AND MAN-MADE DISASTERS WITH

                     EMPHASIS ON EARTHQUAKES
                       FOR ROSSMAN SCHOOL

                            Prepared by Ken Seger
              With editorial assistance by Patt and Jerry Welk

Copyright Notice:  All rights reserved.  Except as permitted under
                   the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part
                   of this publication may be reproduced or
                   distributed in any form or by any means, or
                   stored in a data base or retrieval system,
                   without prior explicit written permission from
                   the author.

If you find the information in this file of use to you, would you please send
$10 to Rossman School, 12660 Conway Road, St. Louis,MO 63141 with the check
made out to Rossman Parents Club.  The funds will be used to purchase
additional survival equipment for the children.

                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE                                                       iii

THE PURPOSE OF THIS TEXT                                        1




TRAINING OPTIONS                                                8

EQUIPMENT OPTIONS                                               9




RETROFITTING THE EXISTING BUILDINGS                            18

RECOMMENDATIONS                                                19

ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN                                            21
     Additional information packets
     Task Forces
     Financing Preparedness

CLOSING COMMENTS                                               25

  1. Nuclear War and how it relates to earthquake preparedness 26
  2. Other cultures and preparedness                           27
  3. Sources for preparedness supplies with price estimates    28
  4. Survivalist information resources                         31



    When I first started writing this text it began as an 18
KiloByte outline of the steps Rossman School should take to be
prepared for an earthquake.  This quickly grew to 28K with the
addition of more information.  Soon a glossary and more
additional information was added bringing the total to 58K.
Additional activities were added bringing the K up to 70.  At
that point the entire file was reorganized and an explanation of
what the term survivalism really means  was included. Hopefully
this trend will continue through the future years as additional
information, techniques, supplies, and training are added to
improve the disaster preparedness capability of Rossman School.
    I would like to thank Patt and Jerry Welk for their
encouragement and editing of this text.  One of their criticisms
was the inclusion of the words survivalist and survivalism.
They felt, and rightly so, that the term survivalist has
acquired a notorious connotation recently. They suggested that
those terms should be replaced with blander, image-neutral terms.
    While the negative connotation might be the accepted
definition for people who assume that everything they read or
hear in the mass media is the absolute truth, a more accurate
picture is acquired by those who search for what is true and
what is false concerning the survivalist movement.
    There are individuals and groups, incorrectly labeled as
"survivalist" by the mass media, who are not worthy of the name.
These incorrectly labeled people tend to be political or
religious extremists who violate the principles of survivalism
(see appendix #4) by neither helping others nor advocating
freedom.  Even though true survivalists outnumber the falsely
labeled "survivalists" by over 100 to 1, the true survivalists
get less than 5% of any mass media coverage.  This merely
reflects the mass media's appetite for bad news versus good news.
     Since the activities suggested in this text are PRECISELY
what true survivalism is all about, the terms survivalist and
survivalism have been retained, and rightfully so. 
     I have been studying the topic of survivalism since 1982. 
Since 1983, I have been a member of LIVE FREE which is the
world's oldest (founded in the early 60's) and largest
survivalist organization, been a life member since  1985, been a
Certified Survival Instructor since 1988 (passing with the
second highest score ever), and have given lectures on
nutrition, nuclear war survival skills, and water purification
at various LIVE FREE seminars.  I have an extensive library of
survivalist literature and subscriptions to all major
survivalist newsletters and magazines written in English in the
USA, Australia and Europe.  I have participated in the various

survivalist computer/modem information networks since 1984 and
have been the SYStem OPerator and host node of a survivalist BBS
since 1986.
     Anyone who would care to examine what real survivalists are
truly like should refer to appendix #4 for a brief explanation
of the topic and sources of additional information from which
they can derive their own conclusions.     

                              Ken Seger, March 1990, St. Louis

                    THE PURPOSE OF THIS TEXT


    The purpose of these notes is neither to forecast a disaster
nor recommend a specific line of action, but to serve as a
framework for discussion of the different levels of earthquake
hazard, and show the many different methods and levels of
preparedness to cope with those hazards.
     There is no way to predict, with any degree of confidence,
when or how strongly an earthquake will occur.  While people
such as Dr. Iben Browning have predicted the New Madrid to quake
on Dec. 3, 1990 plus or minus 3 days, most other authorities
place their predictions in decades rather than in days.
     Even in the highly unlikely event that this particular
disaster does occur between Oct.31 and Dec. 7th, other types of
disasters can certainly occur before and after those days.
     If you are moderately prepared for a major earthquake, you
are very well prepared for smaller disasters, and at minimum,
partially prepared for other larger disasters.
    Different levels of problems are identified as ideal, fair,
poor, and worst case conditions in the following categories:
time of day, time of year, weather, utilities, building damage,
support services, level of damage and duration of emergency
     Levels of preparedness are organized around the topics of
shelter, lighting, water, food, sanitation, heating and cooling,
medical, communication and safety requirements.  Each of these
topics is covered to illustrate how different levels of
preparedness can be obtained.


    Just because the different categories of problems happen to
be lumped into a single problem level does NOT mean that this is
likely to be the case in an actual disaster situation.  The
likelihood of a disaster staying within such nicely defined
parameters is practically nil.  It is most likely to be a mixed
bag of events.   In the same vein, the topics in the levels of
preparedness are grouped ONLY to show that different levels of
preparedness can be sought and they are not meant to be a rigid
set of goals.  Different levels in different topics will be
chosen based on perceived needs and the amount of money and
man-hours available for the preparedness project. 


     If one accepts as true the saying, "The act of not making a
decision in itself is a form of making a decision", then one can
expand that to, "The act of not even considering a topic at all
is itself a form of a decision."   If that is the case, then
Rossman has made the decision to be very unprepared for an
earthquake or any other major disaster.  
     Let us look at what that decision entails.  We have decided
that in a major disaster the students of Rossman will be without
safe drinking water, they will only have whatever form of
shelter happens to be available at the time, communications will
only be that which is usually available, if intact, if students
must stay overnight there will be no provision for emergency
light, bedding or shelter, and that easily corrected hazards
will not be eliminated causing great property damage to
carpeting, materials, books, etc. 
     Now that the topic has been brought up, I hope that the old
passive decision will be rejected and replaced with a new
actively made and acted upon decision.  Hopefully this document
will make this change occur sooner than it would have otherwise
and long before it is needed.
     As one seismologist stated, "You need to choreograph an
earthquake well in advance, otherwise you will NOT like the


     According to a Memphis State University study, the chance
of a major earthquake from the New Madrid fault is:

         Richter Scale     Probability of occurrence by the year
                                2000              2040

                6.7              50%               90%
                7.6              10%               25%
                8.3               1%                3%
     A Southeast Missouri State University at Cape Girardeau
study gives the odds as:

        Richter Scale     Probability of occurrence by the year
                              2000              2040

              6.3              50%               90%
              7.6              10%               25%
              8.6               1%                3%   

     Please note: the Richter scale is a logarithmic scale and
refers only to the power of the earthquake expressed as a power
of ten and by itself does  not predict the level of damage.  An
earthquake of Richter 8.0 has the same  amount of power as 10 -
Richter 7.0 quakes or 100 - Richter 6.0 quakes or 1,000 -
Richter 5.0 quakes.  In other words, to dissipate the amount of
energy that could be released by one single Richter scale 8.0
earthquake would require a Richter scale 4.0 earthquake to occur
every single hour for one year and two months or a Richter scale
5.0 earthquake to occur every hour for six weeks.
     In 1985 Dr. Otto Nuttli, professor of geophysics at St.
Louis University, estimated that the New Madrid quakes in the 5
month period of 1811-1812, ranged as high as 8.0 to 8.8 Richter
and that 15 to 18 of the aftershocks ranged from 6.5 to 7.0
Richter.  Others estimate that 5 of the two dozen or so quakes
were 8.0 or higher.  In 1985, the amount of energy stored in the
fault was enough to produce an earthquake of 7.6 Richter
according to Dr. Nuttli.  The last large quake was in 1895 and
estimated at 6.0 Richter.  It is estimated that a quake of this
size should occur about every 80 years.  Due to the difference
in structure, a quake in the midwest will have a damage area 20
times larger than the same quake would have in California.
     It is virtually impossible to predict at what Richter scale
a major quake would occur.  Even if it were, it would be equally
difficult to predict the precise damage level that would occur
in the Rossman School area.
                    CHANCES OF A QUAKE (con.)

