The FBI has spent many millions of dollars attempting to obtain secure 
communications by various voice encryption methods, with limited success.

The GAO Report of March 8, 1988, ``FBI Voice Privacy, Cost, Status, and 
Future Direction'' provides much insight into the difficulties the FBI has 
had establishing a secure communications system.

The FBI's original estimate for establishing a digial voice protection system 
was $79.3 million.

The March 8th report indicates that ``[b]ecause the FBI's estimated savings 
cited in the table are very preliminary and are not supported by formal field 
surveys or other documentation, we continue to believe that the $204.4 
million and the latest $205.8 million estimate for the nationwide voice 
privacy program appear to be unrealistic.''

A big part of the major cost overrun was a lack of technological review of 
what they were getting into.

``Our Feburary 1987 report explains that the technological impact of range 
loss on the DVP system was one factor that increased the FBI cost estimates 
from $79.3 million to $204.4 million. In the report, we say that `the FBI 
recognized in its 1979 to 1981 research that the communications range of DVP 
technology was less than the range of the old, unsecure system, but it did 
not consider the impact of this reduction.' The FBI says that this statement 
is `totally in error because we did recognize range loss and did consider its 

``In a follow-up discussion, a key FBI official who is knowledgable about the 
voice privacy cost estimate process told us that the FBI did not consider 
range loss in the $79.3 million estimate and emphasized that an engineering 
consultant firm developed the estimate as part of a comparison of analog 
versus digital voice privacy technologies. According to this official, range 
loss was not serious considered until the FBI prepared the $132.4 million 
estimate. The FBI says that its methodology for developing the $132.4 million 
estimate included doubled the number of repeaters to compensate for the DVP 
range loss.

However, a 1984 from the Deputy Assistant Director, Technical Services 
Division, the following range loss problems were described: ``The Motorola 
DVP/DES [Data Encryption Standard] system has a loss in range as a penalty 
for the effectiveness of the digital voice privacy. Experience in the six 
cities has demonstrated that to equal the existing geographic coverage, there 
is an 80%-100% increase in so called fixed station equipment (e.g. repeaters, 
cross band sites, and backbone equipment).''

Much of the FBI's difficults seems to be from a lack of proper management. 
According to the GAO report, ``[d]uring our review, we could not find any 
evidence that a long range plan for the nationwide DVP program had been 
prepared, and FBI officials confirmed that a written plan did not exist. The 
FBI contends that it was not feasable to prepare a formal plan for the DVP 
program, within time and manpower constraints. In follow-up discussions about 
their response to our report, FBI official emphasized that DVP is a threat 
driven system and told us that it was a management decision to go full speed 
ahead rather than plan.

Now, the FBI is trying to solve the problem with frequency hopping radios. 
According to Daniel Miller, Contracting Officer for the FBI, 45 PH-26 
(portable frequency hopping radios) and 20 MH-26 (mobile frequency hopping 
radios) along with numerous accessories, including 2 repeaters were purchased 
on September 24, 1990.

These radios are not FCC approved radio equipment and the FBI has a 
sole-source contract for them with Transcrypt International, Inc., 1440 
Buckingham Dr, Lincoln, NE 68506, Phone: (402) 483-2961, Fax: (402) 435-6780, 
Telex: 466146.

According to Transcrypt's brochure, ``encryption insures that no outside 
party can understand radio transmissions, an encrypted radio signal has a 
very distinctive sound; and with the right equipment, it can be jammed, 
intercepted, or the source located.''

Transcrypt refused to provide Full Disclosure with pricing information and 
that information was not available from the Government by press time. The 
going rate for this type of equipment, however is said to be approximately 
$10,000 per radio. Transcrypt will only sell the radio within the United 
States to law enforcement agencies.

Even though their brochure claims that both the public and private sectors 
outside the United States have the need for this type of secure 
communications (no mention is made that the private sector within the United 
States has such needs), a company spokesman seemed skeptical that the State 
Department would approve the radios for export.

The idea behind frequency hopping radios is that rather than transmitting 
constantly on one frequency, the frequency is changed many times per second 
in a pseudo-random fashion. These radios switch from 12 to 50 times per 
second, between any channels in a programmable window of the 148-174Mhz band. 
The window size is programmable between 100Khz and 1.6Mhz. Therefore, if the 
window size was set to 1.6Mhz and the window was located at 165.000mhz, the 
transmissions would occur only on frequencys between 165.000mhz and 

Therefore, with a standard scanner one would not notice the existence of such 
transmission, nor be able to pin point them. Monitoring one of the 
frequencies it used in its hopping sequence would result only in a burst of 
noise 1/12 to 1/50 of a second in duration.

Another brochure from Transcrypt quotes from Communications Africa a claim 
that ``there are very few countries in which the equipment and expertise are 
available to try to break these systems.''

Finally, the FBI has a solution to is desire for secure communications or 
does it? The first glimpse to a line of attack is in the same brochure that 
quotes from Communications Africa. It explains how other (in use) frequencies 
in an urban environment gives the transmissions extra cover. Any kind of 
transmission made in an urban environment gets extra cover from all the other 
surrounding transmissions.

The fact that the transmissions need or gain from having ``cover'' indicates 
that they are not invisible.

Technical sources suggested the following as a method of detecting use of 
frequency hopping radios in the area. Hook a cable ready TV set to an 
appropriate antenna and tune it to the federal band (160-172mhz). Cable 
channels G, H and I. Each channel will display a 5mhz spectrum of the federal 
band. The complete frequency range of the radio would be cable channels A 
through I and 7.

The sources indicated that operation of a frequency hopping radio in the area 
will show a distinct pattern on the screen. To test this theory, Full 
Disclosure hooked up a low power programable RF oscillator to switch 
frequencies 15 times per second in the 160mhz range and powering the unit on 
showed a distinct change (unique unsynchronized horizontal lines) in the 
display on a TV set tuned to that frequency.

Because of the narrow window the units use, after locating the frequency of 
the window, jamming the unit could be accomplished with a wide bandwidth 
transmitter. (1.6mhz isn't real wide, compared to a 5mhz video transmitter). 
If a little used portion of the VHF band was selected for operation by the 
frequency hopping radios, jamming could be accomplished with little 
interference to other transmissions. 

There is some dispute over the effectiveness of using a spectrum analyzer to 
spot the use of frequency hopping radios. One technical source aptly pointed 
out ``why worry about whether a spectrum analyzer works when a $100 TV set 

As with any new surveillance technology, there is a gap between its 
introduction and the availablity of countermeasures. Unlike spread spectrum 
radios that switch frequencies over the entire RF spectrum, frequency hopping 
radios operate in a very small window making detection, jamming, and 
direction finding a much simpler task.

The following are selected specifications for the PH-26 and MH-26 radios. 
Figures in ()'s are for the MH-26 when different.

Frequency Programming Range: 148-174MHz. Frequency stability: .0005%. 
Frequency spacing: 5, 6.25, 12.5, 15, 25 or 30KHz. Transmitter: Power Output: 
1 or 5 watts (30 watts). Modulation: FM. Receiver: Sensitivity 12 db. Sinad: 
.25uv. Selectivity @30Khz: 70 db. Audio Output: 500mw (5 watts). Frequency 
Agil Mode: Number of channels: 4096. Frequency series: Pseudorandom (PR). 
Dwell time: 20 to 100 milliseconds. Synchronization: Continuous digital.

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