The Electric Auto that almost triumphed 2

           "The standard internal combustion engine was removed and an
            80-H.P. 1800 r.p.m electric motor  installed  to the clutch and

            The A.C.  motor  measured  40  inches  long and  30  inches  in
            diameter and the power leads were left standing in the air -
            no external power source!

            He then  went to a local radio store and purchased a handful of
            tubes (12), wires and assorted  resistors.   A box measuring 24
            inches long,  12  inches wide and 6 inches high  was  assembled
            housing the circuit.

            The box  was  placed  on  the  front  seat  and  had  its wires
            connected to the air-cooled, brushless motor.  Two rods 1/4" in
            diameter stuck out of the box about 3" in length."

       The mention of this experiment in a local paper kind of blew me away
       but it did give "some" detail of what  was  in this mysterious power

       We know that T.H. Moray had probably the best known  version of such
       a device.  In  his  case he used a special "valve" which appeared to
       be basically a diode.  Except this  diode  worked more like a Triac.
       That is, any  electrical  wave,  both  positive AND  negative  going
       currents, was picked  up by an antenna and passed through this diode
       with minimal loss of energy.  As  far  as  we  know,  this valve was
       based on a composite substance with GERMANIUM as the host material.

       From there it went through a tuned circuit based on vacuum tubes and
       capacitors to build  and  discharge the energy as  demanded  by  the

       The tuned circuits were resonant with one or more earth or cosmic

                                      Page 1

       frequencies and the  vacuum  tubes  acted  as  harmonic constructive
       interference amplifiers of the input signals.

       We will note that Moray's resonant  circuits  used CAPACITORS, COILS
       and RESISTORS.  Experiments  done  during Moray's heyday  showed  an
       output up to  50,000 Watts of high frequency energy.  It is believed
       that the energy was high frequency  because  100  watt  light  bulbs
       burned cool to the touch.

       One other CRITICAL POINT about Moray's converter was  that  it would
       ONLY energize RESISTIVE  loads  and  NOT  INDUCTIVE  loads.  This is
       because inductive loads imply coils of wire which are heated more so
       by HYSTERESIS (interferring  electro-magnetic  fields)  rather  than
       simple resistance from the flow of current through  molecular/atomic

       This type of   interferring   field  caused  an  energy  backup  and
       subsequent de-tuning of Moray's generator.  Since it was essentially
       a TUNED device, it could not compensate for any frequency changes or
       distortions ONCE TUNED.  As a result,  any  attempt  to  hook  up an
       inductive load would cause the device to stop generating  electrical
       energy.  To restart  it,  all inductive loading must be removed, the
       device re-tuned and restarted.

       Moray also used an unusual mode of  operation  for  a vacuum tube in
       that he operated  with  a "cold cathode."  This did  not  require  a
       heated plate for  the  "thermionic  emissions"  deemed  necessary to
       successful vacuum tube operation.

       There is also mention of radioactive elements in the antenna circuit
       which leads one  to  think  he  might  have  been  tuning  into  the
       continual radioactive decay processes of nature, rather  than cosmic
       or earth energies.
       Now to the Tesla Power Box

       We will first  of  all note the use of an AC coil motor.  This alone
       tells us that the Tesla device was  superior and not so dependent on
       tuning as was  Moray's  machine  which  could  only power  RESISTIVE
       loads.  All universal  energy  moves  in WAVES and so is essentially
       for alternating current (AC).  That  is  why  Moray  called his book
       "THE SEA OF ENERGY IN WHICH THE EARTH FLOATS".  The  entire universe
       is continually bathed in these AC energies and they cover the entire
       frequency spectrum.

       What intrigues the  hell out of me was how Tesla could use "off-the-
       shelf" vacuum tubes and other components,  put  them together in the
       correct configuration and make it work.