     If the New Madrid has a 6.7 Richter scale quake, the
greater St. Louis area can expect the following effects: people
have trouble standing upright, loose bricks fall from buildings,
heavy furniture overturns, many windows break and some buildings
are damaged.
     For a 7.6 Richter scale quake: drivers have  difficulty
steering, towers and chimneys fall, tree branches break and
some buildings partially collapse.
     It is estimated that a 7.4 Richter scale quake will do
approximately six billion dollars in damage in just the state
of Missouri.
     For a 8.6 Richter scale quake: the ground is cracked
conspicuously, considerable damage in masonry structures
especially designed to withstand earthquakes, some buildings
collapse and underground pipes sometimes broken.      
     Estimations of damage to the West County area published by
authorities indicate that on a 8.6 Richter scale earthquake
damage levels of 7, 8 or 9 may occur.
     Level 7 is described as: "Damage negligible in buildings of
good design and construction.  Numerous windows and some
furniture are broken. Considerable damage occurs to concrete
irrigation ditches."
     Level 8 equals: "Trees shaken strongly with branches and
trunks broken off. Slight damage occurs in brick structures
built especially to withstand earthquakes. Buildings partially
collapse. Stone walls are cracked or broken seriously."
     Level 9 equals: "Ground is cracked conspicuously.
Considerable damage occurs in masonry structures built
especially to withstand earthquakes. Some buildings collapse.
Underground pipes sometimes  broken."
     Please note that those damage levels will NOT be uniform
throughout the St. Louis area.  Some areas will be devastated
while others nearby will suffer only minor damage.
     However, even if there is only a 0.1% chance of an
earthquake happening, if it happens, it happens.  One can not
control the likelihood of an earthquake occurring, but one can
control the amount of preparedness for an earthquake or other


     When a quake happens, the magnitude of problems will be
dependent on the severity of the quake and other circumstances
not related to the quake: time of day, time of year, weather
conditions and the ability of governmental services and parents
to provide assistance.

                        IDEAL CONDITIONS

Time of day - during the middle of the night when nobody is at
Time of year - during winter or spring break, summer vacation,
     or on a weekend when nobody is here!
Weather - mild spring or fall, nice temperatures with no wind
Utilities - no loss of electricity, phone, gas, water, or sewer
Building - a few books and art projects knocked off of the
     shelves, a few minor cracks in windows or walls
Police/fire/hospital - there and ready, available by phone and
     everybody in the yellow pages waiting to take your money
Injuries - no people at school equals no injuries
Damage level - no major problems, quake was a small one
Duration - at no time were there emergency conditions

                         FAIR CONDITIONS

Time of day - before school when just staff and faculty are in
     or after the PM carpool is over when there are a just a few
     students and most of the staff and faculty are still here
Time of year - spring or fall during a school day
Weather - spring or fall with rain, or summer or winter with very
     mild  temperatures and winds and no precipitation
Utilities - no electricity, water pressure low,  however, the
     gas, phone and sewer are working
Building - numerous small cracks in drywall, a few windows
     shattered, some windows with substantial cracks, many
     windows with minor cracks, repairs not covered by insurance
     covered by Board of Trustee's Discretionary funds
Police/fire/hospital - available but only for critical
     emergencies, triage is much tighter than usual
Injuries - lots of bruises and scrapes, some minor cuts, just a
     few significant injuries such as major cuts, sprained or
     strained joints or broken bones
Damage level - the quake was significant, and some aftershocks
     are expected
Duration - most students are picked up before sundown with just
     a few being picked up the next day, utilities return to
     normal in a day or so
                    VARIOUS SCENARIOS (con.)

                         POOR CONDITIONS

Time of day - around AM or PM carpool when there are many
     parents at school available to help
Time of year - summer with rain and wind or winter with snow
     and wind
Weather - a hot summer or a cold winter
Utilities - only the phone is working, and it is overloaded
     with long delays for connections
Bbuilding - significant damage, most windows broken or cracked,
     some deformation at a few door frames, repairable, but
     expensive, a loan is needed to cover repairs and expenses
     until lawsuit with insurance company is resolved
Police/fire/hospital - difficult to get to or contact, services
     are very overburdened
Injuries - numerous minor cuts, abrasions and bumps, several
      significant injuries and one life threatening injury such
     as sucking chest wound, severe bleeding, shock, etc.
Damage level - major quake, aftershocks are numerous but smaller
Duration - moderate number of students have been picked up by
     9PM but the balance are not picked up until noon of the
     next day with a few distant students not picked up for
     another day or so


Time of day - between 9AM and 2AM when there are the fewest
     number of parents available for assistance
Time of year - either the heat of summer or the cold of winter
Weather - summer/no clouds, high heat, drying winds or
     winter/clouds, 35-40 degrees with rain
Utilities - none except gas (leaking), no water, electricity or
Building - Profound damage to older building.  Due to the
     collapse of pantry wall, the gas shut-off valve is
     inaccessible with strong smell of gas around valve.  Gym &
     the new wing have damage of brickwork and deformation at
     corners. Both are suitable for shelter with some risk,
     however children are afraid to enter.  Older building may
     not be financially worth fixing. Insurance company files
     for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
Police/fire/hospital - No phones to call for assistance,
     besides all services hopelessly swamped with other
     demands.  Conway road hopelessly clogged due to cracked
     pavement and people trying to get to St.John's & St.Luke's

                    VARIOUS SCENARIOS (con.)

                        WORST CASE (con.)

Injuries - bleeding major and minor, sucking chest wounds, eye
     injuries, broken arms, legs of students, faculty and
     staff.  Some cases of hysteria, panic and catatonia of
     students, faculty and staff.
Damage level - high!, 8+ Richter as in the early 1810's
Duration - majority of parents unable to retrieve children until
     next day with several faculty, staff and students who live
     farther out unable to go home for a few days, electricity
     and phone will be out for at least week

PLEASE NOTE: Estimations of damages in all cases are HIGHLY
speculative.  Actual damage to building is dependent on quality
of land or landfill under the building and underlying rock
formations on which the preparer has no meaningful data.  Also
the degree of resistance of buildings to seismic shock is
unknown to the preparer of this report.

                        TRAINING OPTIONS


Minimum - Review "duck and cover" techniques, review evacuation
     drills and check that all Red Cross First Aid and CPR
     cards are current.
Good - Above plus retake standard classes
Better - Above plus see if 50 hour Red Cross course could be
     arranged, view Practical Preparedness video and listen to
     the, What you Should Know About Earthquakes, audiotape.
Best - Over the summer loan VCR (if needed) and view Nuclear War
     Survival Skills video tapes 1-4 and Soviet Civil Defense
     video tapes 1-7.   See appendix #1


Minimum - Incorporate "duck and cover" earthquake safety
     routines into the fire/evacuation drill
Good - Talk about earthquakes and how they are rare, with
     effects usually limited to minor building damage
Better - Tell about Rossman's preparations as is appropriate to
     age. Talk about what you would do if you didn't have
     utilities for an hour or a day etc.
Best - Practice skills in a drill, perhaps as an after school
     activity.  Have the children talk to Rowan-Woods students
     about their experiance of going to school without having
     running water.


Minimum - Give all parents a sheet explaining what preparedness
     steps Rossman School has taken.
Good - Offer general preparedness information to all parents
Better - Offer a special evening in which preparations are
     discussed and demonstrated.  Offer more detailed
     preparedness information.
Best - Form a Parent's Preparedness Club in which members can
     learn in more detail about preparedness.  Develop a Parent
     Volunteer list for communications, assistance and housing
     of remote students, faculty and staff during a disruption
     of normal transportation facilities.


                         EQUIPMENT NEEDS

     Equipment is needed to fulfill the basic human needs of
shelter, water, food, sanitation, heating or cooling and
medical needs.  The secondary needs of light and safety are
important for the well being of the children as well.


     Shelter is needed to protect the children, faculty and
staff from hypothermia, hyperthermia, rain, snow and wind.
While high quality shelter would be preferred, it should be
remembered that the scope of this preparedness plan only covers
keeping the children from harm until their parents can take over
the children's needs.


     Water that is both potable and palatable is needed for
drinking, sanitation, and possible food preparation.


     Food is needed for psychological aid more than
physiological need if the duration is a few hours.  It is highly
useful for group activity, a sense of normalcy, comfort, etc.


     "When ya gotta go, ya gotta go!"  There will be enough
stress in an emergency without forcing the kids to use a trench
toilet.  Also, this will speed cleanup after the disaster.


    This demand will be minimal if reasonable shelter is
provided. Cold and hot packs might be needed in special cases
for medical purposes.


    At least the basics are needed.  A higher level of
preparedness in this topic allows greater safety.

                     EQUIPMENT NEEDS (con.)


     At least inward communications should be available to
listen to AM and FM radio.  If units with an outward ability are
purchased, SSB CBs would be the minimum.  Mobile and portable
phones might be utilitized, if still functioning.


     Illumination is needed for group activities, private
activities, a sense of security, special cases, etc.


     Since Rossman is located in a low density, upper income
area, this need is unlikely.  However, protection from rodents,
dogs, other animals and humans may always be a possibility.

                     LEVELS OF PREPAREDNESS



Shelter - What is on everybody's back
Light - Are there candles and working flashlights?
Water - How much do the water heaters hold?
Food - What is in the kitchen on average or lowest point?
Sanitation - Those two large bushes in the woods over there and
     hopefully a shovel.
Heat/cooling - hmmmmm.....
Medical - First aid kits, oxygen system, splints, venom
     extractors, Epi-pen and whatever is in the faculty and
     staff's cars.
Communication - clock radios, hope the phones still work, two
     three channel standard CB's used for car pool with all
     three channels hopelessly clogged by more powerful
     transmitters; therefore, if no phones, communication with
     outside world consist of Ms. Czech and Mr. Huusko
     transporting slips of paper.
Safety - There are trees from which switches can be cut.


