or 324-8859
Gunsafe, suitable for storing sidearms, $70 at most gun stores
Gunsafe, suitable for longarms, $150 at gun stores,
$110 on sale at BEST Store
Hassock style portapotty - $40 from SI
Immersion heater - used $25 from Bob Lewis Army Surplus
or new $80 Graingers
Instant cold pack - Walgreens $2 on sale
Instant hot pack - $7.95/6 Cabela's, or $2 at Walgreens
Iodine generator - crystalline "Polar Pure" $8.49 Indiana Camp
Supply, P.O.Box 211, Hobart,IN 46342 (21)947-2525
***This item could be produced for $2 each in lots of 50***
Katadyn water filter - $180 (1987 price sheet) Kootenai Radio &
Energy Systems Box 215 Kootenai,Idaho 83840 (they sell US
distributor direct and are the least expensive source in
the US for many radio, solar, & survival supplies)
Kearney Diet - See Nuclear War Survival Skills, approx. $250 for
adult/year depending on type of packing (a discount from
30-70% for large quantities)
Krypton bulb - $3 for standard or alkaline batteries, $6 for
ni-cads, (per pair) Spartan Supply box 310 Hixson,TN 37343
Mace - common non-lethal temporary anti-personal spray $15/unit
Maglite (3 D cells) - Wal-Mart $20, Spartan Supply $16
Matches, water resistant - 96 boxes/$20 BW trading,box 692,
Matches, life boat - 25 matches per vial, 5 vials/$10, Brigade
Quartermasters, 1025 Cobb International Blvd., Kennesaw,
GA 30144-4300 orders 1-800-228-7344, (BQ never has the
lowest price, but in MANY cases they have quality equipment
that can be found no where else)
Metal garbage can - Builder's Square $9, or other hardware store
Morman 4 - approx. $200 for adult/yr.(discount on large orders)
Morman 4 + 40 - approx. $300 per adult/year (ditto)
MRE - 50/$150 from Sierra Supply, Box 1390, Durango,CO 81302
MR8 - 50/$130 from Brigade Quartermasters
Nuclear War Survival Skills $10.95 each, or $80.00 for 10, plus
postage (10%) Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine,
P.O.Box 1279, Cave Junction,OR (503)592-4142
Oak Ridge Laboratory Hazard-mitigating house plans - 1,200,
1,400, or 3,400 sq ft set of blueprints $25 from TACDA The
American Civil Defense Association Box 1057 Starke,FL 32091
(904)964-5397 phone, (904)964-9641 FAX
Plastic, 5 mil, Rolls - various sizes, $10-30, any hardware store
Portable sink - $30 Cabela's or Preparedness Products
PVC - Any plumbing supply store, price is relative to diameter
Rope, polyester - 50ft. 3/16" (#6) $4 any good hardware store
APPENDIX #3 (con.)
"solar" shower - $17 Cabela's
"space blanket" - See Aluminized mylar
"space" sleeping bag - See Aluminized mylar
Tarp, polyethylene - 5'x7' $3, 6'x8' $4, 8'x'10' $7, 8'x12' $8,
10'x12' $10, 10'x18' $15, 10'x30' $24, 12'x18' $18,
14'x24' $27, 15'x 30' $36, 20'x20' $32 20x40' $64, 26'x 40'
$84, 40'x40' $128, 50'x50' $200 Pool Surplus P.O.Box 370
Tarpurethane, coated nylon, double seams, triple folded sides -
5'x7' $18, 7'x9' $25, 8'x10' $32 Indiana Camp Supply
Tents, used with no poles or tent stakes - 12' x 15' $200, 17'
octagonal $250, 16' x 32' $350, 18' x 50' $500 Bob Lewis
Army Surplus, Rt. 19, Box 162, Lebanon,MO 65536
(417)532-9657 9 miles south on Highway 5
Tents, new with poles & floor, no stakes - 12' x 14' $635,
16' x 18' $1.015 B&B Gun Sales, Rt. 2, Box 244,
Groesbeck,TX 76642 (817)729-2631, other sizes too.
