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501 THE PRIESTHOOD (continued) And so it is that they who lose or give away their following, Or they who through inactivity have lost their power, Or they who are not in harmony and love with their Spiritual Father; Shall be retired from a rank to which entitled Other than by leadership of men. But this can only be done by he who ordained them, For only those who give can take away, Yet each High Priest is responsible that this is done. Should any Fellow fain the Priesthood, and use it wisely and well, The Gods have decreed that those who serve them Shall prosper and grow in this life, And shall gain eternal perfection To be freed from the Wheel of Life, And to become like unto the angels In that they should be perfect. For perfection is to be gained by love, And there is no greater love than to Lay down one's life for his brethren In their service and for their sake, And the Father will reward them for Their labor of love, because He is not unjust. FINIS 502 THAT OLD BLACK MAGIC: Getting Specific about Magical Ethics Sometimes a clichejust wearsout. It losesmeaning or, worse,begins to say things we never meant. I think it's time to retire the phrase "black magic." Saying"black" when we mean "evil" is nasty nonsense. In the first place, it reinforces the racist stereotypes that corrupt our society. And that's not all. Whenever we say "black" instead of "bad," we repeat again the big lie that darkness is wrong. It isn't, as people who profess to love Nature should know. Darkness canmean the inside of the womb, and the seed germinating within the Earth, and the chaos that gives rise to all truly new beginnings. In our myths, the one who goes down to the underworld returns with the treasure. Even death, to the Wiccan understanding, is well-earned rest and comfort, and a preparation for new birth. Using "black" to mean "bad" is a blasphemy against the Crone. But even if we no longer speak of magic as "black" or "white," we still need to think and speak about the ethics of magic. Although black is not evil, some actions are evil. It simply is not true that anything a person is strong enough or skilled enough to do is OK, nor should doing what we will ever be the whole of the law for us. We need a clear and specific vocabulary that enables us to choose wisely what we will do. We need to replace the word "black," not simply to drop it. Some Pagans have tried using "negative" as their substitute, but that turned out to be confusing. For some people, "negative" means any spell to diminish or banish anything. Some things - tumors, depression, bigotry - are harmful. There's nothing wrong with a working to get rid of bad stuff. "Left-handed" is another common term for wrongful practice, very traditional, but just as ignorant, superstitious and potentially harmful as the phrase "black magic" itself. So in Proteus we tried using the word "unethical." That's a lot better - free of extraneous and false implications - but still too vague. Gradually, I began to wonder whether using any one word, "black" or "unethical" or whatever, might just be too general and too subjective. Perhaps all I really tell a student that way is "Judy doesn't like that." I won't settle for blind obedience. If ethical principles are going to survive the twin tests of time and temptation, people need to understand just what to avoid, and why. Even more important, they need a basis for figuring out what to do instead. Especially when it comes to projective magic. Projectivemagic means active workings,the kind inwhich we project our will out into the world to make some kind of change. This is what most people think of when they use the word magic at all. Quite clearly, magic that may affect other people is magic that can harm. This is the basis of the proverb "a Witch who can't hex can't heal." Either you can raise and direct power, or you can't. Your strength and skill can be used for blessing or for bane. The choice - and the karma - are yours. 503 Just as some people feel that strength and skill are their own justification, others feel that any projective magic is always wrong - that it is a distraction from our one true goal of union with the Divine or a willful avoidance of the judgments of Karma. I think these attitudes are equally inconsistent with basic Wiccan philosophy. Weare taught that we will find theLady within ourselves or not at all, that the Mother of All has been with us from the beginning. We can't now establish a union that was always there. All we can do, all we need to do, is become aware. Knowing what it feels like to heal and empower, again and again till you can't dismiss it as coincidence, is one of the most powerful methods for awakening that awareness. It makes no sense to say that the direct experience and exercise of our indwelling divinity distracts from the Great Work. Indeed, it is this intimate connection between our magic and our self-realization that our ethics protect. Wrongful use of magic will choke the channel. No short term gain could ever compensate for that. The karmic argument againstpractical workings seems to meto arise from a paranoid and defeatist world view. Even if we assume that the hardships in this life were put there by the Gods for a reason, how can we be so sure that the reason was punishment? Perhaps instead of penance to be endured, our difficulties are challenges to be met. Coping and dealing with our problems, learning magical and mundane skills, changing ourselves and our world for the better - in short, growing up - is that not what the Gods of joy and freedom want from us? One of the most radically different things about a polytheistic belief system is that each one of us has the right, and the need, to choose which God/desses will be the focus of our worship. We make these choices knowing that whatever energies we invoke most often in ritual will shape our own further growth. Spiritual practices are a means of self-programming. So we are responsible for what we worship in a way that people who take their One God as a given are not. Think about this: what kind of Power actively wants us to submit and suffer, and objects when we develop skills to improve our own lives? Not a Being I'd want to invite around too often! So it will not workfor us to rule out projectivemagic completely; nor should we. Total prohibitions are as thoughtless as total permissiveness or blind obedience. Ethical and spiritual adults ought to be able to make distinctions and well-reasoned choices. I offer here a start toward analyzing what kinds of magic are not ethical for us. Baneful magicis magic done forthe explicit purposeof causing harm to another person. Usually the reason for it is revenge, and the rationalization is justice. People who defend the practice of baneful magic often ask "but wouldn't you join in cursing another Hitler?" For adults there is no rule without exceptions. If you think you would never torture somebody, consider this scenario: in just half an hour the bomb will go off, killing everybody in the city, and this terrorist knows where it is hidden.... 504 It's a bad mistake to base your ethics on wildly unlikely cases, since none of us honestly knows how we would react in that kind of extreme. Reasonable ethical statements are statements about the behaviors we expect of ourselves under normally predictable circumstances. We all getreally angry on occasion, and sometimeswith good cause. Then revenge can seem like no more than simple justice. The anger is a normal, healthy human reaction, and should not be repressed. But there's no more need to act it out in magic than in physical violence. Instead of going for revenge - and invoking the karmic consequences of baneful magic - identify what you really need. For example, if your anger comes from a feeling that you have been attacked or violated, what you need is protection and safe space. Work for the positive goal, it's both more effective and safer. The consequences of baneful magic are simply the logical, natural and inevitable psychological effects. Even in that rare and extreme situation when you may decide you really do have to use magic to give Hitler a heart attack, it means you are choosing by the same choice to accept the act's karma. Magical attack hurts the attacker first. The only way I know how to do magic is by use of my imagination, by visualizing or otherwise actively imagining the end I want, and then projecting that goal with the energy of emotional/physiological arousal. All the techniques I know either help me to imagine more specifically or to project more strongly. So the only way I can send out harm is by first experiencing that harm within my own imagination. Instant and absolute karma - the natural, logical and inevitable outcomes of our own choices. I would think, also, that somebody dumb enough to dosuch workings often would soon lose the ability to imagine specifically, as their sensitivity dulled in sheer self-defense. That callusing effect is the reality behind the pious proverb that says "if you abuse it, She'll take it away." But not every othermagician is ethical. Psychic attacksdo happen. Should we not defend ourselves? Of course we should. Leaving ourselves open to psychic attack is no good example of the autonomy and assertiveness our chosen Gods expect. But first, how can we be sure what we are experiencing really is psychic attack? Thefantasy ofpsychic attackis often aconvenient excusethat allows us to avoid looking at our own shortcomings. When lack of rest or improper nutrition is the cause of illness, or a project isn't completed on time because of distraction, it's a real temptation to put the blame outside ourselves. Doing this too easily betrays our autonomy just as badly as meek submission to attack does. Then, to compound matters, projected blame becomes an excuse for unjust revenge -- and that is baneful magic without excuse. Once in a rare while, some fool really does tryto throw a whammy. It's hard to predict when you might be targeted. Passive shields are always a good idea. Like a mirror, these are totally inactive until somebody sends unwelcome energy. Then a shield will protect you completely and bounce back whatever is being thrown. You may not even know consciously when your shield is working, but the result is perfect justice. 505 Perfect justice; elegant and efficient. You won't hurt anybody out of paranoia or by mistake. And perfect protection, even though we do not have perfect knowledge. Bindings, according to some, arecompletely defensive. They do not harm, only restrain. But imagine yourself being bound - perhaps by someone who believes themselves justified - and notice the feeling of impotence and frustration. Binding is bane from the viewpoint of the bound. Even if restraint were truly not harm, bindings are just plain poor protection. They target a particular person or group. What if you suspect the wrong person? Somebody harmless is bound and your actual attacker is not bound. Shields, which cover you, not your supposed enemy, will cover you against any enemy, known or unknown. So, baneful magic, besides being painful in the short run and crippling in the long run, is never necessary. There are better ways of self protection, and retribution is the business of the Gods. Coercive magicis magicthat targets anotherperson to makethem give us something we want or need. When most people think of the "Magic Power of Witchcraft," this is what they have in mind. The spell to make the teacher give you a good grade, or the supervisor give you a good evaluation, the spell to make the personnel officer or renting agent choose you, the spell to attract that cute guy, all are examples of coercive magic. So, what's wrong with high grades, a good job, a raise, a nice apartment and a sexy lover? There's nothing at all wrong with those goals. An it harm none, do what ye will. As long as nobody is hurt, go for it! But don't strive toward good ends by coercive means. Although there is no deliberate intent to do harm or cause pain in coercive workings, other people are treated as pawns. Their autonomy and their interests are ignored. For Pagans, to do this is total hypocrisy. We profess to follow a religion of immanence, one that places ultimate meaning and value in this life on this Earth, here and now. We claim to see every living thing, humans included, as a sacred manifestation. To do honor to this indwelling divinity, we place great value on our own personal autonomy. How can we then justify treating other people as objects for our use? Nor is it harmless. Forcing the will, controlling the independent judgement of another human being, is harm. Once again, empathy leads to understanding. Just imagine you are the person whose will and judgement is being externally controlled. How does puppethood feel? From the viewpoint of the target, the harm is palpable. 