Shelter - A few rolls of 5 mil plastic and some rope (in the
     science room) are a lot better than nothing for expedient
Light - A good plastic flashlight costs $6 at Wal-Mart, Cheap D
     cells can be purchased, but need to be rotated.
Water - a crystalline iodine "generator", a 5 gallon jug with
     tap and a container of paper cups would help
Food - a 5 pound bag of hard candy is cheap and will last for
Sanitation - for $10, two box style portapotties can be
     purchased via mail order
Heat/cooling - a few instant cold packs and hot packs for the
     first aid kit would be nice
Medical - additional supplies added to the current medical kit
     would be nice
Communication - at least one AM/FM radio with batteries to
     match, again the batteries need to be rotated
Safety - mace, tear gas, cap-stun or other sprays are fairly

                  LEVELS OF PREPAREDNESS (con.)

                         MINIMAL BUDGET

Shelter - a few large good tarps with ropes and tent spikes
     would be better than plastic
Light - numerous plastic flashlights with 20 year storage
     batteries plus a battery operated fluorescent light
Water - a few iodine purifiers with 25 gallons of water stored
     at all times in various locations would be nice and cost
     only $30
Food - Purchasing some foods that require no water or heat (if
     you don't mind eating cold chicken with gravy, etc.)
Sanitation - The box style portapotties again but with the
     addition of a portable sink (5 gal.)
Heat/cooling - quite a few heat and cold packs + some aluminized
     mylar sheets (the so-called "space-blankets")
Medical - a second kit can be added
Communication - one radio for scanning AM and another for FM,
     20 year storage D cells
Safety - a higher grade of anti-personnel incapacitating gas

                         MODERATE BUDGET

Shelter - a tent that would house two dozen children or any
     injured can be purchased for $300
Light - numerous plastic flashlights with 20 yr. D cells,
     several fluorescent lights with 20 year D cells, several
     cyalume sticks of various types
Water - Several iodine purifiers, with filter papers and
     activated charcoal to improve palatability, some "Tang" or
     "Wylers" would be nice and multiple stored water
     mylar/boxes in several locations
Food - a large meal in an MRE can be had for about $3.50 and
     will store for years, a cheaper method would be to purchase
     MRE components
Sanitation - 3 box style portapotties, 2 - 5 gallon portable
     sinks and a "solar" shower for cleaning spills and accidents
Heat/cooling - heat and cold packs, numerous space-blankets plus
     numerous "space" sleeping bags
Medical - medical kit should contain all possible supplies that
     faculty and staff are qualified to use
Communication - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV band radio with 20 yr D cells
Safety - a flare gun for signaling, or in a worst case
     scenario, defense

                  LEVELS OF PREPAREDNESS (con.)


Shelter - an army surplus 16' x 32' tent can be boought for $500
Light - numerous Mag-lite flashlights with 20 year storage
     batteries, fluorescent lanterns with 20 yr. batteries,
     cyalume sticks -  several bright white 30 minute units for
     special applications and various colored 12 hour units for
     night identification of people and objects
Water - Water storage as above with Katadyn microfiltration
     purifier and activated charcoal filters
Food - one or two MREs for everybody, with additional foods for
     special requirements
Sanitation - 2 or 3 plastic hassock style portapotties,
     3 - 5 gal. portable sinks, 2 "solar" showers
Heat/cooling - all of the above with a small stove or immersion
     heater for heating water. A kerosene lamp can also be used
     to heat water.
Medical - all medical supplies to cover a large number of minor
     problems, plus a kit that would be useful for a General
     Practitioner M.D.
Communication - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV band, 1 - 40 channel SSB CB
Safety - sidearm locked in "gunsafe" with safety bullets ASSUMING
     several of the faculty and staff are trained to use it in a
     proper safe and legal manner.


Shelter - Standard "Fighting Chance" style blast/fallout/
     bio-chem war shelter consisting of below ground
     cylindrical steel tank outfitted with hammocks for all
     occupants and air blowers with purifiers.
Light - Protected deep-discharge battery operated fluorescent
     lights for the shelter, with portable fluorescents and
     Mag-Lite with 20 year cells
Water - Shelter would be equipped with a well for cooling,
     sanitation and drinking.
Food - For short-term, MREs, MR8s and freeze dried.  For long
     term year-long, Morman 4, Kearney Diet or Morman 4 + 40.
Sanitation - Each shelter equipped with chemical toilet and
     pump to a holding tank buried outside shelter.
Heat/cooling - The shelter air and water systems can control
     any heating or cooling needs.
Medical - as above plus a kit that would be useful for the
     highest qualified M.D./parent in their various fields of
                  LEVELS OF PREPAREDNESS (con.)

                    VERY WELL BUDGETED (Con.)

Communication - as above plus protected from lightning and EMP
     with antennas for maximum range and clarity, plus phones
     between shelters
Safety - sidearm with shotshells for rodents, snakes and other
     short range (5 to 20 feet) problems plus a longarm for
     dogs, skunks and other problems which need to be removed
     at a longer range (20 - 100 feet).  Both properly stored
     in a locked safe with safety ammunition.


Shelter - Standard Swiss below ground blast/fallout/chem-biowar
     shelter consisting of below ground reinforced concrete
     rooms with bunks for all occupants with wartime air
     handling system. See appendix #2 for details.  As an
     alternative, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's 3,400 SQ.
     FT. Blast-upgradable Hazard-resistant Earth Sheltered
     Residence could be easily modified for a totally
     underground use at a savings of 20%.
Light - protected fluorescent lights run from generator or deep
     discharge batteries plus all of the above portable lights
Water - A well as per Technical Directive 1966 2-7 which can
     provide 100 grams water per hour per shelter space.
Food - Nestles Corp. Uberlebens Nahrung (survival rations)
Sanitation - A well and a septic system
Heat/cooling - standard Swiss blowers and filters for dust,
     radioactivity, chemical and biological warfare
     air-bornes, blankets on all of the bunks
Medical - Standard "First Aid Post" (also known as a Protected
     Practice) with 32 beds for triage and first aid with
     supplies, or "First Aid Station" with 120 to 140 beds or
     bunks with an operating table for triage, first aid, and
     final treatment of lightly wounded patients
Communication - EMP hardened radios, separate units for AM, FM,
     TV, Emergency channels, SSB CB, HAM and shortwave
Safety - "All facilities can operate for several days
     independent from the outer world." - OUR CIVIL DEFENSE p.16,
     plus a standard soldier's kit of full-auto military rifle,
     helmet, backpack, etc. for all males.  See Appendix #2 for
     additional information.

supplies, chainsaw, kerosene lights and perhaps a heater,
military ammo boxes or PVC tubes for storing supplies
    WELL THAT'S REAL NICE.........................HOW MUCH?!?

     These prices should be considered low estimates as shipping
will have to be added to items not available locally.  See
appendix #3 for details.


Shelter       - $0.00
Light          -  0.00
Water          -  0.00
Food           -  0.00
Sanitation    -  0.00
Heat/cooling  -  0.00
Medical       -  0.00
Communication -  0.00
Safety         -  0.00

          TOTAL $0.00    PER PUPIL WORTH $0.00

         Remember: You get what you pay for!  TANSTAAFL


Shelter   - $20  some plastic sheeting and rope
Light      - $92  12 good flashlights & cells, $33 for cheap ones
Water      - $20  1 iodine purifier, 2 - 5 gallon containers
Food       -  $5  a bag of hard candy
Sani.     - $10  2 box style toilets with paper
Heat/cool - $10  2 heat packs, 3 cold packs
Medical   -$100  various
Communi.  - $10  portable AM/FM with alkaline batteries
Safety     - $30  3 small units of Cap-Stun for $30 or
                 in bulk for 26  various sizes for $144

TOTAL  $238-411       PER PUPIL WORTH $1.22 - $2.11

                           HOW MUCH?!?(con.)


Shelter   - $120  tarps instead of plastic sheeting
Light     - $480  24 good flashlights, 2 fluor. & 20 yr cells
Water     -  $40  more water storage
Food       - $120  a bigger bag of candy and 24 MREs
Sani.     -  $70  5 box toilets and paper, 1 solar sink & soap
Heat/cool -  $92  cold & heat packs,10 each, 24 space blankets
Medical   - $200  various
Communi.  - $104  another radio and better batteries
Safety    - $144  26 units purchased wholesale

    TOTAL $1,370       PER PUPIL WORTH  $7.02


Shelter  - $300  used army tent with poles and stakes
Light    - $550  33 good FL's,4 fluor.,20 yr cells & 12 cyalumes
Water    - $110  more purifiers & storage, acti. charcoal filter
Food     - #350  100 MREs
Sani.    -  $92  3 box toilets, 2 sinks, 1 shower
Heat/cool- $364  20 each cold & heat packs, 36 blankets & 24 bags
Medical  - $400  various
Communi. - $156  another radio for the audio portion of TV VHF
Safety   - $268  26 Cap-Stuns + a signal flare gun with 4 flares

 TOTAL   $2,590       PER PUPIL WORTH  $13.29


Shelter  - $500  a used military tent
Light    - $826  as above plus 12 Mag-Lites and 24 cyalumes
Water    - $300  as above plus microfiltration unit
Food      - $800  250 MREs plus a few freeze dried meals
Sani.    - $424  3 toilets, 3 sinks,2 showers, 10-5 gal bags
Heat/cool- $425  above + kerosene lantern or immersion heater
Medical  -$1000  various
Communi. - $350  as above plus one 40 chan. SSB CB
Safety   - $600  as above plus a sidearm with gunsafe

 TOTAL   $5,225       PER PUPIL WORTH  $26.80

                        HOW MUCH?!?(con.)