Trioxane fuel tabs - $1.50 a box, discount for larger orders
Infinity Self-Reliance Center, Box 382, Columbia,MO 65205
Uberlebens Nahrung - not available in the USA
Videotape, Fast Food Storage, - $7.00 from Preparedness Products
Videotape, Nuclear War Survival Skills- 1-4 371 minutes $30
each or set for $95 Oregon Institute of Science and
Medicine, Box 1279, Cave Junction, OR 97523
Videotape, Practical Preparedness - 64 minutes $30 from TACDA
Videotape, Soviet Civil Defense 1-7 - 624 minutes - $30 each,
set of 7 for $145 Available from and 1989 Copywright by
OREGON INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND MEDICINE P.O.Box 1279,
Cave Junction, Oregon 97523 (503)592-4142
Water bag, 5 gal with tap, box, human waste bag and disinfectant
- 5 for $29 Preparedness Products 80 So. Redwood Road -
Suite 215, North Salt Lake City Utah 84054 (801)292-3481
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION RESOURCES
BBSs (computerized "Bulletin Board System" accessible via
and computer, modem, and phone line)
Literally thousands of pages of additional information are
available at no charge by calling with computer/modem, KEN'S
SURVIVALISTS' BBS 300/1200/2400 bps 24 hours per day, 7 days per
week (except for maintenance routines) at (314)821-2815. All
brands of computers are welcome with adjustable characters per
line and lines per page or continuous readout for all monitors.
All text files can be "TYPE"d with adjustable line length or
downloaded with any of eight different protocols (seven with
intelligent error correcting).
ExecuNet is a BBS service, prices start at $25/yr, in
Illinois which has most of the files found on Ken's
Survivalists' plus other files of interest to survivalists.
Many of ExecuNet's additional files can be found on Ken's
Survivalists' under the ews area under ExecuNet Files.
Please check with ExecuNet for latest listing. is a full
service system with 6 simultaneous phone line abilities at
(618)397-4569, via P.C. Pursuit long distance service at
(618)451-5074, and in St. Louis, MO at (314) 772-9409.
MAGAZINES & NEWSLETTERS
Here are some newslettersand magazines of interest to
DIRECTIONS - monthly newsletter of LIVE FREE, $15.00
per year,$200 lifetime - 12/yr. Box 1743 Harvey,IL 60426
LIVE FREE is Jim Jones's organization and has been around for
over 25 years. Articles cover all areas, mostly member
submitted ,emphasis is on do it yourself and small group.
Once you are a member you can also purchase the LIVE FREE papers
and booklets. LIVE FREE sponsors many seminars and
get-to-gethers every year.
SELF RELIANCE GROUP - monthly newsletter, $10/yr 1355 N.
McCarran Reno,NV 89512, mostly reprints from ASG, and other
THE LIGHT SPECTRUM - $18/6 issues/yr. Box 215 Kootenai,
Idaho 83840 THE SOURCE for info on solar panels and
SURVIVAL TOMORROW - $48/12 issues/yr. p.o.box 910 Merlin,OR
97532 Homestead and do it your self oriented. Very good.
USEFUL INFORMATION - $20/6 issues Box 3132 West Palm Beach,
FL 33402 Excellent, from woodsman, civil defense advocate David
Lobdell. Also sells booklets How to build a 20 person permanent
concrete fallout shelter for under $2,000. - $6, and How to live
through a nuclear war - $16
APPENDIX #4 (con.)
FIGHTING CHANCE - $60/12 issues/yr. Box 1279 Cave Junction,
OR 97523 Emphasis on steel-walled blast shelters.
AMERICAN SURVIVAL GUIDE (ASG) - $22/12 - $39/24, 12 issues
per yr. McMullen Publishing, P.O.Box 15690, Santa Ana,CA
92705-0690 Large magazine covering all areas, tends to cater
favorably to advertisers in its product review.
JOURNAL OF CIVIL DEFENSE - $18/yr. $34/2 yrs. 6 issues/yr.