506 The Pagan and Wiccan community asa whole is also hurt by coercive magic. One of the main reasons people fear and hate Witches is our reputation for controlling others. This is an old, dirty lie, created by the invading religion in an attempt to discredit the indigenous competition. Today, that reputation is mostly perpetuated by people who claim to be "our own," who teach unethical coercive magic by mail order to strangers whose ethical sensitivity cannot be evaluated long distance. May the Gods preserve the Craft! People who are connected to thesituation, but invisible to us,may also be seriously hurt: the cute guy's fiancee, the other applicant for that job. What you think of as a working designed only to bring good to yourself can bring serious harm to innocent third parties, and the karma of their pain will be on you. That isn't the only way an incomplete view of the situation can backfire. There's a traditional saying that goes, "be careful about what you ask for, because that's exactly what you will get." What if he is gorgeous, but abusive? What if the apartment house is structurally unsound? Better to state your legitimate needs (love in my life, a nice place to live) and let the Gods deal with the details. Finally,remember this: asking specificallylimits us towhat we now know or what we can now imagine. But I remember a time when I could not have imagined being a priestess. What if the cute guy in the office is perfectly OK, but your absolutely perfect soul-mate will be in the A+P next Wednesday? The more specifically targeted your magic is, the more you limit yourself to a life of tautology and missed chances. And beyond all the scenario spinning lies the instant karma, the natural, logical and inevitable consequence of the act. It's more subtle than in the case of baneful magic, since you are not trying to imagine and project pain, but the damage is still real. Every time you treat another human being as a thing to be pushed and pulled around for your convenience and pleasure, you are reinforcing your own alienation. The attitude of being removed from and superior to other people takes you out of community. As the attitude strengthens, so will the behavior it engenders. The long term result of coercive magic, as with mundane forms of coercion, is isolation and loneliness. Are youbeginning to think thatmagic is useless?Did I justrule out all the good stuff: love charms, job magic, spells for good grades? Not at all. It is not only ethical but good for you to do lots of magic to improve your own life. Whenever it works you will get more than you asked for - because along with whatever you asked for comes one more experience of your own effectiveness, your power-from-within. Work on yourself and your own needs and desires without targeting other people. Then feel free! Ask for what you want. Visualize it and raise power for it and act in accordance on the material plane. "I need a caring and horny lover with a good sense of humor." "I want an affordable apartment near where my coven meets with a tree outside my window." "I need to be at my best when I take that exam next week." Fulfill your dreams, and sometimes let the Gods surprise you with gifts beyond your dreams. 507 Manipulative magic is magicthat targets another person forwhat we think is "their own good," without regard for their opinions in the matter. In the general culture around us, this is normal. As you read this, you may have some friend or relative praying for you to be "saved" from your evil Pagan ways and returned to the fold of their preference. These people mean you well. By their own lights, they are attempting to heal you. We work from a very different thealogical base. Aspolytheists, weaffirm thediversity of thedivine andthe divinity of diversity. If there is no one, true, right and only way in general, do we dare to assume that there is one obvious right choice for a person in any given situation? If more than one choice may be "right," how can one person presume they know what another person would want without asking them first? No life situation ever looks the same from outside as it does to the person who is experiencing it. Are you sure you even have all the facts? Are you fully aware of all the emotional entanglements involved? Perhaps that illness is the only way they have of getting rest or getting attention. Perhaps they stay in that dead end job because it leaves them more energy to concentrate on their music. How do you know till you ask? And,to furthercomplicate theanalysis, it'spossible thatthe person you are trying to help would agree with you about the most desirable outcome, but fears and hates the very idea of magic. They have as much of a right to keep magic out of their own life, as you have to make it part of yours! Ourreligion teaches thatthe sacredlives withineach person,that we can hear the Lady's voice for ourselves if we only learn to listen. "... If that which you seek, you find not within yourself, you will never find it without." In behavioral terms, when you take another person's opinion about their own life seriously, you are reinforcing them in thinking and choosing for themselves. The more you do this, the more you encourage them to listen for the sacred inner voice. Conversely, whenever you ignore or override a person's feelings about their own life, you are discounting those feelings and discouraging the kind of internal attention that can keep the channels to wisdom open. Although well-intentioned meddling may actually help somebody in the short run, in the longer run it trains them to dependency and indecision. Few intentional banes damage as severely. This is especially true because even the untrained and unaware will instinctively resist overt ill-will, but in our culture we are trained to receive "expert" interference with gratitude. Check byasking yourself, "who'sin charge here?" Theanswer to that will tell you whether you are basically empowering or undermining the person you intend to help. And, as usual, the effects go both ways. The same uninvited intervention that fosters passivity in the recipient will foster arrogance in the "rescuer." It's control and ego-inflation masked as generosity. It's very seductive. 508 If you makethis a habit, youwill come to believethat other people are incompetent and powerless. Then what happens when you need help? Your contempt will make it impossible for you to see what resources surround you. Manipulative magic is ultimately just as alienating as coercive magic - and it's a much prettier trap! The way to avoid the trap is to do no working affecting another person without that person's explicit permission. Proteans are pledged to this, and I think it's a good idea for anybody. You don'tneed to waitpassively forthe person toask. It'sperfectly all right to offer, as long as you are willing to sometimes accept "no" for your answer. For the person who believes s/he is unworthy or who is simply too shy, offering help is itself a gift. Taking their opinion seriously is an even greater gift: respect. Therule is thatwhenever itis in anyway physically possibleto ask, you must ask. If it's not important enough to pay long distance charges, it certainly isn't important enough to violate a friend's autonomy. If asking is literally not possible, then and only then, here are a few exceptions: Sometimesan illness or injuryhappens very suddenly,and the person is unconscious or in a coma before you could possibly ask them. If you know that this person is generally comfortable with magic, you may do workings to keep their basic body systems working and allow the normal healing process the time it needs. If they are opposed to magic, for whatever reason, back off! Traditionally, anunconscious personis understood tobe temporarily out of their body. Maintaining their body in habitable condition is preserving their option, not choosing for them. Doing maintenance magic requires a lot of sensitivity. At some point, the time may come when you should stop and let the person go on. Be sure to use some kind of divination to help you stay aware. This is a hard road. It may be your lover, your child, lying there helpless. Any normal human being would be tempted to drag them back, to force them to stay regardless of what is truly best for them, regardless of what they want. Don't repress these feelings, they do no harm, even though your actions might. It takes great strength and non-possessive love to recognize that your loved one knows their own need. You may be calling them back to a crippled body, to a life of pain. You may be calling them back from the ecstasy of the Goddess. And this is no more your right than it would be to murder them. If a person is temporarily not reachable, you may charge up a physical object, such as an appropriate talisman or some incense. When you present it to them, give them a full explanation. It is their choice whether to keep or use your gift. By interposing an object between the magic and the target in this way, you can work the magic in Circle, with the coven's power to draw on, and still get the person's permission before the magic is triggered. 509 With all these rulesabout permission, perhaps it would besafer to work only on ourselves? Safer, yes, but not nearly as good. If you have permission, you may do any working for another person that you might do for yourself. Coercive magic is just as unacceptable when somebody else asks for it, and you may not do manipulative magic on your friend's mother, even at your friend's request. The permission must come from the magic's intended target and from nobody else. With proper permission, working magic for others is good for all concerned. Every act of magic has two effects. One is the direct effect, the healing or prosperity working or whatever was intended. The other is a minute change in the mind and the heart of the person who does the working. Everything we experience, and especially everything that we do in a wholehearted and focused way - the only way effective magic can be done - changes us. Each experience leaves its tiny trace, but the traces are cumulative. They mold the person we will become. Our karma is our choice. Instant karma can also be good karma. Logical, natural and inevitable outcomes can be desirable. When you send out good, what you send it with is love. Love is the driving force. When you let love flow freely, the channel down to love's wellspring stays clear and open. When you send out good, you direct it along the web of person-to-person connection, and awareness of that web is reinforced. The totality of that web is the basis of community. When you send out good it feels good. In the same way that sending out bane requires imagining pain, sending out blessing requires imagining pleasure, strongly and specifically. And, when you send out good, just the same as when you call it to yourself, you reinforce your sense of effectiveness in the world. Blessings grow in the fertile ground of mutuality, to the benefit of all. A pattern isbecoming visible.In baneful magic,the magicianintends to harm the target. In coercive magic, the intent toward the target is neutral. In manipulative magic, the magician actually means the target well. But no matter how different the intent may be, in all three cases magic is done to affect another person without that person's permission. In all three cases, the target, the practitioner and ultimately the community are all hurt. And in all three cases, there are safer and more effective ways to reach the valid goals that we mean to aim for. So, perhaps there is a descriptive word that covers all wrongful magical workings after all. How about "non-consensual" or "invasive" magic? There's one thing left to examine: the paradox of making rules to protect personal autonomy. If we make some of our choices as a community, by discussing things together and arriving at a common understanding about what magical behaviors are acceptable among us, then we choose and shape the kind of community we become. Or wecould give up ourright to choose,because we feelwe shouldn't tell each other what to do. Some people believe that a refusal to set community standards promotes personal autonomy. It never has before. Appeals toindividual rights can bereal seductive. Noneof us wants Big Brother looking over our shoulders, telling us what to do "for our own 510 good." For Witches in particular - members of a religious minority with bad image problems - this is a very legitimate fear. But make sure when somebody talks about "rights" without specifying something like "religious practice rights" or "the right to consensual sex," that you find out just what "rights" they mean. Rhetoric about"rugged individualism" hasbeen usedin recenthistory to fast talk us into letting the rich or strong dominate all our lives. Without anything to stop them, they can destroy the forestland, or deny jobs or apartments to "cultists." Personal autonomy for most of us is diminished when we allow that. Magic can be used for dominance,just the same as muscle or money. There is no difference, ethically, between the magical and the mundane. We are not obligated to tolerate power trippers among us. We are not obligated to run our own community by the slogans and ground rules of the dominator culture. Thinking about "rights," or about "laws" for that matter, in the abstract leads to "all or nothing" thinking - immature and slogan driven. I don't think we should ever "just say" anything. We need a deeper and more mature analysis. We need to ask questions like "right to do what?" and "law against what?" We need to get away from absolutes and to look in practical terms at the advantages or disadvantages of our choices. Once more,our religion itself showsus the way tosteer between the false choices. "An it harm none, do what you will." What a person does that affects only herself - magical or mundane - is truly nobody's business but her own. For example, consensual sexual behavior affects only the participants. But toxic waste dumping affects everybody in the watershed. As long as we look at behavior in terms of private choices or individual will, we obscure the distinction that really makes a difference. If we're serious about wanting to give each of us the most possible control over our own lives, then decisions should be made by all the people affected by the behavior - not just by the people acting. As soon as another person is magically targeted, that other person is affected. If we allow such targeting without consent, we are not supporting personal autonomy, we are subverting it! When the behavior begins to affect us all - for example when real estate development threatens the salt marshes, and ultimately the air supply - or, very specifically, when invasive magic erodes the trust we need to work together - then we have a right to protect ourselves as a community. No ideology should turn us into passive victims when something we hold precious stands to be destroyed. Invasive magichurts the targetfirst, and soonthe actor, butin the long run it hurts all of us. It's been so long since we've been able to meet together, share our knowledge, help one another in need. Pagan community is very new, and still very fragile. It can only grow in safe space. 