                        (see EQUIPMENT OPTIONS for details)
Shelter   - $75,000  
Light      -  $1,500
Water      -  $2,000
Food       - $10,000  3,500 MREs, OR 1 year of Morman 4 $62,500
Sani.     -  $3,000
Heat/cool -  $5,000
Medical   -  $5,000
Communi.  -  $3,000   as above plus EMP protectors, ant.& tower
Safety     -  $1,500   as above plus longarm and safe for longarm

  TOTAL    $106,000        PER PUPIL WORTH  $543.59

               (see EQUIPMENT OPTIONS & Appendix #2 for details)
Shelter   -$200,000             
Light      -  $5,000
Water      -  $4,000
Food       - $80,000  1 yr. of Kearney diet + freeze dried foods
Sani.     -  $6,000
Heat/cool - $10,000
Medical   - $20,000  estimate is probably too low
Communi.  -  $7,000
Safety     -  $5,000

   TOTAL   $337,000      PER PUPIL WORTH   $1,728.21


     If the staff and faculty are expected to care for our
children during the first phase of an emergency, we parents
should, at least, provide materials for the care of the faculty
and staff.
     In order for normal school functions to resume as soon as
possible, it is in our best interests to minimize the effects of
an emergency on the home lives of the faculty and staff.  It is
fairly unlikely that staff and faculty members are personally
prepared for a major quake.  It would be advantageous to develop
emergency packs for them.  Stored at the school, these packs
would be taken by the faculty and staff when they return home.
     For faculty and staff who live far away, volunteer parents
should arrange temporary housing until normal transportation
becomes available.
     The following would be in the pack the 33 faculty and
staff would carry home with them.
     They represent a strictly MINIMUM kit to be upgraded and
expanded as time and funds permit. A few upgrade items are
listed in ().

Crystalline iodine water purification kit
Trash sack for expedient poncho (heavy duty military poncho)
Trash sack to carry all items in (backpack - medium ALICE, no frame)
How to live without utilities book NUCLEAR WAR SURVIVAL SKILLS
Aluminized mylar sleeping bag 
Aluminized mylar 5 gallon water container
Box/bag/disinfectant for expedient toilet
Zip-lock bag, large for large items
Zip-lock bag, small for small items
1 MRE (2, 3 or more)
Flashlight with batteries & spare bulb (Mag-lite with 20 year cells)
Matches, water resistant (lifeboat matches)
Trioxane cooking fuel tabs

For a minimal kit TOTAL $1,980   $60 per kit

For partially upgraded kit  TOTAL $3,894  $118 per kit

    For a more thorough look at emergency kits, review the
various kits available from Preparedness Products Inc. and The
Emergency Lifeline Inc.  Also, various survivalist recommended
backpacks lists and lists of home survival suppllies are
available from Ken Seger.



     Many small modifications can be made that will reduce
injury and property loss for a small expenditure of time and
material.  The best way to accomplish minor retrofits would be
to examine all rooms, hallways, closets and storage areas and
consider what would happen if there was a sudden horizontal or
vertical acceleration. 
     For each area an inventory sheet should be made with two
main categories: physical injury and property loss. Each of these
categories having a major threat and minor threat division.  For
example, under major injury: the need to secure tall, top-heavy
bookcases, filing cabinets that could cause injury on impact, or
water heaters, kilns or kitchen equipment that could generate a
fire or explosion.  Under minor threat: the need to secure frames
that have glass or computer printers.  Under major property: the
need to secure computer equipment, copiers, video equipment,
heating and cooling devices, etc.  Under minor property: the need
to secure records, and other breakables.
     While Mr. Yokley most certainly has the ability to effect
these improvements, having the time to implement them, in
addition to normal services within normal working hours, is
unlikely.  His terms of employment could be expanded if he is
willing and finances are available, or a task force of moms and
dads handy with tools could come in on scheduled weekends. 


    Both the necessity and the feasibility of major retrofits
on the structures need to be studied by a qualified engineer or
architect. Carmen Johnson has lists of publications that might
aid this activity. If one of the Rossman parents is qualified
for this activity, and is willing to waive their fee, the school
should purchase any needed materials and reimburse expenses. 


     If Rossman parents, faculty and staff were typical people,
the results of viewing this information would be, "Yup that's a
good idea. Somebody should do some of that stuff sometime.", and
that would be the end of it.  We would continue at our current
state of unpreparedness.
     Rossman people are not typical people. Otherwise, Rossman
would not be the unique quality institution that it is.
     I am certain that all of us would like to see the children
of Rossman have the same chance of surviving an emergency that a
Swiss child has. Unfortunately our society does not place as
great an emphasis on safety as the Swiss do.  If we did, this
report would be unnecessary.
     Unlike the Swiss, we can not expect funding from either the
Federal, State, county or city government.  Like everything else
at Rossman, if we want it done, we need to do it ourselves.
     While manhours and funds can, and will, be made available
for preparedness, their amount is not unlimited.  Therefore, we
should first put our time and money into items that will make the
greatest amount of difference. This would be the area of medical
     While food and shelter are quite important, a child can die
from a sucking chest wound or cut blood vessel much faster than
they can from hypothermia or starvation.  After the possible
critical injury needs have been prepared for, attention should be
paid to items that can afford the greatest amount of safety for
the least amount of time and money.  This would be shelter from
the elements.
     After this need has been at least minimally prepared for,
the remaining topics can be covered as time and money permit.
 Please note that much of the equipment can provide great utility
at very low cost. Example, portable lighting items for each staff
member will cost at minimum over $100, whereas sanitation
requirements for human waste can be dealt with for less than $30.
     A wildcard that can frustrate preparedness planning is the
arrival of additional people not considered part of the original
plan.  This problem has two aspects.  First, while it is hoped
"more hands make lighter work", those hands are attached to a
body that needs food, water, sanitation, shelter, and perhaps,
medical attention.  Second, the additional individuals will not
have taken part in the preparedness training.  This places an
added burden on managers to maintain control and perform
expedient training during the emergency.

                     RECOMMENDATIONS (con.)

     Since the individuals are outside of the system, their sense
of willingness and ability to follow orders may be less than
ideal if not outright disruptive.  Care should be taken not to
offend others who desire shelter as they may be ideal candidates
for various tasks that one does not want to employ the trained
staff and faculty on, such as, menial tasks, scouting, heavy
labor, etc.
     Discrete inquires should be made to nearby populations such
as Lucky Lane and Missouri Baptist College to determine their
level of planning.  If their attitude towards preparedness
planning is positive, then a possibility of combining resources
and purchasing power would be very advantageous to all parties.
If their attitude towards preparedness is negative, pains should
be taken to denote the limited scope of Rossman resources.
      The illustrated degrees of preparedness, are meant to
demonstrate the  different levels of preparedness available.
Sticking to one level on all topics cannot be assumed to be the
most effective use of money. Depending on varying opinions as
to the degree of need in each area, different topics can be
prepared for at different levels.
     As stated in the overview, these notes are merely a
framework for discussion.  Cost estimates of different levels
should be used like a menu for a 7 person dinner at a Chinese
restaurant.  Choose one appetizer, one soup, several entrees
and one dessert.  The mix of preparedness levels will be
determined by the perceived degree of need.


     After this information folder has been presented to Mrs.
Betz, and she has had time to read and digest the material
herein, a demonstration of the various survival supplies and
kits may be necessary so she will have a clearer idea of the
concepts involved. From thereon Mrs. Betz can determine the best
course of action.
     Some suggested courses of actions might be: duplicating this
folder for the Board of Directors, arranging a demonstration of
survival supplies for the Board of Directors after they have had
the time to study this folder or requesting a smaller folder be
constructed for faculty, staff and parents.
     It should be pointed out that this folder, with its glossary
and supply source list, is very useful as a source book for
individuals who wish to improve their home preparedness;
therefore, it is hoped that it will be distributed in its present


     Ultimately, there are two sets of information folders that
may need to be created for the preparedness plan.  One set for
information before a disaster and another for use during the

Preparing for disaster: This set of folders should contain
informational checklists to help various people and groups
prepare to mitigate the effects of a disaster.  Obvious targets
would be the various task force members, faculty and staff and
parents who wish to enhance their home preparedness level.
Each folder should include a bibliography of additional
information resources.

Executing preparedness plans: During a disaster, everybody's
adrenaline is up and people who could recite their disaster plans
backward and forward on a typical day are incapable of
remembering the priorities of their own plan under the extremely
stressful circumstances.  Instead of a bulky folder that might be
misplaced or not carried along due to its size, a laminated 3"x5"
or larger card with the essentials printed on both sides might be
very helpful. This could be put in a glove compartment, taped to
the CB, etc.
     A similar card, stating in simple terms how to use the
supplies, should be included in the preparedness supplies.
     While it is tempting to use 8 point or smaller type face and
make the card an encyclopedic warehouse of information, it should
be remembered that the card is not intended to be used under
                    SUGGESTED ACTIONS (con.)

ideal conditions, but under the worst possible conditions where
lost or broken eyeglasses or with a flashlight whose batteries
should have been replaced many months ago might be the case.