Box 1057 Starke, FL 32091 THE AMERICAN CIVIL DEFENSE
ASSOCIATION's (TACDA) bi-monthly magazine. THE civil defense
advocate magazine! Sells blueprints for shelters and banked
THE TACDA ALERT - $8/6 issues/yr. TACDA's newsletter. You
can get both newsletter and magazine with $35/yr membership.
AUSTRALASIAN SURVIVOR - $18(US$)/4 issues/yr Box 11,
Dickson A.C.T. 2602 Australia Emphasis on on free enterprise,
tool making, black smithing, hand built milling machines, etc.
SPECIAL REPORT SERVICE - $49(US$) Periodic reports from
Bruce Silbey on various civil defense topics. Available from
JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL CIVIL DEFENSE, 11 Newport Creent,
Waddington, Lincolnshire, LN5 9LZ, England. His excellent book
SURVIVING DOOMSDAY is available from here at $15 US.
Back issues of now defunct newsletters
Duncan Long's newsletters - last 12 issues $1.50 each -
available from LIVE FREE
Practical Civil Defense - Bruce Silbey's old magazine.
$63(US$ ppd.) for all three years VERY authoritative! Excellent
resource for nuclear war preparedness. (see SPECIAL REPORT
SERVICE for address)
Personal Survival Letter - Mel Tappan's old newsletter
available from SI Box 3796,Gardena,CA 90247
Foresight - Dick Oster's old newsletter available from
LIVE FREE via Ken Sarabok.
There are many other survivalist newsletters but these are the most
The Survivalist Pledge
To help all that can be helped,
To defend all that can be defended,
To save all that can be saved,
To free all that seek freedom,
To stay alive as long as I can and stay free as long as I live.
from LIVE FREE INTERNATIONAL
40 channel SSB CB - Citizen's Band radio (no licensing
requirements) with 40 channels in AM, 40 channels in Upper
side band, and 40 channels in Lower side band.
Conventional CBs have just the 40 AM channels, which will
probably be clogged in an emergency.
purchased and registered by an individual. Even with
conventional ammo a pistol is only useful as a short range
weapon. The use of shotshell converts the pistol into what
amounts to a short range .410 shotgun and is ideal for
rodent, snake, and small animal control. A shotgun is
unwieldy and bulky. The shotshell is also powerful enough
to be useful in controlling criminals.
Activated charcoal filter - water filter to remove chemically
reactive pollutants and is most effective if the water has
first passed through filter paper to reduce turbidity.
Aluminized mylar blanket Ie."space blanket" - Extremely compact
and lightweight (though very noisy) mylar sheet that has
been coated with an aluminum film which will reflect 80% of
body heat, will not allow wind to pass through.
Aluminized mylar sleeping bag Ie. "space" sleeping bag -
same as above but in the size and shape of a sleeping bag
instead of a flat sheet.
AM/FM radio - It would be nice if radio selection could be
limited to units that either use D cells or for which
external D cell adaptors could be made. This would reduce
the need to inventory different battery sizes and also
extend the number of hours of use of the unit before
battery replacement is needed. Unfortunately most D cell
portable radios are large and expensive. An excellent
alternative is an AM/FM radio that has self contained solar
cells, hand powered generator, and integral nickel cadmium
AM/FM/TV radio - As above but can receive the voice portion of
Ammo cans, military - heavy, durable, air and watertight steel
or plastic boxes of all sizes and shapes. Useful for
storing all manner of items.
Audiotape, How to Survive a Major Earthquake, 32 minutes - a
good introduction to the topic of earthquake preparedness
Brinkman (imitation Mag-Lite) - My experience with flashlights
that look like Mag-Lites but are a few dollars cheaper has
been a disaster. A waste of money.
Cap-stun - the best of many brands of non-lethal debilitating
Cyalume sticks - a photochemical light source which, while not
very bright, produce no heat or sparks during operation or
activation and are totally waterproof in storage,
activation, and use. Completely soft plastic with no sharp
or hard edges and can't generate sparks by being bumped
against other materials. Handy eyelet for attachment.
There are 12 hour versions that are fair for 2-3 hours and
dim, but bright enough for identifiers for the remaining
time. There are 1 hour or 30 minute versions where a
brighter light is needed for a short time. Available in
red, green, blue, yellow, and white.