511 The People of this Land forbade skirmishes around the pipestone quarries, keeping that sacred source open to all. Otherwise, no sane person would go there, and the Old Ways would wither. For much the same reason, we cannot tolerate poppets in our council meetings. An atmosphere of coercion and manipulation and magical duels does not nurture community. Eventually, for self protection, the gentle will either change or go away. We could lose what we have misguidedly refused to protect. As within, so without: our karma is our choice. Judy Harrow 512 THE BATTLE FOR YOUR MIND by Dick Sutphen Persuasion & Brainwashing Techniques Being Used On The Public Today SUMMARY OF CONTENTS The Birth of Conversion/Brainwashing in Christian Revivalism in 1735. The Pavlovian explanation of the three brain phases. Born-again preachers: Step-by-Step, how they conduct a revival and the expected physiological results. The "voice roll" technique used by preachers, lawyers and hypnotists. New trance-inducing churches. The 6 steps to conversion. The decognition process. Thought-stopping techniques. The "sell it by zealot" technique. True believers and mass movements. Persuasion techniques: "Yes set," "Imbedded Commands," "Shock and Confusion," and the "Interspersal Technique." Subliminals. Vibrato and ELF waves. Inducing trance with vibrational sound. Even professional observers will be "possessed" at charismatic gatherings. The "only hope" technique to attend and not be converted. Non-detectable Neurophone programming through the skin. The medium for mass take-over. I'm Dick Sutphen andthis tape is a studio-recorded,expanded version of a talk I delivered at the World Congress of Professional Hypnotists Convention in Las Vegas, Nevada. Although the tape carries a copyright to protect it from unlawful duplication for sale by other companies, in this case, I invite individuals to make copies and give them to friends or anyone in a position to communicate this information. Although I've been interviewed about the subject on many local and regional radio and TV talk shows, large-scale mass communication appears to be blocked, since it could result in suspicion or investigation of the very media presenting it or the sponsors that support the media. Some government agencies do not want this information generally known. Nor do the Born-Again Christian movement, cults, and many human-potential trainings. Everything I will relate only exposes the surface of the problem. I don't know how the misuse of these techniques can be stopped. I don't think it is possible to legislate against that which often cannot be detected; and if those who legislate are using these techniques, there is little hope of affecting laws to govern usage. I do know that the first step to initiate change is to generate interest. In this case, that will probably only result from an underground effort. In talkingabout this subject, I am talking about my own business. I know it, and I know how effective it can be. I produce hypnosis and subliminal tapes and, in some of my seminars, I use conversion tactics to assist participants to become independent and self-sufficient. But, anytime I use these techniques, I point out that I am using them, and those attending have a choice to participate or not. They also know what the desired result of participation will be. 513 So, to begin, I want to state the most basic of all facts about brainwashing: IN THE ENTIRE HISTORY OF MAN, NO ONE HAS EVER BEEN BRAINWASHED AND REALIZED, OR BELIEVED, THAT HE HAD BEEN BRAINWASHED. Those who have been brainwashed will usually passionately defend their manipulators, claiming they have simply been "shown the light" . . . or have been transformed in miraculous ways. The Birth of Conversion CONVERSION is a "nice" word for BRAINWASHING . . . and any study of brainwashing has to begin with a study of Christian revivalism in eighteenth century America. Apparently, Jonathan Edwards accidentally discovered the techniques during a religious crusade in 1735 in Northampton, Massachusetts. By inducing guilt and acute apprehension and by increasing the tension, the "sinners" attending his revival meetings would break down and completely submit. Technically, what Edwards was doing was creating conditions that wipe the brain slate clean so that the mind accepts new programming. The problem was that the new input was negative. He would tell them, "You're a sinner! You're destined for hell!" As a result, one person committed suicide and another attempted suicide. And the neighbors of the suicidal converts related that they, too, were affected so deeply that, although they had found "eternal salvation," they were obsessed with a diabolical temptation to end their own lives. Oncea preacher, cult leader,manipulator or authority figure creates the brain phase to wipe the brain-slate clean, his subjects are wide open. New input, in the form of suggestion, can be substituted for their previous ideas. Because Edwards didn't turn his message positive until the end of the revival, many accepted the negative suggestions and acted, or desired to act, upon them. Charles J. Finney was another Christian revivalist who used the same techniques four years later in mass religious conversions in New York. The techniques are still being used today by Christian revivalists, cults, human-potential trainings, some business rallies, and the United States Armed Services . . . to name just a few. Let me point out here that I don't think most revivalist preachers realize or know they are using brainwashing techniques. Edwards simply stumbled upon a technique that really worked, and others copied it and have continued to copy it for over two hundred years. And the more sophisticated our knowledge and technology become, the more effective the conversion. I feel strongly that this is one of the major reasons for the increasing rise in Christian fundamentalism, especially the televised variety, while most of the orthodox religions are declining. The Three Brain Phases The Christians may have been the first to successfully formulate brainwashing, but we have to look to Pavlov, the Russian scientist, for a technical explanation. In the early 1900s, his work with animals opened the door to further investigations with humans. After the revolution in Russia, Lenin was quick to see the potential of applying Pavlov's research to his own ends. 514 Three distinct and progressive states of transmarginal inhibition were identified by Pavlov. The first is the EQUIVALENT phase, in which the brain gives the same response to both strong and weak stimuli. The second is the PARADOXICAL phase, in which the brain responds more actively to weak stimuli than to strong. And the third is the ULTRA-PARADOXICAL phase, in which conditioned responses and behavior patterns turn from positive to negative or from negative to positive. With the progression through each phase, the degree of conversion becomes more effective and complete. The way to achieve conversion are many and varied, but the usual first step in religious or political brainwashing is to work on the emotions of an individual or group until they reach an abnormal level of anger, fear, excitement, or nervous tension. Theprogressive result of thismental condition isto impair judgement and increase suggestibility. The more this condition can be maintained or intensified, the more it compounds. Once catharsis, or the first brain phase, is reached, the complete mental takeover becomes easier. Existing mental programming can be replaced with new patterns of thinking and behavior. Other often-used physiological weapons to modify normal brain functions are fasting, radical or high sugar diets, physical discomforts, regulation of breathing, mantra chanting in meditation, the disclosure of awesome mysteries, special lighting and sound effects, programmed response to incense, or intoxicating drugs. The sameresults can beobtained in contemporarypsychiatric treatment by electric shock treatments and even by purposely lowering a person's blood sugar level with insulin injections. Before I talk about exactlyhow some of the techniques areapplied, I want to point out that hypnosis and conversion tactics are two distinctly different things--and that conversion techniques are far more powerful. However, the two are often mixed . . . with powerful results. How Revivalist Preachers Work If you'd like to see a revivalist preacher at work, there are probably several in your city. Go to the church or tent early and sit in the rear, about three-quarters of the way back. Most likely repetitive music will be played while the people come in for the service. A repetitive beat, ideally ranging from 45 to 72 beats per minute (a rhythm close to the beat of the human heart), is very hypnotic and can generate an eyes-open altered state of consciousness in a very high percentage of people. And, once you are in an alpha state, you are at least 25 times as suggestible as you would be in full beta consciousness. The music is probably the same for every service, or incorporates the same beat, and many of the people will go into an altered state almost immediately upon entering the sanctuary. Subconsciously, they recall their state of mind from previous services and respond according to the post-hypnotic programming. Watch the people waiting for the service to begin. Many will exhibit external signs of trance--body relaxation and slightly dilated eyes. Often, they begin swaying back and forth with their hands in the air while sitting in their chairs. Next, the assistant pastor will probably come out. He usually speaks with a pretty good "voice roll." Voice Roll Technique 515 A "voice roll" is a patterned, paced style used by hypnotists when inducing a trance. It is also used by many lawyers, several of whom are highly trained hypnotists, when they desire to entrench a point firmly in the minds of the jurors. A voice roll can sound as if the speaker were talking to the beat of a metronome or it may sound as though he were emphasizing every word in a monotonous, patterned style. The words will usually be delivered at the rate of 45 to 60 beats per minute, maximizing the hypnotic effect. Now the assistant pastor begins the "build-up" process. He induces an altered state of consciousness and/or begins to generate the excitement and the expectations of the audience. Next, a group of young women in "sweet and pure" chiffon dresses might come out to sing a song. Gospel songs are great for building excitement and INVOLVEMENT. In the middle of the song, one of the girls might be "smitten by the spirit" and fall down or react as if possessed by the Holy Spirit. This very effectively increases the intensity in the room. At this point, hypnosis and conversion tactics are being mixed. And the result is the audience's attention span is now totally focused upon the communication while the environment becomes more exciting or tense. Right about this time, when an eyes-open mass-induced alpha mental state has been achieved, they will usually pass the collection plate or basket. In the background, a 45-beat-per-minute voice roll from the assistant preacher might exhort, "Give to God . . . Give to God . . . Give to God . . ." And the audience does give. God may not get the money, but his already wealthy representative will. Next, the fire-and-brimstone preacher will come out.He induces fear and increases the tension by talking about "the devil," "going to hell," or the forthcoming Armageddon. In the last such rally I attended, the preacher talked about the blood that would soon be running out of every faucet in the land. He was also obsessed with a "bloody axe of God," which everyone had seen hanging above the pulpit the previous week. I have no doubt that everyone saw it--the power of suggestion given to hundreds of people in hypnosis assures that at least 10 to 25 percent would see whatever he suggested they see. In most revivalist gatherings, "testifying" or "witnessing" usually follows the fear-based sermon. People from the audience come up on stage and relate their stories. "I was crippled and now I can walk!" "I had arthritis and now it's gone!" It is a psychological manipulation that works. After listening to numerous case histories of miraculous healings, the average guy in the audience with a minor problem is sure he can be healed. The room is charged with fear, guilt, intense excitement, and expectations. 