    Since Parent's Club meetings already have a full agenda, a
separate evening meeting of parents who wish to become involved
in school disaster preparedness would probably be best.  Those
parents who choose to come should be given this folder several
days before the meeting so topics can be covered more fully.
     One of the more important aspects of that, and subsequent,
preparedness meetings, would be the creation and activation of
various parent task forces. These task forces would carry out
the needed activities to implement whatever level of preparedness
is desired. Below is a list of some of the possible task forces.

     RETROFITTING - This could consist of several teams
     depending on skills. One team could catalog retrofits
     concerning the contents of the building.  Another team
     could implement the recommendations of the first.  If
     there are parent volunteers who have the training, a
     study of the present building's seismic fragility could
     be made.  If not, this would have to be contracted out.

     PURCHASING AGENTS - Most of the prices of preparedness
     items are listed at retail.  Very little price
     reduction can be effected on items purchased in small
     quantities.  However, on items purchased in quantities
     of one-half or one full gross, a sizable discount might
     be available if purchased directly.

     CB NETWORK - If the school purchases a 40 chan. SSB CB,
     it would be helpful to have a network of parents who
     have similar equipment.  Ideally each node of the
     network would be located a significant distance from
     each other throughout the area of parents homes so that
     each Rossman parent would know whom they could go
     to for communication with the school.  A primary,
     secondary and tertiary channel should be for school to
     parent communication.  Another set of channels should
     be established for parent to parent communication.
     This might be especially needed if certain nodes have
     difficulty communicating directly with the school.

                    SUGGESTED ACTIONS (con.)

     PORTABLE PHONE NETWORK- While the CB network would be
     totally independent of utilities, there is a
     possibility that car and handheld phone service might
     either be uneffected or the first to be repaired.
     This network would not be as reliable as the CB
     network, but if it is available it would be of great

     KIT MAKERS - These people will create and assemble the
     various kits.

     TEMPORARY HOUSING - These would be volunteers who would
     agree to house students, faculty, and staff who have
     difficulty getting home after most others have left.
     These might be considered way stations for traveling
     home.  These volunteers should have stored bedding,
     water, food, sanitation and shelter for the number of
     people they choose to house.

     4WD OWNERS - Since transportaion might be quite a
     problem if the quake is large enough, a volunteer group
     of owners of 4 wheel drive vehicles with adequate
     ground clearance should arrange an expanded carpool
     based on the capability of their vehicle.  One
     possibility would be a shuttle service from school to
     the way station houses to reduce the distance parents
     without 4WD would have to go to pick up their children
     should transportation be limited to 4WD in certain
     areas.  Establishing this emergency carpool would also
     be a good idea if there were ever a blizzard-like storm
     in which 2WD travel becomes difficult. 

                    SUGGESTED ACTIONS (con.)


     It should be very clearly stressed that financing for
preparedness be above and beyond normal school finances.  It
simply won't work for a parent to say, "Well, this year I'll
give to the preparedness fund instead of annual giving."
This will not work.  Annual giving supports the day to day
operation of the school.  The endowment giving is strictly for
the endowment fund.  Any donations to the preparedness fund
needs to be above and beyond normal giving patterns least the
rest of the school functions suffer.
     The funds for preparedness should be considered similar to
a single premium insurance policy.  Funds to purchase an item
that will need to be replaced in five years are similar to a
single premium 5 year term non-renewable policy.  Funds for an
item that will last for decades would be like a single premium
paid life policy.
     A PREPAREDNESS PLAN IS INSURANCE.  If you are fortunate
enough not to have cause to use it, it was an unnecessary
purchase.  But it is too late to purchase it after the need
arises.  What you purchase is piece of mind.  By having a
preparedness plan implemented, each parent knows they have
fulfilled their moral obligation to care for their child to the
best of their ability.

                        CLOSING COMMENTS

     This paper can not possibly convey all of the information
needed to create a preparedness system.  There are many fine
texts available from various sources that the serious student
of preparedness should study. Demonstrations of survival products
are available from Ken Seger by appointment.
     Ken Seger does not sell or have any economic interest in
any sales of survival supplies. While Ken Seger is a Certified
Survival Instructor for LIVE FREE, the material presented here,
or in any demonstrations, are strictly Ken Seger's personal
viewpoints and opinions and do not necessarily represent the
     Ken Seger can be contacted at 763 Haw Thicket Lane, Des
Peres,Mo 63131 or (314)821-9147 (voice line).

     Preparedness planning necessitates working around a big
"Catch 22".  If the quake is small, the extensive preparations
are not needed. Utilities are all intact, police, EMTs,
hospitals, ambulances and other emergency services are all
there, but not needed.  If the quake is large, no amount of
preparedness planning will be able to solve every single
problem.  Utilities, police, EMTs, hospitals, ambulances and
other emergency services will all be desperately needed, but
     Planning for the worst case, can lead to, what may be
considered,  "overdoing it".  If all disasters occurred under
ideal conditions, preparedness planning, and the attendant
expenses, would be greatly reduced.  Real life situations rarely
have easy answers. 



                   ON THE TOPIC OF NUCLEAR WAR

     Why should books and videos on the subject of nuclear war
be included here?
      1) A confidence building mechanism.  If a teacher
     acquires the knowledge and skills to survive a full
     scale nuclear war, they then know that surviving a much
     smaller catastrophe like a major earthquake is
     certainly within their capabilities.
     2) It focuses the mind on what is and (perhaps more
     importantly) what is not needed for survival.
     3) To put our activities in perspective.  1/4th of the
     world's population has effective Civil Defense (the
     U.S. does not).  There do exist other cultures that are
     willing to dedicate more manpower and money to
     protecting their children than we do at present.  When
     comparing their preparations to the ones that we are
     considering, our efforts are not that expensive or
     4) A realization that the topic of emergency
     preparedness, if it is to cover one situation in a
     thorough manner, must cover all aspects of emergencies.
     To a large extent the techniques and research that are
     helpful to earthquake preparedness stem from developing
     the technology and skills to survive a nuclear war.
     It is useful to know how a techinique evolved, rather
     than to simply know the answer. 
     5) Thinking about a nuclear war is an excellent method
     of making a checklist of needed skills and materials
     for other disasters.  By comparing the needs of
     surviving a nuclear war with the needs of a lesser
     emergency you can make more effective use of time and
     material.  There are many survivalists who have
     absolutely no expectation of a nuclear war; however,
     they prepare for one as a method of preparing for
     future emergencies they do expect to occur.  If you
     are prepared for a nuclear war, you are prepared for
     anything else that might happen.
     6) If the estimates by the CIA do come true, and there
     are 20 nations in the year 2000 that have
     InterContinental Ballistic Missiles (in comparison to
     the current 5), then this small, limited introduction
     will be of assistance to any additional steps of
     preparedness that may be chosen in the future.  


     The Swiss have the best all-hazards preparedness system in
the world, followed closely by the Scandinavian countries, USSR,
Red China, and Israel.
     Below are some specification extracted verbatim from
Federal Swiss law.
     The shelter shall not exceed 5% of total building cost,
excluding the purchase of ground (as per Swiss Federal Law
8 - 1) with the Federal government providing 30-70% costs of
building and equipment (same law  Article 5 - 1) with canton
(state) and community (city) assuming the remaining costs (same
law Article 6-1). Shelter spaces shall be 2/3rds the number of
seats in school as per Swiss Federal Department of Justice and
Police, Office of Civil Defense - Technical Directive for the
Construction of Private Air Raid Shelters 15 November 1966
Chapter - upgraded to one space per person as per Report
of the Federal Council to Parliament on the 1971 Conception of
Civil Defense 11 August, 1971 Chapter 4.3.4 with one fully
protected space for each member of the nation by 1985/1990.
As per Technical Directives etc. 1966 there shall be per shelter
space - from - 10.8 sq ft floor space, 88 cu ft volume,
10.8 sq ft per ventilator, 0.54 sq ft floor space for air lock,
0.76 sq ft for decontamination room - from the shelter
shall be divided into gas tight cells each containing a maximum
of 50 people with a total capacity of 200 persons. Several
shelter groups may be situated next to or on top of each other
if decentralization is not possible - from if shelter has
101-200 spaces separate decontamination and air rooms are
mandatory - from for 101-200 place there shall be at
minimum 1 category I escapeway, 1 or 2 (depending on cell
configuration) category II escapeshaft(s) and 1 category IV
escapetube with all entrances, exits and ventilation openings
able to withstand 1 ATM  ie. a Hiroshima level of blast
(12KiloTon) at 0.4 mile <0.2 miles>, a 100 KiloTon blast at 0.8
miles <0.4 miles>, a 1 MegaTon blast at 1.6 miles <0.9 miles> or
10 MegaTon blast at 1.6 miles <0.9 miles>.
     All laws and technical construction notes are available
from the Federal Office for Civil Defense, WRITTEN IN ENGLISH,
in Berne, Switzerland.
          The inclusion of the above information is to put a small
earthquake preparedness plan into perspective as far as what
can and what can not be done.
     Please note that the Swiss system is NOT just a theoretical
abstraction of what should be done.  There are fallout shelters
for over 115% of the Swiss population and fallout/blast/biochem
shelters for 90+% of the Swiss population installed and
operational as of 1988.