D cells standard - normal carbon zinc batteries. Cheap, but
prone to leakage need to be rotated every few years.
D cells alkaline - alkaline battery. Cost more but less likely
to leak and have a five year 80% charge life.
D cells 20 year - a cell in which the chemical components are
isolated from each other until the cap is twisted. When
activated, voltage & power is similar to a standard D cell.
D cell nickel-cadmium - popular rechargeable battery. Only puts
out 1.2 volts per cell (normal carbon-zinc or alkalines
produce 1.5 volts). Must be recharged frequently. Acquires
a charge limit if not fully charged after full or partial
discharge which can only be normalized by full discharge
and full recharge. Has a very sharp discharge slope. Ie.
when it starts let a light go dim, it goes out quickly
whereas other cells will continue to keep the light dim
for a long time.
EMP - ElectroMagnetic Pulse - multifrequency radio wave capable
of burning out solid state electronic components such as
microchips and transistors. EMP is caused by nuclear
explosions. If the nuclear explosion is inside the
atmosphere, the EMP range is very small. If the explosion
is outside the atmosphere, the radiation strikes the
atmosphere and can create the EMP wave thousands of miles
from the explosion. One well placed explosion in orbit
above Omaha could knock out all semiconductors from L.A.
to N.Y. This would cause a greater loss of life and
property damage than a bomb going off in a single city and
might be the next terrorist threat in the 21st century.
EMP will be picked up by any item that can act like an
antenna and conduct the EMP burst to equipment. An EMP
protector must be installed in series with the antenna or
power cord or phone line of any radio, computer or other
solid state device which might operate in a nuclear war
environment. Lightning protectors are not useful against
EMP as the rise time of EMP is MUCH faster than a
Flare gun, shoots 26.5 mm NATO flares, 350' elevation, 6 sec.
Flashligh, incandescent, plastic, cheap - assume 10% will break
Flashlight, incandescent, plastic, good quality - more durable,
better lantern, battery operated which is much better than
flashlights since they produce a greater quantity of light
with less glare and better distribution than an
incandescent at a lower drain rate on the batteries
Gas valve shutoff wrench - a wrench specially designed to turn
off gas valves in emergencies that will not cause dangerous
sparks and will not corrode if attached to the gas valve by
rope to the gas valve or located near the gas valve under
shrubbery if vandalism is likely, see Rope.
Generator flashlight - you squeeze a lever which turns a
dynamo, you have to keep pumping for light, they are cheap
and will wear out under heavy or careless use, unless you
can find a military model
Gunsafe, suitable for storing sidearms, opens with adjustable
push button code approx 4"x8"x12" and useful for storing
Gunsafe, suitable for longarms, opens with tubular key
approx 1.5'x1'x4' and useful for storing all sorts of items
Hassock style portapotty - plastic drum with conventional
toilet seat, more comfortable than box type but costs 5
times as much, can be used for storing supplies when not
Immersion heater - kerosene powered water heater which is put
inside metal garbage can, heats a lot of water very
quickly to boiling
Instant cold pack - chemical pack that becomes cold upon
Instant hot pack - many styles, most are single use either
continuous or can be put in air tight bag and "paused",
costly ($20) style can be recharged
Iodine generator, crystalline - this consists of a small glass
bottle with a lid the iodine won't dissolve, called a
generator since you use it to create a saturated solution
of iodine/water you add to a quart of water, under normal
temperatures it will sterilize the water in 20 minutes.
Katadyn water filter - based on a ceramic microfiltration core
that is so fine no living organism is small enough to pass
through including giardia
Kearney Diet - the Morman 4 plus beans for better amino acid
balance in proteins and a source of oil for essential fatty
acids both of which is lacking in the Morman 4
Krypton bulb - produces a much brighter light than a standard
incandescent bulb, use the krypton unit and save the normal
flashlight bulb for a spare
Mace, or tear gas - traditional non-lethal non-permanent
anti-personnel aerosols, there are better systems now
available for the same price
Maglite flashlights (available in 2 AAA, 2 AA, 2,3,4,5,6,7 C,
2,3,4,5,6 D cells) are made of machined aluminum and are
more reliable and durable than plastic flashlights though
they are more expensive. The focus of the light beam is
adjustable from spot to flood. While they are advertised
as waterproof, I would not trust them to be explosion proof.