516 Now thosewho want tobe healed are frequentlylined up aroundthe edge of the room, or they are told to come down to the front. The preacher might touch them on the head firmly and scream, "Be healed!" This releases the psychic energy and, for many, catharsis results. Catharsis is a purging of repressed emotions. Individuals might cry, fall down or even go into spasms. And if catharsis is effected, they stand a chance of being healed. In catharsis (one of the three brain phases mentioned earlier), the brain-slate is temporarily wiped clean and the new suggestion is accepted. For some, the healing may be permanent. For many, it will last four days to a week, which is, incidentally, how long a hypnotic suggestion given to a somnambulistic subject will usually last. Even if the healing doesn't last, if they come back every week, the power of suggestion may continually override the problem . . . or sometimes, sadly, it can mask a physical problem which could prove to be very detrimental to the individual in the long run. I'm not saying that legitimate healings do not take place. They do. Maybe the individual was ready to let go of the negativity that caused the problem in the first place; maybe it was the work of God. Yet I contend that it can be explained with existing knowledge of brain/mind function. The techniques and staging will vary from church to church. Many use "speaking in tongues" to generate catharsis in some while the spectacle creates intense excitement in the observers. The use of hypnotic techniques by religions is sophisticated, and professionals are assuring that they become even more effective. A man in Los Angeles is designing, building, and reworking a lot of churches around the country. He tells ministers what they need and how to use it. This man's track record indicates that the congregation and the monetary income will double if the minister follows his instructions. He admits that about 80 percent of his efforts are in the sound system and lighting. Powerful soundand the properuse of lightingare ofprimary importance in inducing an altered state of consciousness--I've been using them for years in my own seminars. However, my participants are fully aware of the process and what they can expect as a result of their participation. Six Conversion Techniques Cults and human-potential organizations are always looking for new converts. To attain them, they must also create a brain-phase. And they often need to do it within a short space of time--a weekend, or maybe even a day. The following are the six primary techniques used to generate the conversion. The meeting or training takesplace in an area whereparticipants are cut off from the outside world. This may be any place: a private home, a remote or rural setting, or even a hotel ballroom where the participants are allowed only limited bathroom usage. In human-potential trainings, the controllers will give a lengthy talk about the importance of "keeping agreements" in life. The participants are told that if they don't keep agreements, their life will never work. It's a good idea to keep agreements, but the controllers are subverting a positive human value for selfish purposes. The participants vow to themselves and their trainer that they will keep their agreements. Anyone who does not will be intimidated into agreement or forced to leave. The next step is to agree to complete training, thus assuring a high percentage of conversions for the organizations. They will USUALLY have to agree not to take drugs, smoke, 517 and sometimes not to eat . . . or they are given such short meal breaks that it creates tension. The real reason for the agreements is to alter internal chemistry, which generates anxiety and hopefully causes at least a slight malfunction of the nervous system, which in turn increases the conversion potential. Before the gathering is complete, the agreements will be used to ensure that the new converts go out and find new participants. They are intimidated into agreeing to do so before they leave. Since the importance of keeping agreements is so high on their priority list, the converts will twist the arms of everyone they know, attempting to talk them into attending a free introductory session offered at a future date by the organization. The new converts are zealots. In fact, the inside term for merchandising the largest and most successful human-potential training is, "sell it by zealot!" At least a million people are graduates and a good percentage have been left with a mental activation button that assures their future loyalty and assistance if the guru figure or organization calls. Think about the potential political implications of hundreds of thousands of zealots programmed to campaign for their guru. Be wary of an organization of this type that offers follow-up sessions after the seminar. Follow-up sessions might be weekly meetings or inexpensive seminars given on a regular basis which the organization will attempt to talk you into taking--or any regularly scheduled event used to maintain control. As the early Christian revivalists found, long-term control is dependent upon a good follow-up system. Alright. Now, let's look at the second tip-off that indicates conversion tactics are being used. A schedule is maintained that causes physical and mental fatigue. This is primarily accomplished by long hours in which the participants are given no opportunity for relaxation or reflection. The third tip-off: techniquesused to increasethe tension in theroom or environment. Number four: Uncertainty. I could spend hours relating various techniques to increase tension and generate uncertainty. Basically, the participants are concerned about being "put on the spot" or encountered by the trainers, guilt feelings are played upon, participants are tempted to verbally relate their innermost secrets to the other participants or forced to take part in activities that emphasize removing their masks. One of the most successful human-potential seminars forces the participants to stand on a stage in front of the entire audience while being verbally attacked by the trainers. A public opinion poll, conducted a few years ago, showed that the number one most-fearful situation an individual could encounter is to speak to an audience. It ranked above window washing outside the 85th floor of an office building. So you can imagine the fear and tension this situation generates within the participants. Many faint, but most cope with the stress by mentally going away. They literally go into an alpha state, which automatically makes them many times as suggestible as they normally are. And another loop of the downward spiral into conversion is successfully effected. The fifth clue that conversion tactics are being used is the introduction of jargon--new terms that have meaning only to the "insiders" who participate. Vicious language is also frequently used, purposely, to make participants uncomfortable. 518 The final tip-off isthat there isno humor in thecommunications . .. at least until the participants are converted. Then, merry-making and humor are highly desirable as symbols of the new joy the participants have supposedly "found." I'm not saying that good does not result from participation in such gatherings. It can and does. But I contend it is important for people to know what has happened and to be aware that continual involvement may not be in their best interest. Over the years,I've conductedprofessional seminars toteach peopleto be hypnotists, trainers, and counselors. I've had many of those who conduct trainings and rallies come to me and say, "I'm here because I know that what I'm doing works, but I don't know why." After showing them how and why, many have gotten out of the business or have decided to approach it differently or in a much more loving and supportive manner. Many of these trainers havebecome personal friends, and it scaresus all to have experienced the power of one person with a microphone and a room full of people. Add a little charisma and you can count on a high percentage of conversions. The sad truth is that a high percentage of people want to give away their power--they are true "believers"! Cult gatheringsor human-potential trainings arean ideal environment to observe first-hand what is technically called the "Stockholm Syndrome." This is a situation in which those who are intimidated, controlled, or made to suffer, begin to love, admire, and even sometimes sexually desire their controllers or captors. But let me inject a wordof warning here: If you think youcan attend such gatherings and not be affected, you are probably wrong. A perfect example is the case of a woman who went to Haiti on a Guggenheim Fellowship to study Haitian Voodoo. In her report, she related how the music eventually induced uncontrollable bodily movement and an altered state of consciousness. Although she understood the process and thought herself above it, when she began to feel herself become vulnerable to the music, she attempted to fight it and turned away. Anger or resistance almost always assures conversion. A few moments later she was possessed by the music and began dancing in a trance around the Voodoo meeting house. A brain phase had been induced by the music and excitement, and she awoke feeling reborn. The only hope of attending such gatherings without being affected is to be a Buddha and allow no positive or negative emotions to surface. Few people are capable of such detachment. 519 Before I go on,let's go backto the six tip-offsto conversion. Iwant to mention the United States Government and military boot camp. The Marine Corps talks about breaking men down before "rebuilding" them as new men--as marines! Well, that is exactly what they do, the same way a cult breaks its people down and rebuilds them as happy flower sellers on your local street corner. Every one of the six conversion techniques are used in boot camp. Considering the needs of the military, I'm not making a judgement as to whether that is good or bad. IT IS A FACT that the men are effectively brainwashed. Those who won't submit must be discharged or spend much of their time in the brig. Decognition Process Once the initial conversion is effected, cults, armed services, and similar groups cannot have cynicism among their members. Members must respond to commands and do as they are told, otherwise they are dangerous to the organizational control. This is normally accomplished as a three-step Decognition Process. Step One is ALERTNESS REDUCTION: The controllers cause the nervous system to malfunction, making it difficult to distinguish between fantasy and reality. This can be accomplished in several ways. POOR DIET is one; watch out for Brownies and Koolaid. The sugar throws the nervous system off. More subtle is the "SPIRITUAL DIET" used by many cults. They eat only vegetables and fruits; without the grounding of grains, nuts, seeds, dairy products, fish or meat, an individual becomes mentally "spacey." INADEQUATE SLEEP is another primary way to reduce alertness, especially when combined with long hours of work or intense physical activity. Also, being bombarded with intense and unique experiences achieves the same result. Step Two is PROGRAMMED CONFUSION: You are mentally assaulted while your alertness is being reduced as in Step One. This is accomplished with a deluge of new information, lectures, discussion groups, encounters or one-to-one processing, which usually amounts to the controller bombarding the individual with questions. During this phase of decognition, reality and illusion often merge and perverted logic is likely to be accepted. StepThree is THOUGHT STOPPING: Techniques areused to cause the mind to go "flat." These are altered-state-of-consciousness techniques that initially induce calmness by giving the mind something simple to deal with and focusing awareness. The continued use brings on a feeling of elation and eventually hallucination. The result is the reduction of thought and eventually, if used long enough, the cessation of all thought and withdrawal from everyone and everything except that which the controllers direct. The takeover is then complete. It is important to be aware that when members or participants are instructed to use "thought-stopping" techniques, they are told that they will benefit by so doing: they will become "better soldiers" or "find enlightenment." There are threeprimary techniquesused for thoughtstopping. Thefirst is MARCHING: the thump, thump, thump beat literally generates self-hypnosis and thus great susceptibility to suggestion. 520 Thesecond thought stopping technique is MEDITATION. If you spend an hour to an hour and a half a day in meditation, after a few weeks, there is a great probability that you will not return to full beta consciousness. You will remain in a fixed state of alpha for as long as you continue to meditate. I'm not saying this is bad--if you do it yourself. It may be very beneficial. But it is a fact that you are causing your mind to go flat. I've worked with meditators on an EEG machine and the results are conclusive: the more you meditate, the flatter your mind becomes until, eventually and especially if used to excess or in combination with decognition, all thought ceases. Some spiritual groups see this as nirvana--which is bullshit. It is simply a predictable physiological result. And if heaven on earth is non-thinking and non-involvement, I really question why we are here. The third thought-stopping technique is CHANTING, and often chanting in meditation. "Speaking in tongues" could also be included in this category. All three-stopping techniques produce an altered state of consciousness. This may be very good if YOU are controlling the process, for you also control the input. I personally use at least one self-hypnosis programming session every day and I know how beneficial it is for me. But you need to know if you use these techniques to the degree of remaining continually in alpha that, although you'll be very mellow, you'll also be more suggestible. True Believers & Mass Movements Before ending this section on conversion, I want to talk about the people who are most susceptible to it and about Mass Movements. I am convinced that at least a third of the population is what Eric Hoffer calls "true believers." They are joiners and followers . . . people who want to give away their power. They look for answers, meaning, and enlightenment outside themselves. Hoffer, who wrote THE TRUE BELIEVER, a classic on mass movements, says, "true believers are not intent on bolstering and advancing a cherished self, but are those craving to be rid of unwanted self. They are followers, not because of a desire for self-advancement, but because it can satisfy their passion for self-renunciation!" Hoffer also says that true believers "are eternally incomplete and eternally insecure"! I know this from my own experience. In my years of communicating concepts and conducting trainings, I have run into them again and again. All I can do is attempt to show them that the only thing to seek is the True Self within. Their personal answers are to be found there and there alone. I communicate that the basics of spirituality are self-responsibility and self-actualization. But most of the true believers just tell me that I'm not spiritual and go looking for someone who will give them the dogma and structure they desire. Never underestimate the potential danger of these people. They can easily be molded into fanatics who will gladly work and die for their holy cause. It is a substitute for their lost faith in themselves and offers them as a substitute for individual hope. The Moral Majority is made up of true believers. All cults are composed of true believers. You'll find them in politics, churches, businesses, and social cause groups. They are the fanatics in these organizations. 