    (Please note; some of these prices might be out of date)
40 channel SSB CB - $160 with antenna and battery pack, Santa Fe
     Distributing,  14400 West 97th Terrace, Lenexa,KS 66215
     orders only 1-800-255-6595
45 ACP revolver & shotshells - used $150, refurbished $200, new
Activated charcoal filter - depends on size and packaging
     $30-60, SI
Aluminized mylar blanket - Ie."space blanket" $3 from Cabela's,
     812-13th Ave., Sidney,NE 69160  orders only 1-800-237-4444
Aluminized mylar sleeping bag - Ie. "space" bag $9 Cabela's
AM/FM radio - small unit that runs on AA or C cells $5-10 any
     discount store larger units that run on D cells have better
     sound since they have considerably larger loudspeakers, $40
AM/FM radio, solar/generator powered - $30 from Preparedness
AM/FM/TV radio - as above with TV audio band $20-30
Ammo cans, military - smalls $3-10, larges $15-50, many stores
Audiotape, How to Survive a Major Earthquake, 32 min. $5.00 The
     Emergency Lifeline,1514 E. Edinger, Suite 1, Santa Ana,CA
     92705 (714)558-8940
Book, Emergency/survival Handbook by the American Outdoor Safety
     League, $3.45 from Preparedness Products, 3855 South 500
     West, Bldg. G, Salt Lake City,UT   84115  (801)261-8823
Book, The Preparedness Handbook $2.40 from Preparedness Products
Book, Reader's Digest First Aid Book $1.25 from Prepared. Prod.
Book, Earthquake Preparedness $4.00 from The Emergency Lifeline
Brinkman (imitation Mag-Lite) (3 D cells) Wal-Mart $18
Cap-stun - $10-25 in 5 different sizes, Phoenix Systems Inc
     P.O. Box 3339, Evergreen,CO 80439 for individual sales,
     Guardian Security Products Dept.SH-3 8350 North 7th Street,
     Phoenix,AZ 85020 for $144 26 unit package
Cyalume sticks - 12 hour 10/$10 from Sierra Supply P.O.Box 1390,
     Durango,CO  81302, $2.50 other sources
D cells standard - Wal-Mart $3/8 cells
D cells alkaline - Wal-Mart $5/6 cells
D cells 20 year - $228/96 cells The Emergency Lifeline, 1425
     Culver Drive, Suite A-474, Irvine,CA 92714 (714)558-8940
EMP protector - $35 Kootenai Radio & Energy, best prices in USA, Box 215,
     Kootenai, Idaho 83840  Also has solar panels and radios.
Flare gun - $80, shells $11 from Phoenix Systems Inc.
Flashlight, incandescent, plastic, cheap -  Any $2
Flashlight, incandescent, plastic, good quality - Any store $6
Fluorescent lantern - Wal-Mart Ray-O-Vac $20
Gas valve shut-off wrench, domestic $5.29 from Preparededness
     Products or $8.50 from Emergency Lifeline

APPENDIX #3 (con.)

Generator flashlight - $7  from   S.I. Outdoor, Food, &
     Equipment, P.O.Box 3796, Gardena,CA 90247 orders 
     1-800-533-7415, questions (213)324-8855 or 324-8859
Gunsafe, suitable for storing sidearms, $70 at most gun stores
Gunsafe, suitable for longarms, $150 at gun stores,
     $110 on sale at BEST Store
Hassock style portapotty - $40 from SI
Immersion heater - used $25 from  Bob Lewis Army Surplus
     or new $80 Graingers
Instant cold pack - Walgreens $2 on sale
Instant hot pack - $7.95/6 Cabela's, or $2 at Walgreens
Iodine generator - crystalline "Polar Pure" $8.49  Indiana Camp
     Supply, P.O.Box 211, Hobart,IN 46342 (21)947-2525 
     ***This item could be produced for $2 each in lots of 50***
Katadyn water filter - $180 (1987 price sheet) Kootenai Radio &
     Energy Systems Box 215 Kootenai,Idaho 83840 (they sell US
     distributor direct and are the least expensive source in
     the US for many radio, solar, & survival supplies)
Kearney Diet - See Nuclear War Survival Skills, approx. $250 for
     adult/year depending on type of packing (a discount from
     30-70% for large quantities)
Krypton bulb - $3 for standard or alkaline batteries, $6 for
     ni-cads, (per pair) Spartan Supply box 310 Hixson,TN 37343
Mace - common non-lethal temporary anti-personal spray $15/unit
Maglite (3 D cells) - Wal-Mart $20, Spartan Supply $16
Matches, water resistant - 96 boxes/$20 BW trading,box 692,
     Newark,OH 43055
Matches, life boat - 25 matches per vial, 5 vials/$10, Brigade
     Quartermasters, 1025 Cobb International Blvd., Kennesaw,
     GA 30144-4300 orders 1-800-228-7344, (BQ never has the
     lowest price, but in MANY cases they have quality equipment
     that can be found no where else)
Metal garbage can - Builder's Square $9, or other hardware store
Morman 4 - approx. $200 for adult/yr.(discount on large orders)
Morman 4 + 40 - approx. $300 per adult/year    (ditto)
MRE - 50/$150 from Sierra  Supply, Box 1390, Durango,CO 81302
MR8 - 50/$130 from Brigade Quartermasters
Nuclear War Survival Skills $10.95 each, or $80.00 for 10, plus
     postage (10%) Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine,
     P.O.Box 1279, Cave Junction,OR    (503)592-4142
Oak Ridge Laboratory Hazard-mitigating house plans - 1,200,
     1,400, or 3,400 sq ft set of blueprints $25 from TACDA The
     American Civil Defense Association Box 1057 Starke,FL 32091
     (904)964-5397 phone, (904)964-9641 FAX
Plastic, 5 mil, Rolls - various sizes, $10-30, any hardware store
Portable sink - $30 Cabela's or Preparedness Products
PVC - Any plumbing supply store, price is relative to diameter
Rope, polyester - 50ft. 3/16" (#6) $4 any good hardware store
APPENDIX #3 (con.)

"solar" shower - $17 Cabela's
"space blanket" - See Aluminized mylar
"space" sleeping bag - See Aluminized mylar
Tarp, polyethylene - 5'x7' $3, 6'x8' $4, 8'x'10' $7, 8'x12' $8,
     10'x12' $10, 10'x18' $15, 10'x30' $24, 12'x18' $18,
     14'x24' $27, 15'x 30' $36, 20'x20' $32 20x40' $64, 26'x 40'
     $84, 40'x40' $128, 50'x50' $200 Pool Surplus P.O.Box 370
     Benton,AR 72015
Tarpurethane, coated nylon, double seams, triple folded sides -
  5'x7' $18,  7'x9' $25, 8'x10' $32 Indiana Camp Supply
Tents, used with no poles or tent stakes  - 12' x 15' $200, 17'
     octagonal $250, 16' x 32' $350, 18' x 50' $500 Bob Lewis
     Army Surplus, Rt. 19, Box 162, Lebanon,MO 65536
     (417)532-9657   9 miles south on Highway 5
Tents, new with poles & floor, no stakes - 12' x 14' $635,
      16' x 18' $1.015  B&B Gun Sales, Rt. 2, Box 244,
     Groesbeck,TX 76642 (817)729-2631, other sizes too.
Trioxane fuel tabs - $1.50 a box, discount for larger orders
      Infinity Self-Reliance Center, Box 382, Columbia,MO 65205
Uberlebens Nahrung - not available in the USA
Videotape, Fast Food Storage, - $7.00 from Preparedness Products
Videotape, Nuclear War Survival Skills-  1-4 371 minutes $30
     each or set for $95  Oregon Institute of Science and
     Medicine, Box 1279, Cave Junction, OR 97523
Videotape, Practical Preparedness - 64 minutes $30 from TACDA
Videotape, Soviet Civil Defense 1-7 - 624 minutes - $30 each,
     set of 7 for $145 Available from and 1989 Copywright by
     Cave Junction, Oregon 97523 (503)592-4142
Water bag, 5 gal with tap, box, human waste bag and disinfectant
     - 5 for $29 Preparedness Products 80 So. Redwood Road -
     Suite 215, North Salt Lake City Utah 84054  (801)292-3481



     BBSs (computerized "Bulletin Board System" accessible via
and computer, modem, and phone line)
     Literally thousands of pages of additional information are
available at no charge by calling with computer/modem, KEN'S
SURVIVALISTS' BBS 300/1200/2400 bps 24 hours per day, 7 days per
week (except for maintenance routines) at (314)821-2815.  All
brands of computers are welcome with adjustable characters per
line and lines per page or continuous readout for all monitors.
All text files can be "TYPE"d with adjustable line length or
downloaded with any of eight different protocols (seven with
 intelligent error correcting).
     ExecuNet is a BBS service, prices start at $25/yr, in
Illinois which has most of the files found on Ken's
Survivalists' plus other files of interest to survivalists.
Many of ExecuNet's additional files can be found on Ken's
Survivalists' under the ews area under ExecuNet Files.
     Please check with ExecuNet for latest listing. is a full
service system with 6 simultaneous phone line abilities at
(618)397-4569, via P.C. Pursuit long distance service at
(618)451-5074, and in St. Louis, MO at (314) 772-9409.