Matches, water resistant - should work if damp, but not wet.
They need a special striker surface to light in any case.
Matches, life boat - basically a heavy duty friction match
dipped in a burnable varnish, when wet will light on any
Metal garbage can - suitable for use with immersion heater
which would melt the bottom out of a plastic garbage can
Morman 4 - survival rations developed by the Morman church of
Latter Day Saints designed for economy and long shelf life,
consists of wheat, sugar, salt, and dried milk.
Morman 4 + 40 - the Morman 4 plus 40 rotated canned goods for
improved taste and variety
MRE - Meal Ready to Eat, retort packaged meal containing a full
balanced meal for combat soldier, outer bag contains
separate retorts of entree, crackers, cheese, jelly, candy,
cocoa mix, and fruit depending on pack. All packs contain
accessory pack of toilet paper, pepper, salt, chewing gum,
spoon. Can be stored up to ten years under ideal
MR8 - NATO approved compact ration bar containing minimum daily
diet requirements. Neutral tasting, it can be eaten with
or without water or heating. It can be made into a drink or
crumbled over other foods. Each pack contains four
individually packed two part portion with 1040 calories. The
all vegtable source contains added sugar. Protein 15.1%,
Fats 14.9%, Carbo. 64.1%, Moisture 4.5%, Minerals 1.4%
Nuclear War Survival Skills book, 1987 version 282 pages with
index - While the main point of this book is to teach you
what to do before, during and after a nuclear war to
survive, it is a great source of information on how to live
without utilities for extended periods of time. Unlike
other survivalist books, the use and purchase of
specialized survival equipment is not covered, instead, it
illustrates how to create that special equipment from
readily available common household items.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Hazard-mitigating house - a series
of blueprints for constructing 1,200 sg ft.,1,400 sq.ft, and
3,400 sq.ft. underground houses that can be converted to
blast/fallout shelters with sandbags and railroad ties.
Plastic, 5 mil, Rolls - can be used to create tents, see
Nuclear War Survival Skills book for proper technique
Portable sink - black plastic 5 gal. water container that is a
sink, stoppered drain, and pump faucet, being black it will
heat up water if left in the sun.
PVC - PolyVinyl Chloride pipe used in plumbing. Available in
1", 2", 3", 4", 6", 8". Can be cut with a hacksaw to any
length desired. Glue a cap on one end and a screw base on
the other. Coat threads with thread sealant, screw in cap
and you have a wonderful lightweight, rust proof,
non-corroding, air and water tight container, that will
last for decades, for storing survival goods either above
or below ground.
Rope, polyester - The best rope to use to secure your emergency
gas wrench to your gas valve. Unlike manila or sisal rope
it won't rot when left wet,and it is less degraded by
sunlight that nylon or polypropylene ("poly") rope. Rope is
preferred over metal chain as metal chain could create a
spark. Be certain to leave plenty of slack in the rope to
maneuver the wrench. Storing the wrench in the basement is
a bad idea because it may be inaccessible when needed.
Securing the rope is advised if theft is likely. To reduce
theft, melting instead of tying a knot is advised.
"solar" shower - 2.5 or 5 gallon bag that is insulated on one
side with foam and reflective barrier and clear on the
other side. It will heat water if left in the sun. Top
has loops and rod for hanging from tree branch and bottom
has hose, valve, and shower head
"space blanket" - See Aluminized mylar
"space" sleeping bag - See Aluminized mylar
TANSTAAFL - There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch!
Tarps - poor man's tents running the gamut from worthless to
Tents - Used patched surplus Military tents are the best buy.
You get twice the quality at 1/2 the price of new tents.
They ARE heavy, but very good.
Trioxane fuel tabs - easy to light, burn very hot, compact,
smokeless fuel for heating rations
Uberlebens Nahrung - Food powder formulated by Nestles for
Swiss Civil Defense System. Used for a beverage base,
soup, gruel, or paste.