521 Mass Movements will usually havea charismatic leader. The followers want to convert others to their way of living or impose a new way of life--if necessary, by legislating laws forcing others to their view, as evidenced by the activities of the Moral Majority. This means enforcement by guns or punishment, for that is the bottomline in law enforcement. A common hatred, enemy, or devil is essential to the success of a mass movement. The Born-Again Christians have Satan himself, but that isn't enough--they've added the occult, the New Age thinkers and, lately, all those who oppose their integration of church and politics, as evidenced in their political reelection campaigns against those who oppose their views. In revolutions, the devil is usually the ruling power or aristocracy. Some human-potential movements are far too clever to ask their graduates to join anything, thus labeling themselves as a cult--but, if you look closely, you'll find that their devil is anyone and everyone who hasn't taken their training. There are mass movements without devils but they seldom attain major status. The True Believers are mentally unbalanced or insecure people, or those without hope or friends. People don't look for allies when they love, but they do when they hate or become obsessed with a cause. And those who desire a new life and a new order feel the old ways must be eliminated before the new order can be built. Persuasion Techniques Persuasion isn't technically brainwashing but it is the manipulation of the human mind by another individual, without the manipulated party being aware what caused his opinion shift. I only have time to very basically introduce you to a few of the thousands of techniques in use today, but the basis of persuasion is always to access your RIGHT BRAIN. The left half of your brain is analytical and rational. The right side is creative and imaginative. That is overly simplified but it makes my point. So, the idea is to distract the left brain and keep it busy. Ideally, the persuader generates an eyes-open altered state of consciousness, causing you to shift from beta awareness into alpha; this can be measured on an EEG machine. First, let me give you an example of distracting the left brain. Politicians use these powerful techniques all the time; lawyers use many variations which, I've been told, they call "tightening the noose." Assume for a moment that you are watching a politician give a speech. First, he might generate what is called a "YES SET." These are statements that will cause listeners to agree; they might even unknowingly nod their heads in agreement. Next come the TRUISMS. These are usually facts that could be debated but, once the politician has his audience agreeing, the odds are in the politician's favor that the audience won't stop to think for themselves, thus continuing to agree. Last comes the SUGGESTION. This is what the politician wants you to do and, since you have been agreeing all along, you could be persuaded to accept the suggestion. Now, if you'll listen closely to my political speech, you'll find that the first three are the "yes set," the next three are truisms and the last is the suggestion. 522 "Ladies and gentlemen: are you angry abouthigh food prices? Are you tired of astronomical gas prices? Are you sick of out-of-control inflation? Well, you know the Other Party allowed 18 percent inflation last year; you know crime has increased 50 percent nationwide in the last 12 months, and you know your paycheck hardly covers your expenses any more. Well, the answer to resolving these problems is to elect me, John Jones, to the U.S. Senate." And I think you've heard all that before. But you might also watch for what are called Imbedded Commands. As an example: On key words, the speaker would make a gesture with his left hand, which research has shown is more apt to access your right brain. Today's media-oriented politicians and spellbinders are often carefully trained by a whole new breed of specialist who are using every trick in the book--both old and new--to manipulate you into accepting their candidate. The concepts and techniques of Neuro-Linguistics are so heavily protected that I found out the hard way that to even talk about them publicly or in print results in threatened legal action. Yet Neuro-Linguistic training is readily available to anyone willing to devote the time and pay the price. It is some of the most subtle and powerful manipulation I have yet been exposed to. A good friend who recently attended a two-week seminar on Neuro-Linguistics found that many of those she talked to during the breaks were government people. Another technique that I'm just learning about is unbelievably slippery; it is called an INTERSPERSAL TECHNIQUE and the idea is to say one thing with words but plant a subconscious impression of something else in the minds of the listeners and/or watchers. Let me give you an example: Assume you are watching a television commentator make the following statement: SENATOR JOHNSON is assisting local authorities to clear up the stupid mistakes of companies contributing to the nuclear waste problems." It sounds like a statement of fact, but, if the speaker emphasizes the right word, and especially if he makes the proper hand gestures on the key words, you could be left with the subconscious impression that Senator Johnson is stupid. That was the subliminal goal of the statement and the speaker cannot be called to account for anything. Persuasion techniques are also frequently used on a much smaller scale with just as much effectiveness. The insurance salesman knows his pitch is likely to be much more effective if he can get you to visualize something in your mind. This is right-brain communication. For instance, he might pause in his conversation, look slowly around your living room and say, "Can you just imagine this beautiful home burning to the ground?" Of course you can! It is one of your unconscious fears and, when he forces you to visualize it, you are more likely to be manipulated into signing his insurance policy. 523 The Hare Krishnas, operating in every airport,use what I call SHOCK AND CONFUSION techniques to distract the left brain and communicate directly with the right brain. While waiting for a plane, I once watched one operate for over an hour. He had a technique of almost jumping in front of someone. Initially, his voice was loud then dropped as he made his pitch to take a book and contribute money to the cause. Usually, when people are shocked, they immediately withdraw. In this case they were shocked by the strange appearance, sudden materialization and loud voice of the Hare Krishna devotee. In other words, the people went into an alpha state for security because they didn't want to confront the reality before them. In alpha, they were highly suggestible so they responded to the suggestion of taking the book; the moment they took the book, they felt guilty and responded to the second suggestion: give money. We are all conditioned that if someone gives us something, we have to give them something in return--in that case, it was money. While watching this hustler, I was close enough to notice that many of the people he stopped exhibited an outward sign of alpha--their eyes were actually dilated. Subliminal Programming Subliminals are hidden suggestions that only your subconscious perceives. They can be audio, hidden behind music, or visual, airbrushed into a picture, flashed on a screen so fast that you don't consciously see them, or cleverly incorporated into a picture or design. Most audio subliminal reprogramming tapes offer verbal suggestions recorded at a low volume. I question the efficacy of this technique--if subliminals are not perceptible, they cannot be effective, and subliminals recorded below the audible threshold are therefore useless. The oldest audio subliminal technique uses a voice that follows the volume of the music so subliminals are impossible to detect without a parametric equalizer. But this technique is patented and, when I wanted to develop my own line of subliminal audio cassettes, negotiations with the patent holder proved to be unsatisfactory. My attorney obtained copies of the patents which I gave to some talented Hollywood sound engineers, asking them to create a new technique. They found a way to psycho-acoustically modify and synthesize the suggestions so that they are projected in the same chord and frequency as the music, thus giving them the effect of being part of the music. But we found that in using this technique, there is no way to reduce various frequencies to detect the subliminals. In other words, although the suggestions are being heard by the subconscious mind, they cannot be monitored with even the most sophisticated equipment. If we were able to come up withthis technique as easily as we did,I can only imagine how sophisticated the technology has become, with unlimited government or advertising funding. And I shudder to think about the propaganda and commercial manipulation that we are exposed to on a daily basis. There is simply no way to know what is behind the music you hear. It may even be possible to hide a second voice behind the voice to which you are listening. Theseries by Wilson Bryan Key, Ph.D., on subliminals in advertising and political campaigns well documents the misuse in many areas, especially printed advertising in newspapers, magazines, and posters. 524 The big question about subliminals is: dothey work? And I guarantee you they do. Not only from the response of those who have used my tapes, but from the results of such programs as the subliminals behind the music in department stores. Supposedly, the only message is instructions to not steal: one East Coast department store chain reported a 37 percent reduction in thefts in the first nine months of testing. A 1984 article in the technical newsletter, "Brain-Mind Bulletin," states that as much as 99 percent of our cognitive activity may be "non-conscious," according to the director of the Laboratory for Cognitive Psychophysiology at the University of Illinois. The lengthy report ends with the statement, "these findings support the use of subliminal approaches such as taped suggestions for weight loss and the therapeutic use of hypnosis and Neuro-Linguistic Programming." Mass Misuse I could relatemany stories that support subliminal programming, but I'd rather use my time to make you aware of even more subtle uses of such programming. I have personally experienced sitting in a Los Angeles auditorium with over ten thousand people who were gathered to listen to a current charismatic figure. Twenty minutes after entering the auditorium, I became aware that I was going in and out of an altered state. Those accompanying me experienced the same thing. Since it is our business, we were aware of what was happening, but those around us were not. By careful observation, what appeared to be spontaneous demonstrations were, in fact, artful manipulations. The only way I could figure that the eyes-open trance had been induced was that a 6- to 7-cycle-per-second vibration was being piped into the room behind the air conditioner sound. That particular vibration generates alpha, which would render the audience highly susceptible. Ten to 25 percent of the population is capable of a somnambulistic level of altered states of consciousness; for these people, the suggestions of the speaker, if non-threatening, could potentially be accepted as "commands." Vibrato This leads to the mention of VIBRATO. Vibrato is the tremulous effect imparted in some vocal or instrumental music, and the cycle-per-second range causes people to go into an altered state of consciousness. At one period of English history, singers whose voices contained pronounced vibrato were not allowed to perform publicly because listeners would go into an altered state and have fantasies, often sexual in nature. People who attend operaor enjoy listeningto singers like MarioLanza are familiar with this altered state induced by the performers. ELFs Now, let's carry this awareness a little farther. There are also inaudible ELFs (extra-low frequency waves). These are electromagnetic in nature. One of the primary uses of ELFs is to communicate with our submarines. Dr. Andrija Puharich, a highly respected researcher, in an attempt to warn U.S. officials about Russian use of ELFs, set up an experiment. Volunteers were wired so their brain waves could be measured on an EEG. They were sealed in a metal room that could not be penetrated by a normal signal. Puharich then beamed ELF waves at the volunteers. ELFs go right through 525 the earth and, of course, right through metal walls. Those inside couldn't know if the signal was or was not being sent. And Puharich watched the reactions on the technical equipment: 30 percent of those inside the room were taken over by the ELF signal in six to ten seconds. When I say "taken over," I mean that their behavior followed the changes anticipated at very precise frequencies. Waves below 6 cycles per second caused the subjects to become very emotionally upset, and even disrupted bodily functions. At 8.2 