       Another point we should note is the list of components :

             1)  12 Vacuum Tubes
             2)  Wires
             3)  Assorted Resistors
             4)  1/4" diameter rods 3" in length

       NOTE, NO CAPACITORS!    The  wires  could  have  been   simply   for
       connection or wound  as  coils.   The 1/4" rods were either BUS BARS
       for power output taps OR more likely ANTENNAS!  Resonant circuits

                                      Page 2

       can be constructed  using  several  techniques.  You can achieve the
       same effect from :

             1)  Resistors AND capacitors
             2)  Capacitors AND coils
             3)  Coils AND resistors

       So, in the case of the Tesla Power  Box,  he  either  wound  his own
       coils or simply  used  the  wire to connect the resistors  with  the
       vacuum tubes.  I  am  of  the opinion that he used the wire ONLY for
       connection and DID NOT USE COILS!   I  also  think  he  used a DIODE
       somewhere in the circuit in order to tap ONLY one polarity.

       We have no specifications for the AC motor that Tesla  used  in  the
       auto, so we have no idea if it was single or polyphase.  In the case
       of a single  phase  motor,  it  only requires a single winding which
       projects a magnetic field that rotates  according to the increase or
       decrease of the alternating current.

       A polyphase (poly = two or more) motor uses multiple  windings which
       are fed by  phased input currents that alternate in such a manner as
       to reinforce each other.  In the  case  of  a  3  phase  motor,  the
       currents are phased  120  degrees  apart.  This gives  much  greater
       torque to the motor but requires 3 times the current because it uses
       3 times the input energy.

       Since the box  powered  an  AC  (coil)  motor, it is probable it was
       TUNED to one   or   more   frequencies,   most   likely   polyphased

       So, if the  3"  long  rods were in fact ANTENNAS, we  can  calculate
       their frequency by using the following :

          (I cannot express Lambda here so we will use w for wavelength)

                             w = wavelength
                             v = velocity of propagation
                             f = signal frequency

          a short example :  w = v / f = wavelength in feet
                             w = 984,000,000/1,500,000 = 656 feet
                             f = 984,000,000/656 = 1,500,000 or 1.5 MHZ

                             3 inches * 4  = 1 foot
                             984,000,000/1 = 984,000,000
                             984,000,000/4 = 246,000,000 or 246 MHZ

       This would indicate the 3" rods (if they were truly 3" in length and
       functioning as antennas) would resonate at 246 MHZ.

       Because of the  parts  list description, I am of the opinion that it
       was a DUAL circuit.  That is, 6 vacuum  tubes  and one 1/4" diameter
       3" rod along with assorted resistors were to pick up and "pump" ONLY
       the positive going signals, while the other 6 vacuum  tubes, rod and
       resistors did the  same  for  the  negative  going  signals.  Such a
       scheme could either use PARALLEL or SERIAL connections of the vacuum
       tubes.  Since current conduction  is  proportional  to surface area,
       one would think that a parallel arrangement of the vacuum tubes with
       all INPUTS connected to one antenna source and all OUTPUTS connected

                                      Page 3

       to a common  terminal  attached  to  the load, would provide for the
       MAXIMUM current flow from incoming energy waves.

       The nature of these "energy waves"  is  the question here.  Are they
       cosmic rays, electrostatic,   Schumann   peaks,   magnetic    force,
       something "other" or Aether flow into the neutral centers of mass as
       per Keely.

       Vacuum tube construction   takes   several  forms.   Of  these,  the
       simplest is two plates separated  by  a  grid wire.  When the bottom
       plate is heated, thermally induced ions (thermionic  emissions)  are
       emitted by the  bottom  plate.   The  grid  can  be  biased  by  the
       application of voltage to increase,  decrease  or  halt  the flow of
       these ions to the upper plate.

       Other forms include  more  plates with more grids  to  allow  better
       control of the  ion  flow.   By  proper biasing, vacuum tubes can be
       operated as switches, modulators or amplifiers among other uses.