     Here are some newslettersand magazines of interest to
     DIRECTIONS  - monthly  newsletter of LIVE FREE,  $15.00
per year,$200 lifetime  - 12/yr.   Box 1743 Harvey,IL 60426
LIVE FREE is Jim Jones's organization and has been around for
over 25 years.  Articles cover all areas,  mostly  member
submitted ,emphasis is on do it yourself and small group.
Once you are a member you can also purchase the LIVE FREE papers
and booklets.  LIVE FREE sponsors many seminars and
get-to-gethers every year.
     SELF RELIANCE GROUP - monthly newsletter, $10/yr 1355 N.
McCarran  Reno,NV 89512, mostly reprints from ASG, and other
     THE LIGHT SPECTRUM - $18/6 issues/yr.  Box 215 Kootenai,
Idaho 83840 THE SOURCE for info on solar panels and
     SURVIVAL TOMORROW - $48/12 issues/yr. 910 Merlin,OR
97532  Homestead and do it your self oriented.  Very good.
     USEFUL INFORMATION - $20/6 issues Box 3132 West Palm Beach,
FL 33402  Excellent, from woodsman, civil defense advocate David
Lobdell.  Also sells booklets How to build a 20 person permanent
concrete fallout shelter for under $2,000. - $6, and How to live
through a nuclear war - $16
APPENDIX #4 (con.)

     FIGHTING CHANCE - $60/12 issues/yr. Box 1279 Cave Junction,
OR 97523 Emphasis on steel-walled blast shelters.
     AMERICAN SURVIVAL GUIDE (ASG) - $22/12 - $39/24, 12 issues
per yr. McMullen Publishing, P.O.Box 15690, Santa Ana,CA
92705-0690 Large magazine covering all areas, tends to cater
favorably to advertisers in its product review.
     JOURNAL OF CIVIL DEFENSE - $18/yr. $34/2 yrs. 6 issues/yr.
ASSOCIATION's (TACDA) bi-monthly magazine. THE civil defense
advocate magazine!  Sells blueprints for shelters and banked
earth houses.
     THE TACDA ALERT - $8/6 issues/yr. TACDA's newsletter. You
can get both newsletter and magazine with $35/yr membership.
     AUSTRALASIAN SURVIVOR - $18(US$)/4 issues/yr Box 11,
Dickson A.C.T. 2602 Australia   Emphasis on on free enterprise,
tool making, black smithing, hand built milling machines, etc.
     SPECIAL REPORT SERVICE - $49(US$) Periodic reports from
Bruce Silbey on various civil defense topics. Available from
Waddington, Lincolnshire, LN5 9LZ, England.  His excellent book
SURVIVING DOOMSDAY is available from here at $15 US.

             Back issues of now defunct newsletters
     Duncan Long's newsletters - last 12 issues $1.50 each -
available from LIVE FREE
     Practical  Civil  Defense - Bruce Silbey's  old  magazine.
$63(US$ ppd.) for all three years  VERY authoritative! Excellent
resource for nuclear war preparedness. (see SPECIAL REPORT
SERVICE for address)
     Personal Survival Letter - Mel Tappan's old newsletter
available from SI Box 3796,Gardena,CA 90247
     Foresight - Dick Oster's old newsletter available from
LIVE FREE via Ken Sarabok.
   There are many other survivalist newsletters but these are the most
widely read.

The Survivalist Pledge

To help all that can be helped,
To defend all that can be defended,
To save all that can be saved,
To free all that seek freedom,
To stay alive as long as I can and stay free as long as I live.



40 channel SSB CB - Citizen's Band radio (no licensing
     requirements) with 40 channels in AM, 40 channels in Upper
     side band, and 40 channels in Lower side band.
     Conventional CBs have just the 40 AM channels, which will
     probably be clogged in an emergency.
     purchased and registered by an individual.  Even with
     conventional ammo a pistol is only useful as a short range
     weapon.  The use of shotshell converts the pistol into what
     amounts to a short range .410 shotgun and is ideal for
     rodent, snake, and small animal control.  A shotgun is
     unwieldy and bulky.  The shotshell is also powerful enough
     to be useful in controlling criminals.
Activated charcoal filter - water filter to remove chemically
     reactive pollutants and is most effective if the water has
     first passed through filter paper to reduce turbidity.
Aluminized mylar blanket Ie."space blanket" - Extremely compact
     and lightweight (though very noisy) mylar sheet that has
     been coated with an aluminum film which will reflect 80% of
     body heat, will not allow wind to pass through.
Aluminized mylar sleeping bag  Ie. "space" sleeping bag -
     same as above but in the size and shape of a sleeping bag
     instead of a flat sheet.
AM/FM radio - It would be nice if radio selection could be
     limited to units that either use D cells or for which
     external D cell adaptors could be made.  This would reduce
     the need to inventory different battery sizes and also
     extend the number of hours of use of the unit before
     battery replacement is needed.  Unfortunately most D cell
     portable radios are large and expensive.  An excellent
     alternative is an AM/FM radio that has self contained solar
     cells, hand powered generator, and integral nickel cadmium
AM/FM/TV radio - As above but can receive the voice portion of
     VHF TV
Ammo cans, military - heavy, durable, air and watertight steel
     or plastic boxes of all sizes and shapes.  Useful for
     storing all manner of items.
Audiotape, How to Survive a Major Earthquake, 32 minutes - a
     good  introduction to the topic of earthquake preparedness
Brinkman (imitation Mag-Lite) - My experience with flashlights
     that look like Mag-Lites but are a few dollars cheaper has
     been a disaster.  A waste of money.
Cap-stun - the best of many brands of non-lethal debilitating

                         GLOSSARY (con.)

Cyalume sticks - a photochemical light source which, while not
     very bright, produce no heat or sparks during operation or
     activation and are totally waterproof in storage,
     activation, and use.  Completely soft plastic with no sharp
     or hard edges and can't generate sparks by being bumped
     against other materials.  Handy eyelet for attachment.
     There are 12 hour versions that are fair for 2-3 hours and
     dim, but bright enough for identifiers for the remaining
     time.  There are 1 hour or 30 minute versions where a
     brighter light is needed for a short time.  Available in
     red, green, blue, yellow, and white.
D cells standard - normal carbon zinc batteries.  Cheap, but
     prone to leakage need to be rotated every few years.
D cells alkaline - alkaline battery.  Cost more but less likely
     to leak and have a five year 80% charge life.
D cells 20 year - a cell in which the chemical components are
     isolated from each other until the cap is twisted.  When
     activated, voltage & power is similar to a standard D cell.
D cell nickel-cadmium - popular rechargeable battery.  Only puts
     out 1.2 volts per cell (normal carbon-zinc or alkalines
     produce 1.5 volts).  Must be recharged frequently.  Acquires
     a charge limit if not fully charged after full or partial
     discharge which can only be normalized by full discharge
     and full recharge.  Has a very sharp discharge slope.  Ie.
     when it starts let a light go dim, it goes out quickly
     whereas other cells will continue to keep the light dim
     for a long time.
EMP - ElectroMagnetic Pulse - multifrequency radio wave capable
     of burning out solid state electronic components such as
     microchips and transistors.  EMP is caused by nuclear
     explosions.  If the nuclear explosion is inside the
     atmosphere, the EMP range is very small. If the explosion
     is outside the atmosphere, the radiation strikes the
     atmosphere and can create the EMP wave thousands of miles
     from the explosion.  One well placed explosion in orbit
     above Omaha could knock out all semiconductors from L.A.
     to N.Y.  This would cause a greater loss of life and
     property damage than a bomb going off in a single city and
     might be the next terrorist threat in the 21st century.
     EMP will be picked up by any item that can act like an
     antenna and conduct the EMP burst to equipment.  An EMP
     protector must be installed in series with  the antenna or
     power cord or phone line of any radio, computer or other
     solid state device which might operate in a nuclear war
     environment.  Lightning protectors are not useful against
     EMP as the rise time of EMP is MUCH faster than a
     lightning pulse.

                         GLOSSARY (con.)

Flare gun, shoots 26.5 mm NATO flares, 350' elevation, 6 sec.
     burn time
Flashligh, incandescent, plastic, cheap - assume 10% will break
     during use
Flashlight, incandescent, plastic, good quality - more durable,
     better lantern, battery operated which is much better than
     flashlights since they produce a greater quantity of light
     with less glare and better distribution than an
     incandescent at a lower drain rate on the batteries
Gas valve shutoff wrench - a wrench specially designed to turn
     off gas valves in emergencies that will not cause dangerous
     sparks and will not corrode if attached to the gas valve by
     rope to the gas valve or located near the gas valve under
     shrubbery if vandalism is likely, see Rope.
Generator flashlight - you squeeze a lever which turns a
     dynamo, you have to keep pumping for light, they are cheap
     and will wear out under heavy or careless use, unless you
     can find a military model
Gunsafe, suitable for storing sidearms, opens with adjustable
     push button code approx 4"x8"x12" and useful for storing
     various items
Gunsafe, suitable for longarms, opens with tubular key
     approx 1.5'x1'x4' and useful for storing all sorts of items
Hassock style portapotty - plastic drum with conventional
     toilet seat, more comfortable than box type but costs 5
     times as much, can be used for storing supplies when not
     in use
Immersion heater - kerosene powered water heater which is put
     inside metal garbage can, heats a lot of water very
     quickly to boiling
Instant cold pack - chemical pack that becomes cold upon
Instant hot pack - many styles, most are single use either
     continuous or can be put in air tight bag and "paused",
     costly ($20) style can be recharged
Iodine generator, crystalline - this consists of a small glass
     bottle with a lid the iodine won't dissolve, called a
     generator since you use it to create a saturated solution
     of iodine/water you add to a quart of water, under normal
     temperatures it will sterilize the water in 20 minutes.
Katadyn water filter - based on a ceramic microfiltration core
     that is so fine no living organism is small enough to pass
     through including giardia
Kearney Diet - the Morman 4 plus beans for better amino acid
     balance in proteins and a source of oil for essential fatty
     acids both of which is lacking in the Morman 4
Krypton bulb - produces a much brighter light than a standard
      incandescent bulb, use the krypton unit and save the normal
      flashlight bulb for a spare
                         GLOSSARY (con.)