cycles, they felt very high . . . an elevated feeling, as though they had been in masterful meditation, learned over a period of years. Eleven to 11.3 cycles induced waves of depressed agitation leading to riotous behavior. The Neurophone Dr. PatrickFlanagan is a personalfriend of mine. Inthe early 1960s, as a teenager, Pat was listed as one of the top scientists in the world by "Life" magazine. Among his many inventions was a device he called the Neurophone--an electronic instrument that can successfully program suggestions directly through contact with the skin. When he attempted to patent the device, the government demanded that he prove it worked. When he did, the National Security Agency confiscated the neurophone. It took Pat two years of legal battle to get his invention back. In using thedevice, you don't hear or see a thing; it is applied to the skin, which Pat claims is the source of special senses. The skin contains more sensors for heat, touch, pain, vibration, and electrical fields than any other part of the human anatomy. In one of his recent tests, Pat conducted two identical seminars for a military audience--one seminar one night and one the next night, because the size of the room was not large enough to accommodate all of them at one time. When the first group proved to be very cool and unwilling to respond, Patrick spent the next day making a special tape to play at the second seminar. The tape instructed the audience to be extremely warm and responsive and for their hands to become "tingly." The tape was played through the neurophone, which was connected to a wire he placed along the ceiling of the room. There were no speakers, so no sound could be heard, yet the message was successfully transmitted from that wire directly into the brains of the audience. They were warm and receptive, their hands tingled and they responded, according to programming, in other ways that I cannot mention here. The more we find out about how human beings work through today's highly advanced technological research, the more we learn to control human beings. And what probably scares me the most is that the medium for takeover is already in place! The television set in your living room and bedroom is doing a lot more than just entertaining you. Before I continue, let me point out something else about an altered state of consciousness. When you go into an altered state, you transfer into right brain, which results in the internal release of the body's own opiates: enkephalins and Beta-endorphins, chemically almost identical to opium. In other words, it feels good . . . and you want to come back for more. 526 Recent tests byresearcher Herbert Krugman showedthat, while viewers were watching TV, right-brain activity outnumbered left-brain activity by a ratio of two to one. Put more simply, the viewers were in an altered state . . . in trance more often than not. They were getting their Beta-endorphin "fix." To measure attention spans, psychophysiologist Thomas Mulholland of the Veterans Hospital in Bedford, Massachusetts, attached young viewers to an EEG machine that was wired to shut the TV set off whenever the children's brains produced a majority of alpha waves. Although the children were told to concentrate, only a few could keep the set on for more than 30 seconds! Most viewers are already hypnotized. To deepen the trance is easy. One simple way is to place a blank, black frame every 32 frames in the film that is being projected. This creates a 45-beat-per-minute pulsation perceived only by the subconscious mind--the ideal pace to generate deep hypnosis. The commercials or suggestions presented following this alpha-inducing broadcast are much more likely to be accepted by the viewer. The high percentage of the viewing audience that has somnambulistic-depth ability could very well accept the suggestions as commands--as long as those commands did not ask the viewer to do something contrary to his morals, religion, or self-preservation. The medium for takeover is here. By the age of 16, children have spent 10,000 to 15,000 hours watching television--that is more time than they spend n school! In the average home, the TV set is on for six hours and 44 minutes per day--an increase of nine minutes from last year and three times the average rate of increase during the 1970s. It obviously isn't getting better . . . we are rapidly moving into an alpha-level world--very possibly the Orwellian world of "1984"--placid, glassy-eyed, and responding obediently to instructions. A research project by Jacob Jacoby, a Purdue University psychologist, found that of 2,700 people tested, 90 percent misunderstood even such simple viewing fare as commercials and "Barnaby Jones." Only minutes after watching, the typical viewer missed 23 to 36 percent of the questions about what he or she had seen. Of course they did--they were going in and out of trance! If you go into a deep trance, you must be instructed to remember--otherwise you automatically forget. I have just touched the tip of the iceberg. When you start to combine subliminal messages behind the music, subliminal visuals projected on the screen, hypnotically produced visual effects, sustained musical beats at a trance-inducing pace . . . you have extremely effective brainwashing. Every hour that you spend watching the TV set you become more conditioned. And, in case you thought there was a law against any of these things, guess again. There isn't! There are a lot of powerful people who obviously prefer things exactly the way they are. Maybe they have plans for? 527 A NEO-PAGAN FILMOGRAPHY An Annotated List of Recommended Viewing ======================= (compiled 3/89) by Mike Nichols Although this list is a long one, it could easily have been much longer. In fact, the hard part was deciding which of many good movies had to be left out, due to limitations of space. So I used a few rules to guide me. First, I gave preference to movies that had a strong Pagan message, as opposed to films that are 'merely' entertaining. Thus, a film like 'Never Cry Wolf', though it has no supernatural elements, made the list; whereas superbly crafted atmospheric entertainments like 'Gothic' and 'Eyes of Fire' didn't. Second, in dealing with the supernatural, I concentrated on films that informed, or at least stayed within the realms of possibility. Hence, I include 'The Haunting', but not 'Poltergeist'. Inevitably, I will have left out some of your favorites, for which I apologize in advance. But I had to stop somewhere. APPRENTICE TO MURDER, 1988, C-94m D: R.L. Thomas. Donald Sutherland, Chad Lowe, Mia Sara, Knut Husebo, Rutanya Alsa. Intriguing fact-based story of a man who was a 'hex-meister' in the Pennsylvania Dutch tradition. His practice of folk medicine lands him in trouble with the law, and a final confrontation with a rival sorcerer leads to a charge of murder. Sutherland is appealing in the lead role, and the story unfolds mainly through his eyes. Mia Sara does a nice job in a supporting role. There's a lot of authentic folk magic to lend atmosphere. THE BELIEVERS, 1987, C-114m D: John Schlesinger. Martin Sheen, Helen Shaver, Harley Cross, Robert Loggia, Elizabeth Wilson, Lee Richardson, Harris Yulin, Richard Masur, Carla Pinza, Jimmy Smits. Afterthe death ofhis wife, Sheen andhis son moveto New York City, where they become involved in a grisly series of cultish human sacrifices. Although the religion of Santeria is unfortunately shown in a negative light, there is enough authenticity to lend lots of interest. A gripping thriller. BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE, 1958, C-103m D: Richard Quine. James Stewart, Kim Novak, Jack Lemmon, Ernie Kovaks, Hermione Gingold. Yes, I'm well aware that this movie, based on the John Van Druten play, is responsible for more misinformation about Witchcraft than anything outside the 'Bewitched' TV series. Still, I hardly know a Pagan who doesn't love it. For many of us, it was the first time we'd encountered the idea of Witchcraft alive and well in a modern metropolis. And Kim Novak is STILL my idea of what a Witch OUGHT to look like. And none of us will ever forget Kovak's reading of the line 'Witches, boy! Witches!' Or Stewart's offhand comment that it feels more like Halloween than Christmas. Lots of fun. 528 BROTHER SUN, SISTER MOON, 1973-Italian-British, C-121m D: Franco Zeffirelli. Graham Faulkner, Judi Bowker, Leigh Lawson, Alec Guinness, Valentina Cortese, Kenneth Cranham For most Pagans, St. Francis of Assisi is usually considered an honorary Pagan, at the very least. His insistence on finding divinity in nature is exactly what Paganism is all about. This film biography portrays his extreme love of and sensitivity to nature with poignant beauty. And the musical score by Donovan is such a perfect choice that, having heard it, nothing else would ever do. This is also a visually stunning film, as those who remember Zefferelli's 'Romeo and Juliet' might expect. If ever Christianity could be made palatable to the sensibilities of Neo-Pagans, it would have to be through the eyes of a nature mystic like Francis. The Catholic Church came close to naming him a heretic but, at the last minute, the Pope (played by Alec Guinness) sanctioned him. (Old Obi Wan comes through again!) BURN, WITCH, BURN!, 1962-British, 90m D: Sidney Hayers. Janey Blair, Peter Wyngarde, Margaret Johnston, Anthony Nicholls. Based on the Fritz Leiber classic 'Conjure Wife' and scripted by Richard Matheson, this is an interesting view of Witchcraft. Granted, this has as many misconceptions as 'Bell, Book, and Candle', yet the premise is intriguing: that ALL women are secretly Witches, and ALL men don't know about it. This is mainly about one woman's use of magic to advance the career of her schoolteacher husband. DARBY O'GILL AND THE LITTLE PEOPLE, 1959, C-93m D: Robert Stevenson. Albert Sharpe, Janet Munro, Sean Connery, Jimmy O'Dea, Kieron Moore, Estelle Winwood. Simply the best fantasy ever filmed. No kidding. This is a PERFECT little movie, and (along with 'The Quiet Man') the ultimate St. Patrick's Day film. Sharpe is sensational as Darby O'Gill, who likes to sit in the pub telling stories about his adventures with the King of the Leprechauns. Unbeknownst to everyone, they are TRUE stories! Every tidbit of Irish folklore, from banshees to the crock of gold to the costa bower (the death coach) is worked into the plot. The music and songs are great. So is the cast, many of whom were brought over from the Abbey Theater in Dublin! Sean Connery makes his screen debut, in a SINGING role! The subsequent untimely death of Janet Munro robbed the screen of one of its brightest actresses. (Her character's combination of willfulness and femininity is a textbook study. Compared to her, Princess Leia's character is not 'strong-willed' -- it's just snotty!) The special effects are miraculous for 1959! When Darby walks into King Brian's throne room, we walks THROUGH a crowd of Leprechauns, and I defy anyone to find a matte line! In fact, the special effects are so good throughout, that you FORGET that they're special effects, and end up deciding that they must have rounded up some real Leprechauns from somewhere. 529 THE DARK CRYSTAL, 1983-British, C-94m D: Jim Henson and Frank Oz. Performed by Jim Henson, Kathryn Mullen, Frank Oz, Dave Goelz, Brian Muehl, Jean Pierre Amiel, Kiran Shaw. The creators of the Muppets come up with an entire fantasy world, where even the flora and fauna are original. And this world is in grave peril unless the missing shard of the Dark Crystal can be found and restored to it. This is a hero-quest in the classic mold, with art stylings by Brian Froud. Although wonderfully imaginative and entertaining, it has a very strong message of mysticism, all about universal balance and the synthesis of opposites. (One wonders if the entire quartz crystal fad of the late 1980's had its origins here!) DON'T LOOK NOW, 1973-British, C-110m D: Nicolas Roeg. Julie Christie, Donald Sutherland, Hilary Mason, Clelia Matania, Massimo Serato. Based ona so-so occultthriller by Daphnedu Maurier, thisbecomes a brilliant film in the hands of Italian director Nicolas Roeg (famed for 'The Man Who Fell to Earth). Shortly after their daughter has drowned, Sutherland (who restores mosaics in old churches) and his wife go to Venice where they meet two sisters who are spiritualists. They begin to receive messages from the daughter, who keeps warning Sutherland to leave Venice because he is in mortal danger. If ever a film captured the real feeling of how psychic ability operates, this is it. The use of subjective editing, and the symbolic use (and total control of!) color throughout the film is masterful. (This film also contains one of the most stylish love scenes ever filmed.) Squeamish people need to be warned about the violent ending, however. THE DUNWICH HORROR, 1970, C-90m D: Daniel Haller. Sandra Dee, Dean Stockwell, Ed Begley, Sam Jaffe, Lloyd Bochner, Joanna Moore, Talia Coppolia (Shire). Nice adaptation of an H. P.Lovecraft story, with a wonderfulcast. Dean Stockwell is the quintessential ritual magician, both mysterious and compelling. He steals the original 'Necronomicon' from a library in order to 'bring back the Old Ones', a race of powerful but dark beings that inhabited the earth before humans. Sam Jaffe is wonderful as his crazed grandfather. (What happened to the father is part of the mystery!) And Sandra Dee is perfect as the innocent virgin chosen to be the unwilling host mother for the rebirth of these demons. (Some versions of the film cut the last scene short, which shows a developing fetus superimposed over Dee's abdomen. 