       Vacuum tubes operate primarily with  high  voltages that control the
       ion flows.  Modern transistors are equivalent to vacuum tubes except
       that they operate  using  CURRENT  instead of voltage.   Transistors
       equate to Vacuum tubes by the following comparisons :

                        Vacuum Tube       Transistor   Polarity
       Operates from      Voltage           Current
                          lower plate       emitter     negative - cathode
                          grid              base        neutral
                          upper plate       collector   positive - anode

       In the case  of  the  Tesla  Power  Box,  the vacuum tube appears to
       function as a "pump", collecting incoming current in the form of ion
       intensification.  Once this "compressed" ion field reaches a certain
       density, the pump allows it to be  released  into  the next stage of
       the circuit, be it the actual load or another vacuum tube.

       So if the  circuit is 6 vacuum tubes in parallel,  all  fed  from  a
       common antenna, outputting  to  a  common  load  terminal,  then the
       common antenna input would feed all vacuum tubes with the same wave.
       This would give the greatest CURRENT  accumulation  because  of  the
       EXPANDED SURFACE AREA of the paralleled tubes.

       Note, these vacuum tubes most likely operate in the  "cold  cathode"
       mode since the  heaters  of  the  vacuum  tubes  were not fed by any
       outside voltage to provide the heat  for the more orthodox therionic

       If the vacuum tubes are hooked in series, then one "pump" would feed
       another "pump" to  get successively higher densities  of  electrons.
       This would give higher VOLTAGES because of increased PRESSURE.

       Keep in mind  that  electricity  is  much like air or water.  We can
       think of voltage as pounds per square  inch  (PSI)  and  current  as
       cubic feet per minute (CFM).  That is PSI is pressure, CFM is flow.

       Another analog is  comparing  a  river to electricity.   In  such  a
       comparison, the speed  of the river is the VOLTAGE or pressure while
       the width of the river is the CURRENT or rate of flow.

                                      Page 4

       Such a comparison  shows  WHY  current requires THE GREATEST SURFACE
       AREA for the maximum flow.  Fuses  function  on just this principle,
       when the current  flows  over  the surface of the fuse,  it  creates
       heat.  If too  much  current flows, it creates too much heat causing
       the fuse to melt and separate.  The  more surface area the fuse, the
       greater the amount of current can flow, another reason  to not place
       a penny in a fuse socket.

       So we have two antennas (1/4" diameter, 3" long rods), two sets of 6
       vacuum tubes connected  together by wire and assorted resistors.  As
       the waves of energy are collected  by  the 3" rods, positive on one,
       negative on another, the energy builds up in the form  of  increased
       ions in each   of  the  paralleled  vacuum  tubes.   As  in  Moray's
       generator, the circuit will feed whatever  load  is attached as long
       as it does not EXCEED the current carrying capacity  of  the circuit
       components.  What we have is an energy pumping system.

       I made a  drawing  of  the  box  with  some idea of the circuit.  My
       electronics knowledge is on IC's and transistors with almost nothing
       in regard to vacuum tubes so there  won't  be much technical concept
       of the circuit  per  se.   Perhaps  after some study,  either  I  or
       someone else will come up with some testable or useable circuits.

       The drawing is  listed  on KeelyNet as TESLAFE.GIF if you might wish
       to download it.

       There are three files that link to  this  particular subject and all
       will be bundled as follows :

                 TESLAFE1.ASC - original articles
                 TESLAFE2.ASC - this commentary
                 TESLAFE1.GIF - the Parallel version
                 TESLAFE2.GIF - the Series version
                 TESLAFE .ZIP - all of the above bundled into one file

         If you have comments or other information relating  to such topics
         as  this  paper covers,  please  upload to KeelyNet or send to the
           Vangard  Sciences  address  as  listed  on the  first  page.
              Thank you for your consideration, interest and support.

           Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson
                             Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet

                     If we can be of service, you may contact
                 Jerry at (214) 324-8741 or Ron at (214) 242-9346

                                      Page 5