Mace, or tear gas - traditional non-lethal non-permanent
     anti-personnel aerosols, there are better systems now
     available for the same price
Maglite flashlights (available in 2 AAA, 2 AA, 2,3,4,5,6,7 C,
      2,3,4,5,6 D cells) are made of machined aluminum and are
     more reliable and durable than plastic flashlights though
     they are more expensive.  The focus of the light beam is
     adjustable from spot to flood.  While they are advertised
     as waterproof, I would not trust them to be explosion proof.
Matches, water resistant - should work if damp, but not wet.
     They need a special striker surface to light in any case.
Matches, life boat - basically a heavy duty friction match
     dipped in a burnable varnish, when wet will light on any
     rough surface.
Metal garbage can - suitable for use with immersion heater
     which would melt the bottom out of a plastic garbage can
Morman 4 - survival rations developed by the Morman church of
     Latter Day Saints designed for economy and long shelf life,
     consists of wheat, sugar, salt, and dried milk.
Morman 4 + 40 - the Morman 4 plus 40 rotated canned goods for
     improved taste and variety
MRE - Meal Ready to Eat, retort packaged meal containing a full
     balanced meal for combat soldier, outer bag contains
     separate retorts of entree, crackers, cheese, jelly, candy,
     cocoa mix, and fruit depending on pack.  All packs contain
     accessory pack of toilet paper, pepper, salt, chewing gum,
     spoon.   Can be stored up to ten years under ideal
MR8 - NATO approved compact ration bar containing minimum daily
     diet requirements.  Neutral tasting, it can be eaten with
     or without water or heating.  It can be made into a drink or
     crumbled over other foods.  Each pack contains four
     individually packed two part portion with 1040 calories. The
     all vegtable source contains added sugar.  Protein 15.1%,
     Fats 14.9%, Carbo. 64.1%, Moisture 4.5%, Minerals 1.4%
Nuclear War Survival Skills book, 1987 version 282 pages with
     index - While the main point of this book is to teach you
     what to do before, during and after a nuclear war to
     survive, it is a great source of information on how to live
     without utilities for extended periods of time.  Unlike
     other survivalist books, the use and purchase of
     specialized survival equipment is not covered, instead, it
     illustrates how to create that special equipment from
     readily available common household items.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Hazard-mitigating house - a series
     of blueprints for constructing 1,200 sg ft.,1,400 sq.ft, and
     3,400 sq.ft. underground houses that can be converted to
     blast/fallout shelters with sandbags and railroad ties.

                         GLOSSARY (con.)

Plastic, 5 mil, Rolls - can be used to create tents, see
     Nuclear War Survival Skills book for proper technique
Portable sink - black plastic 5 gal. water container that is a
     sink, stoppered drain, and pump faucet, being black it will
     heat up water if left in the sun.
PVC - PolyVinyl Chloride pipe used in plumbing.  Available in
     1", 2", 3", 4", 6", 8".  Can be cut with a hacksaw to any
     length desired.  Glue a cap on one end and a screw base on
     the other. Coat threads with thread sealant, screw in cap
     and you have a wonderful lightweight, rust proof,
     non-corroding, air and water tight container, that will
     last for decades, for storing survival goods either above
     or below ground.
Rope, polyester - The best rope to use to secure your emergency
     gas wrench to your gas valve.  Unlike manila or sisal rope
     it won't rot when left wet,and it is less degraded by
     sunlight that nylon or polypropylene ("poly") rope. Rope is
     preferred over metal chain as metal chain could create a
     spark.  Be certain to leave plenty of slack in the rope to
     maneuver the wrench.  Storing the wrench in the basement is
     a bad idea because it may be inaccessible when needed.
     Securing the rope is advised if theft is likely.  To reduce
     theft, melting instead of tying a knot is advised.
"solar" shower - 2.5 or 5 gallon bag that is insulated on one
     side with foam and reflective barrier and clear on the
     other side.  It will heat water if left in the sun.  Top
     has loops and rod for hanging from tree branch and bottom
     has hose, valve, and shower head
"space blanket" - See Aluminized mylar
"space" sleeping bag - See Aluminized mylar
TANSTAAFL - There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch!
Tarps - poor man's tents running the gamut from worthless to
Tents - Used patched surplus Military tents are the best buy.
     You get twice the quality at 1/2 the price of new tents.
     They ARE heavy, but very good.
Trioxane fuel tabs - easy to light, burn very hot, compact,
     smokeless fuel for heating rations
Uberlebens Nahrung - Food powder formulated by Nestles for
     Swiss Civil Defense System.  Used for a beverage base,
     soup, gruel, or paste.
Videotape, Nuclear War Survival Skills 1-4 - While most of
     these tapes cover topics more appropriate for nuclear war
     or nuclear power accidents, they do cover a lot of
     information on how to live without utilities.
     Tape 1: Expedient Blast and Radiation Shelters (102 minutes)
     Tape 2: Shelter Ventilation and Various Other Survival
             Skills (78 minutes)

                        GLOSSARY (con.)p

        Videotape, Nuclear War Survival Skills 1-4 (con.)

     Tpae 3: Home-makeable and Commercial Fallout Radiation
             Meters (117 minutes)
     Tape 4: Nuclear War Facts as Told to Teenagers (74 minutes)
Videotape, Practical Preparedness - This is an EXCELLENT tape
     as it covers all aspects of what a home owner can do to
     live through a disaster situation in safety and comfort.
     If you view only one tape, make it this one. Total time
     64:00, Mains topics are heat, shelter, sanitation, food,
Videotape, Soviet Civil Defense 1-7 -  These tapes show the
     very extensive training and preparations being made by a
     culture that has a very low standard of living but devotes
     2% of its Gross National Product to Civil Defense.  It not
     only teaches survival skills but also is useful when
     comparing how the USSR, the Scandinavian Countries, Red
     China, Switzerland, Israel, and the USA treat preparation
     for disaster.
         Here is what is on the back cover of the tapes:
     "Civil defense in the Soviet Union is a $6 BILLION per year
     defense effort with 150,000 PAID PROFESSIONAL and 20
     MILLION VOLUNTEERS working to prepare Soviet citizens for
     civil defense procedures including the use of their $200
     West, Soviet civil defense constitutes an entire branch of
     the Soviet military and an important part of Soviet
     education with mandatory civil defense courses beginning
     in the 5th grade.
     Now the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, which
     distributes extensive written, audio, and video tape
     information on civil defense procedures and preparations,
     has produced this definative seven video tape series on
     Soviet Civil Defense.  The tapes feature extensive
     information from the leading American authority on Soviet
     civil defense, Dr. Leon Goure, 15 actual Soviet civil
     defense training filmstrips for adult training, and 2
     filmstrips prepared for use in Soviet 5th grade classes.
     With English translations in the soundtracks, these include:
        1. Injury from Fallout Radiation Can Be Avoided
        2. Actions in the Face of Nuclear Attack - The Main Point
           is Not to Panic
        3. The Shelter - A Dependable Means of Protection
        4. What You Must Know About Nuclear Weapons
        5. Learn How to Use Your Gas Mask
        6. The Danger of Bacteriological Weapons
        7. Blast Shelters, Fallout Shelters, and the Rules for
           Using Them (5th grade)

                         GLOSSARY (con.)

        8. Skillfully Respond to the Threat of Attack and to
           Warning Signals (5th Grade)
        9. Protecting Livestock
       10. Dealing with Public Utility Emergencies
       11. Fallout Shelters and How to Build Them
       12. How to Counteract Chemical Contamination
       13. Countering Pathogenic Bacteria
       14. Fire Fighting
       15. The Reception and Billeting of the Evacuating Population
       16. If the Siren Sounds
       17. After Departing the Area of Destruction
     Tape 1: Introduction and Interview of Dr. Leon Goure (97 m)
     Tape 2: Soviet Training Manuals, Books, & Journals -
             Section 1 (86 minutes)
     Tape 3: Journals - Section 2 and Soviet Training Film #1
             (81 minutes)
     Tape 5: Soviet Traing Films #7, 8, 9, 10, snd 11 (91 min)
     Tape 6: Soviet Training Films #12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 (89 m)
     Tape 7: Presentation by Dr. Leon Goure, Soviet Training
             Film #17, and Soviet Civil Defense Posters (92 m)"
Water bag, 5 gal with tap, box, human waste bag and disinfectant
     - 5 boxes that can be used for either storing, carrying,
     and stacking water bags or for box toilets with human
     waste bag and disinfectant. Water bag includes tap and is
     made from aluminized mylar, which unlike other plastic
     water containers, is totally opaque, to prevent internal
     growth of bacteria, and gas impermeable so water will not
     absorb surrounding chemicals, flavors or smells.  Water
     bag can hold 6 gallons when not in stacking box.