Videotape, Nuclear War Survival Skills 1-4 - While most of
these tapes cover topics more appropriate for nuclear war
or nuclear power accidents, they do cover a lot of
information on how to live without utilities.
Tape 1: Expedient Blast and Radiation Shelters (102 minutes)
Tape 2: Shelter Ventilation and Various Other Survival
Skills (78 minutes)
Videotape, Nuclear War Survival Skills 1-4 (con.)
Tpae 3: Home-makeable and Commercial Fallout Radiation
Meters (117 minutes)
Tape 4: Nuclear War Facts as Told to Teenagers (74 minutes)
Videotape, Practical Preparedness - This is an EXCELLENT tape
as it covers all aspects of what a home owner can do to
live through a disaster situation in safety and comfort.
If you view only one tape, make it this one. Total time
64:00, Mains topics are heat, shelter, sanitation, food,
Videotape, Soviet Civil Defense 1-7 - These tapes show the
very extensive training and preparations being made by a
culture that has a very low standard of living but devotes
2% of its Gross National Product to Civil Defense. It not
only teaches survival skills but also is useful when
comparing how the USSR, the Scandinavian Countries, Red
China, Switzerland, Israel, and the USA treat preparation
Here is what is on the back cover of the tapes:
"Civil defense in the Soviet Union is a $6 BILLION per year
defense effort with 150,000 PAID PROFESSIONAL and 20
MILLION VOLUNTEERS working to prepare Soviet citizens for
civil defense procedures including the use of their $200
BILLION CIVIL DEFENSE SHELTER SYSTEM. Little known in the
West, Soviet civil defense constitutes an entire branch of
the Soviet military and an important part of Soviet
education with mandatory civil defense courses beginning
in the 5th grade.
Now the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, which
distributes extensive written, audio, and video tape
information on civil defense procedures and preparations,
has produced this definative seven video tape series on
Soviet Civil Defense. The tapes feature extensive
information from the leading American authority on Soviet
civil defense, Dr. Leon Goure, 15 actual Soviet civil
defense training filmstrips for adult training, and 2
filmstrips prepared for use in Soviet 5th grade classes.
With English translations in the soundtracks, these include:
1. Injury from Fallout Radiation Can Be Avoided
2. Actions in the Face of Nuclear Attack - The Main Point
is Not to Panic
3. The Shelter - A Dependable Means of Protection
4. What You Must Know About Nuclear Weapons
5. Learn How to Use Your Gas Mask
6. The Danger of Bacteriological Weapons
7. Blast Shelters, Fallout Shelters, and the Rules for
Using Them (5th grade)
8. Skillfully Respond to the Threat of Attack and to
Warning Signals (5th Grade)
9. Protecting Livestock
10. Dealing with Public Utility Emergencies
11. Fallout Shelters and How to Build Them
12. How to Counteract Chemical Contamination
13. Countering Pathogenic Bacteria
14. Fire Fighting
15. The Reception and Billeting of the Evacuating Population
16. If the Siren Sounds
17. After Departing the Area of Destruction
Tape 1: Introduction and Interview of Dr. Leon Goure (97 m)
Tape 2: Soviet Training Manuals, Books, & Journals -
Section 1 (86 minutes)
Tape 3: Journals - Section 2 and Soviet Training Film #1
Tape 5: Soviet Traing Films #7, 8, 9, 10, snd 11 (91 min)
Tape 6: Soviet Training Films #12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 (89 m)
Tape 7: Presentation by Dr. Leon Goure, Soviet Training
Film #17, and Soviet Civil Defense Posters (92 m)"
Water bag, 5 gal with tap, box, human waste bag and disinfectant
- 5 boxes that can be used for either storing, carrying,
and stacking water bags or for box toilets with human
waste bag and disinfectant. Water bag includes tap and is
made from aluminized mylar, which unlike other plastic
water containers, is totally opaque, to prevent internal
growth of bacteria, and gas impermeable so water will not
absorb surrounding chemicals, flavors or smells. Water
bag can hold 6 gallons when not in stacking box.