'Nuff said.) By the way, no film has ever shown the raw power of otherworldly beings as well as this. No 'latex lovelies' here. Just pure, unadulterated elemental force. Nice job! THE EMERALD FOREST, 1985, C-113m D: John Boorman. Powers Boothe, Meg Foster, Charley Boorman, Dira Pass. A look atour ownculture through theeyes of theaboriginal tribesof the Amazon. (They call us the 'termite people', because of the deforestation and industrial development we have brought to their homeland.) The director's son, Charley, is totally convincing as a young boy raised by aborigines. Great music by Junior Homrich. 530 THE ENTITY, 1983, C-115m D: Sidney J. Furie. Barbara Hershey, Ron Silver, Jacqueline Brooks, David Lablosa, George Coe, Margaret Blye. The trulyfrightening thing about thismovie is that it'sbased on a true story, about a woman who is repeatedly violently raped by an invisible presence. Initially, she seeks the help of a psychologist, who is a strict behaviorist and thinks that it is all 'in her mind'. It is not until a chance encounter with a team of parapsychologist from the local university that she finally finds people who understand her problem. One of the film's great strengths is its portrayal of the professional rivalry that develops between the psychologist (who has begun taking a personal interest) and the parapsychologists, who are interested in investigating the phenomena. The final scene in the gymnasium is the only part of the film based on speculation only. At last report, the case was still active. EXCALIBUR, 1981-British, C-140m D: John Boorman. Nicol Williamson, Nigel Terry, Helen Mirren, Nicholas Clay, Cherie Lunghi, Corin Redgrave, Paul Geoffrey. A stylish adaptationof ThomasMalory's 'Le MorteD'Arthur'. Boorman knew exactly what he was doing in combining certain key characters and keeping the spirit of the legends. The Grail Quest is especially well handled. Williamson's Merlin and Mirren's Morgana are both brilliant performances. Great music. Try to see this one on the big screen. HARVEY, 1950, 104m D: Henry Koster. James Stewart, Josephine Hull, Peggy Dow, Charles Drake, Cecil Kellaway, Victoria Horne, Jesse White, Wallace Ford, Ida Moore. Imagine a movie that chooses as its main theme a Welsh animal spirit called a pooka (or 'pwcca' in Welsh)! That would be improbable enough by today's standards. But the fact that it happened in a 1940's Pulitzer Prize-winning play and subsequent movie boggles the mind! The pooka in question is a 6-foot invisible rabbit named Harvey, who manifests himself only to a gentle tippler named Elwood P. Dowd, played to perfection by Stewart. Jesse White (the lonely Maytag repairman) made his film debut here. Few movies are as much fun as this. THE HAUNTING, 1963, 112m D: Robert Wise. Julie Harris, Claire Bloom, Richard Johnson, Russ Tamblyn, Lois Maxwell, Fay Compton Based on ShirleyJackson's masterpiece 'TheHaunting of HillHouse', this is probably the ultimate ghost movie. A parapsychologist and a team of student assistants investigate a haunted house. Based on the premise that no ghost ever hurts anyone physically; the damage is always done by the victim to himself, psychologically. Julie Harris is marvelous. INHERIT THE WIND, 1960, 127m D: Stanley Kramer. Spencer Tracy, Fredric March, Gene Kelly, Florence Eldridge, Dick York, Harry Morgan, Donna Anderson, Elliot Reid, Claude Akins, Noah Beery, Jr., Norman Fell. This should be required viewing for every Pagan. For many of us, there came a time when our own ideologies simply collided head-on with fundamental Christian faith, and we knew we could no longer accept it. Never has a movie embodied this theme so well. Based on the play by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee, it deals with the Scopes Monkey Trial of 1925 in Tennessee, where a high school teacher was arrested for teaching Darwin's Theory of Evolution. The debate that ensued was between two of the most brilliant minds of their day, the great trial lawyer Clarence Darrow for the defense, and two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan for the prosecution. Kelly's character is based on acid-tongued columnist H. L. Mencken. This is riveting, from first to last. 531 JONATHAN LIVINGSTON SEAGULL, 1973, C-120m D: Hal Bartlett. Many seagulls. Although the film is flawed and drags a little toward the end, it is nevertheless well worth seeing. The photography is beautiful, and Neil Diamond's score (including 'Skybird') is marvelous. It is, of course, based on Richard Bach's marvelous tale of a little seagull that refuses to fit in with his flock, preferring to follow a higher, more mystical, calling. This is yet another one you should try to see on the big screen. LADYHAWKE, 1985, C-124m D: Richard Donner. Matthew Broderick, Rutger Hauer, Michelle Pfeiffer, Leo McKern, John Wood, Ken Hutchison, Alfred Molina. Whoever decidedon themusic for thisfilm should beshot! Think what a nice soundtrack by Clannad would have been like. That reservation aside, this is a great medieval fantasy concerning two lovers who have been separated by a curse, and a young thief who becomes their ally, an unusual but charming role for Matthew Broderick. (If anyone ever gets around to filming Katherine Kurtz's 'Deryni' books, this is the team that ought to do it.) THE LAST UNICORN, 1982, C-84m D: Rankin & Bass. Voices of Mia Farrow, Alan Arkin, Jeff Bridges, Tammy Grimes, Robert Klein, Angela Lansbury, Christopher Lee. Based on theincomparable fantasy novel by PeterS. Beagle, this is very adult animation. And because Beagle himself wrote the screenplay, this film contains spiritual one-liners that hit you right in the gut. Example: 'Never run from anything immortal. It attracts their attention.' Though this is NOT classic Disney animation (in fact, it looks like limited animation), the voice-work, screenplay, and art stylings are all so good, you're inclined to overlook it. Angela Lansbury's character voice for Mommy Fortuna is marvelous. And there's a lovely lyrical score by the group America. THE LAST WAVE, 1977-Australian, C-106m D: Peter Weir. Richard Chamberlain, Olivia Hamnett, (David) Gulpilil, Frederick Parslow, Vivean Gray, Nanjiwarra Amagula. Chamberlainplays anAustralian lawyerdefending anaborigine accused of a murder that was actually done by magic. This is a rare and wonderful glimpse into the tribal religion of the native Australians, their myths, and their belief in the Dream Time. Peter Weir (famed for 'Picnic at Hanging Rock') directs this atmospheric thriller. LEGEND, 1985-British, C-89m D: Ridley Scott. Tom Cruise, Mia Sara, Tim Curry, David Bennent, Alice Playten, Billy Barty. Oneof the mostvisually luscious filmsever created. Every frame is gorgeous. The plot is nearly archetypal, with evil (Curry) attempting to seduce innocence (Sara). Though it's hard to accept Cruise as the hero of this Grimm's-like fairy tale, Curry and Sara turn in good performances. The European version runs 20 minutes longer and retains the original (and, in my opinion, superior) musical score by Jerry Goldsmith. The American score is by Tangerine Dream. 532 THE LORD OF THE RINGS, 1978, C-133m D: Ralph Bakshi. Voices of Christopher Guard, William Squire, John Hurt, Michael Sholes, Dominic Guard. This ambitious but flawed animated feature covers half of J.R.R. Tolkien's fantasy trilogy, ending much too abruptly. But for all the criticism usually heaped upon this film, there ARE moments of absolute genius. Such as the Dark Riders attempting to kill Frodo and friends in their beds at the Prancing Pony Inn. Or Gandalf and Frodo's moonlit walk through the Shire. Or the first time Frodo puts on the ring. These moments alone make the movie well worth seeing. NEVER CRY WOLF, 1983, C-105m D: Carroll Ballard. Charles Martin Smith, Brian Dennehy, Zachary Ittimangnaq, Samson Jorah. A brilliant performance by Smith (based on author Farley Mowat) as a young man sent to study wolves in the Arctic. Again, we are treated to the insights of the native culture (the Innuit), and are shown how it has been debased through contact with our own greedy culture. This film contains some of the most spectacular nature photography ever put on film. Ballard was chief nature photographer for Disney Studios for years. Try to see this one on the big screen. NOSFERATU THE VAMPYRE, 1979-West German, C-107m D: Werner Herzog. Klaus Kinski, Isabelle Adjani, Bruno Ganz, Roland Topor. Forvampire lovers, this film isthe creme de lacreme. Werner Herzog is a leader of modern German Expressionist cinema, and here he is operating at the top of his form. The spooky atmosphere is so thick you could peel it off the screen in layers. (Try to see this one in the theater.) The creepiness of Kinski's Dracula is equaled only by the classic beauty of Adjani's Lucy. This is the perfect film for Halloween night. The German language version with English subtitles is far superior to the English version, and slightly longer. (The SOUND of the German dialogue actually fits the mood of the film better.) ON A CLEAR DAY YOU CAN SEE FOREVER, 1970, C-129m D: Vincente Minnelli. Barbra Streisand, Yves Montand, Bob Newhart, Larry Blyden, Simon Oakland, Jack Nicholson. Alan Lerner & Burton Lane score. Probablyinspired by the case of BrideyMurphy, this musical is all about hypnosis, past life regression, ESP, reincarnation, and other 'New Age' topics (though 20 years too early). (One wonders how Shirley MacLaine missed starring in this. Yet, one is thankful for small favors.) Streisand is wonderful, especially in the lavish flashback sequences. Montand should have been replaced. Still, the plot's surprising turns are well within the realm of supernatural possibility. 533 THE SERPENT AND THE RAINBOW, 1988, C-98m D: Wes Craven. Bill Pullman, Cathy Tyson, Zakes Mokae, Paul Winfield, Brent Jennings, Theresa Merritt, Michael Gough. Directed by Wes Craven (famed for his 'Nightmare on Elm Street' series), this is the true story of Wade Davis, an ethnobotanist who is sent to Haiti to bring back the secret of the so-called Zombie drug, tetrodotoxin. But the local practitioners of 'Voodoo' don't yield their secrets too easily and, before it's all over, Davis finds himself a victim of the drug -- which gives Craven carte blanche for the wonderful special effects he's famous for. Like 'The Believers', this film unfortunately shows the native religion (Voudoun) primarily in a negative light. Still, at times it manages to capture its beauty, mystery and innocence, especially in the festival scenes when the entire village spends the night asleep in a candle-lighted forest. 7 FACES OF DR. LAO, 1964, C-100m D: George Pal. Tony Randall, Barbara Eden, Arthur O'Connell, John Ericson, Kevin Tate, Argentina Brunetti, Noah Beery, Jr., Minerva Urecal, John Qualen, Lee Patrick, Royal Dano. For people who think that decent fantasy films are a recent development, this movie is going to come as a delightful surprise. The special effects and gentle magic of director George Pal was the perfect means of bringing the Charles Finney classic 'The Circus of Dr. Lao' to the screen. Randall, in a tour de force performance of six roles, is the mysterious Chinese guru, Dr. Lao, whose travelling circus changes the course of history for a small Western town. For the better. A lovely and funny film with a spiritual dimension that would appeal to every Pagan. Nice musical score by Leigh Harline combines Western and Oriental music. SILENT RUNNING, 1971, C-89m D: Douglas Trumbull. Bruce Dern, Cliff Potts, Ron Rifkin, Jesse Vint. Should be subtitled 'Druidsin Spaaaaace!!!' Aboard thedeep space ship Valley Forge, the very talented Bruce Dern (in his most likable film role ever) battles to save the last vestiges of the Earth's forests. Special effects by the team that created '2001'. And a brilliant musical score by Peter Schickele (whose better-known comic persona is P.D.Q. Bach), sung by Joan Baez. SLEEPING BEAUTY, 1959, C-75m D: Clyde Geronimi. Voices of Mary Costa, Bill Shirley, Elinor Audley, Verna Felton, Barbara Jo Allen, Barbara Luddy. The all-time masterpiece of the animator's art, this is the most lavish and most expensive (by contemporary standards) animated feature ever done by Disney studios. The uninitiated may babble about 'Fantasia', but the true cognoscente of animation know that THIS is the apogee of the art form. From the lush color stylings (heavy use of greens and purples), to the elegantly stylized backgrounds, to the figure of Maleficent (designed by Marc Davis), to a fire-breathing dragon that wasn't equaled until 'Dragonslayer', this film is superb. Voice work by Audley and Felton is outstanding. The film should also serve as a textbook example of how to adapt a classical score (Tchaikovsky's 'Sleeping Beauty Ballet') to a movie soundtrack. Never has it been done better. See it. One last consideration: this was filmed in the extra-wide-screen Technerama process, and naturally loses a lot when transferred to video. Try to see this in a theater. One with a BIG screen and a state-of-the-art sound system. You will be amazed. 534 SOMETHING WICKED THIS WAY COMES, 1983, C-94m D: Jack Clayton. Jason Robards, Jonathan Pryce, Diane Ladd, Pam Grier, Royal Dano, Shawn Carson, Vidal Peterson, Mary Grace Canfield, James Stacy, narrated by Arthur Hill. RayBradbury's fantasy novel is brought tothe screen by a director who understands it. This is a mood piece, and it's done to perfection. It all takes place in that strange twilight halfway between children's make-believe and the world of the supernatural. You're never quite sure which it is. Jonathan Pryce is utterly mesmerizing as the sinister Mr. Dark, leader of a mysterious travelling carnival. He has so much screen presence you can barely take your eyes off him. I haven't seen an actor in such total control of a role since Gene Wilder did 'Willy Wonka'. An added bonus is that Bradbury himself wrote the screenplay, and it shows. It's a real cut above the insipid screenplays we're all used to. STAR WARS, 1977, C-121m D: George Lucas. Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Peter Cushing, Alec Guinness, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, voice of James Earl Jones (as Darth Vader) Despite the spaceships and high-tech doodads, this is really more fantasy than science fiction. And the reliance which director George Lucas placed in the theories of Joseph Campbell help shape a story that is very near to myth. The other two movies in the trilogy, 'The Empire Strikes Back' and 'Return of the Jedi' are also important. The main interest to most Pagans lies in the mystical sub-motif of 'the Force', a kind a 'mana' that is ethically neutral, but may be used in magic for either good (as evidenced by Obi Wan Kenobe) or evil (as evidenced by Darth Vader). In the second film, it is the great Jedi Master, Yoda (created by Muppet masters, Jim Henson and Frank Oz), who teaches us most about the Force. This is pure magic. THE WATCHER IN THE WOODS, 1980, C-84 D: John Hough. Bette Davis, Carroll Baker, David McCallum, Lynn-Holly Johnson, Kyle Richards, Ian Bannen, Richard Pasco. What I wouldn't giveto have seen thisas a teenager! Johnson stars as a girl whose family has just rented an old English country house, where she is haunted by the image of a young girl who disappeared years ago. During a strange seance-type initiation ritual. In the ruins of an old chapel. During a freak lightning storm. During an eclipse. The subtext is so thick you could cut it with a knife. Even though such elements remain unstated, for those of us interested in power points, ley lines, and astronomical alignments, this movie is a real treat. Someone Knew Something! Sadly, the end is badly flawed. But no matter, because the fun is in the getting there. A delightful cast, and great atmosphere throughout, make this film special. THE WICKER MAN, 1973-British, C-95m D: Robin Hardy. Edward Woodward, Christopher Lee, Britt Ekland, Diane Cilento, Ingrid Pitt, Lindsay Kemp. Based on the Anthony Shaffer thriller,this movie is a favorite of most Pagans. The plot concerns a police sergeant (Woodward) sent to investigate the disappearance of a young girl, on a small island off the coast of Scotland. There he finds a completely Pagan society. Local color and beautiful folk music enhance the most loving portrayal of a Pagan society ever committed to film. Unfortunately, in the end, the Pagans are 'revealed' to be the requisite bad guys. If you can overlook the ending, however, this is fine movie. Every Pagan I know who's seen it wants to move to Summer Isle immediately. WILLOW, 1988, C-125m D: Ron Howard. Val Kilmer, Joanne Whalley, Warwick Davis, Jean Marsh, 535 Patricia Hayes, Billy Barty, Pat Roach, Gavan O'Herlihy. Despitethe story byGeorge Lucas, thisis NOT the'Star Wars' of the fantasy genre. Too derivative (especially Mad Martigan, who is a Han Solo clone). Still, the film has a lot to say about magic, and Davis gives a delightful performance. Jean Marsh is terrific as the evil Queen Bavmorda (in a role that almost parallels her role as Queen Mombi in 'Return to Oz'). And the scene in which Chirlindrea appears to Willow in the forest is as close to an epiphany of the Goddess as I've ever seen on film. That scene alone is worth the admission price. WINDWALKER, 1980, C-108m D: Keith Merrill. Trevor Howard, Nick Ramus, James Remar, Serene Hedin, Dusty Iron Wing McCrea. This is the best cowboy-and-Indian movie I've ever seen. Mainly because there are no cowboys in it. It is pure Native American. Trevor Howard is incredible as the old Indian chief who returns from the dead in order to protect his family, and restore to it a lost son, a twin who was stolen at birth by an enemy tribe. This film FEELS more like genuine Native American than any other I can think of. The Utah mountain scenery is breath-taking. Costuming (mostly furs) is authentic. And dialogue is actually in the Cheyenne and Crow languages, with English subtitles. And there's enough mysticism (especially in the old Indian's relationship with his horse) to please any Pagan audience. WIZARDS, 1977, C-80m D: Ralph Bakshi. Voices of Bob Holt, Jesse Wells, Richard Romanus, David Proval, Mark Hamill. Post-holocaust scenario withthe forcesof evil technologyled bythe wizard Blackwolf arrayed against the forces of benevolent magic led by the wizard Avatar. With background stylings a la Roger Dean, and character design that borrows from Vaughn Bode, this is tongue-in-cheek wizardry at its finest. The character of Elinor, a faery nymph, is a complete success -- a milestone in adult animation. Great voice work and nice music. And who is that wonderful (uncredited) narrator??? XANADU, 1980, C-88m D: Robert Greenwald. Olivia Newton-John, Michael Beck, Gene Kelly, James Sloyan, Dimitra Arliss, Katie Hanley. Yeah, yeah, I know. On one level, it's just Olivia Newton-John on roller-skates. But on another level, it is the story of how one of the nine muses of classical mythology (Terpsichore) comes down from Olympus to inspire a young artist. On yet a third level, it is the biggest Hollywood musical produced since the golden years of MGM. And it works well on all counts. The brilliant musical score (including several chart-toppers) is provided by the Electric Light Orchestra's Jeff Lynne, and Olivia does them up proper. Gene Kelly might not dance as well as he once did, but he can still charm as well. And did anyone notice that's Sandahl Bergman leading the muses in dance? As if that weren't enough, the film includes a delightful animated segment that marked the debut for Don Bluth studios, which later gave us 'The Secret of NIHM' and 'An American Tail'. 536 C A N D L E M A S by Gwydion Cinhil Kirontin It seems quite impossible that the holiday of Candlemas should be considered the beginning of Spring. Here in the heartland, February 2nd may see a blanket of snow mantling the Mother. Or, if the snows have gone, you may be sure the days are filled with drizzle, slush, and steel-grey skies -- the dreariest weather of the year. In short, the perfect time for a Pagan Festival of Lights. And as for Spring, although this may seem a tenuous beginning, all the little buds, flowers and leaves will have arrived on schedule before Spring runs its course to Beltane. "Candlemas" is the Christianized name for the holiday, of course. The older Pagan names were Imbolc and Oimelc. "Imbolc" means, literally, "in the belly" (of the Mother). For in the womb of Mother Earth, hidden from our mundane sight but sensed by a keener vision, there are stirrings. The seed that was planted in her womb at the solstice is quickening and the new year grows. "Oimelc" means "milk of ewes", for it is also lambing season. The holiday is also called "Brigit's Day", in honor of the great Irish Goddess Brigit. At her shrine, the ancient Irish capital of Kildare, a group of 19 priestesses (no men allowed) kept a perpetual flame burning in her honor. She was considered a goddess of fire, patroness of smithcraft, poetry and healing (especially the healing touch of midwifery). This tripartite symbolism was occasionally expressed by saying that Brigit had two sisters, also named Brigit. (Incidentally, another form of the name Brigit is Bride, and it is thus She bestows her special patronage on any woman about to be married or handfasted, the woman being called "bride" in her honor.) The Roman Catholic Church could not very easily call the Great Goddess of Ireland a demon, so they canonized her instead. Henceforth, she would be "Saint" Brigit, patron saint of smithcraft, poetry, and healing. They "explained" this by telling the Irish peasants that Brigit was "really" an early Christian missionary sent to the Emerald Isle, and that the miracles she performed there "misled" the common people into believing that she was a goddess. For some reason, the Irish swallowed this. (There is no limit to what the Irish imagination can convince itself of. For example, they also came to believe that Brigit was the "foster-mother" of Jesus, giving no thought to the implausibility of Jesus having spent his boyhood in Ireland!) Brigit's holiday was chiefly marked by the kindling of sacred fires, since she symbolized the fire of birth and healing, the fire of the forge, and the fire of poetic inspiration. Bonfires were lighted on the beacon tors, and chandlers celebrated their special holiday. The Roman Church was quick to confiscate this symbolism as well, using "Candlemas" as the day to bless all the church candles that would be used for the coming liturgical year. (Catholics will be reminded that the following day, St. Blaise's Day, is remembered for using the newly-blessed candles to bless the throats of parishioners, keeping them from colds, flu, sore throats, etc.) The Catholic Church, never one to refrain from piling holiday upon holiday, also called it the Feast of the Purification of the 537 Blessed Virgin Mary. (It is surprising how many of the old Pagan holidays were converted to Maryan Feasts.) The symbol of the Purification may seem a little obscure to modern readers, but it has to do with the old custom of "churching women". It was believed that women were impure for six weeks after giving birth. And since Mary gave birth at the winter solstice, she wouldn't be purified until February 2nd. In Pagan symbolism, this might be re-translated as when the Great Mother once again becomes the Young Maiden Goddess. Today, this holiday is chiefly connected to weather lore. Even our American folk-calendar keeps the tradition of "Groundhog's Day", a day to predict the coming weather, telling us that if the Groundhog sees his shadow, there will be "six more weeks" of bad weather (i.e., until the next old holiday, Lady Day). This custom is ancient. An old British rhyme tells us that "If Candlemas Day be bright and clear, there'll be two winters in the year." Actually, all of the cross-quarter days can be used as "inverse" weather predictors, whereas the quarter- days are used as "direct" weather predictors. Like the other High Holidays or Great Sabbats of the Witches' year, Candlemas is sometimes celebrated on it's alternate date, astrologically determined by the sun's reaching 15-degrees Aquarius, or Candlemas Old Style (this year, February 6th). Another holiday that gets mixed up in this is Valentine's Day. Ozark folklorist Vance Randolf makes this quite clear by noting that the old-timers used to celebrate Groundhog's Day on February 14th. Once again, this shows the resultant confusion of calendar changes and "lost days" that have accumulated down the centuries. For modern Witches, Candlemas O.S. may be seen as the Pagan version of Valentine's Day, with a de-emphasis of "hearts and flowers" and an appropriate re-emphasis of Pagan carnal frivolity. This also re-aligns the holiday with the ancient Roman Lupercalia, a fertility festival held at this time, in which the priests of Pan ran through the streets of Rome whacking young women with goatskin thongs to make them fertile. The women seemed to enjoy the attention and often stripped in order to afford better targets. One of the nicest folk-customs still practiced in many countries, and especially by Witches in the British Isles and parts of the U.S., is to place a lighted candle in each and every window of the house, beginning at sundown on Candlemas Eve (February 1), allowing them to continue burning until sunrise. Make sure that such candles are well seated against tipping and guarded from nearby curtains, etc. What a cheery sight it is on this cold, bleak and dreary night to see house after house with candle-lit windows! And, of course, if you are your Coven's chandler, or if you just happen to like making candles, Candlemas Day is the day for doing it. Some Covens hold candle-making parties and try to make and bless all the candles they'll be using for the whole year on this day. 538 Other customs of the holiday include weaving "Brigit's crosses" from straw or wheat to hang around the house for protection, performing rites of spiritual cleansing and purification, making "Brigit's beds" to ensure fertility of mind and spirit (and body, if desired), and making Crowns of Light (i.e. of candles) for the High Priestess to wear for the Candlemas Circle, similar to those worn on St. Lucy's Day in Scandinavian countries. All and all, this is certainly one of the prettiest holidays celebrated in the Pagan seasonal calendar. 539 OPENING THE CIRCLE The High Priestess goes to each of the four directions in turn, and draws a Banishing Pentacle, saying, Guardians of the East (South, West, North), Powers of Air (Fire, Water, Earth), we thank you For joining in our circle And we ask for your blessing As you depart May there be peace between us Now and forever. Blessed be. She raises her athame to the sky and touches it to the earth, then opens her arms and says, The circle is open, but unbroken, May the peace of the Goddess Go in your hearts, Merry meet, and merry part. And merry meet again. Blessed be. 540 Ritual of Casting Sacred Circle Many times we are asked "how do you cast a circle ?" There are so many different was that this can be done. Differs from each Tradition to the next. Even within our own Avaloian Tradition we make improvisions on this. The main factor is to cast a sacred space. A space that separates this world from the other. A space that we ourselves make holy. And that is what is important. A space that you set aside from all else, to glorify and exalt. For you are the one casting, cleansing, purifying, and setting it aside from all else. Before you cast, one should make sure of the intent of casting. Ask yourself why you are doing it. Once you have this the gathering is made easier. If you are doing this with a group of people One must be chosen to be the Lord or Lady. The Lord or Lady usually has one person who waits them. This is not to say the Lord or Lady is higher than they, but the fact that they shall be the God/dess incarnate. You may also do this solitary. Depending on the amount tending. The Lord/Lady has the sword brought to them. All else are standing outside where the circle is to be cast. The Lord/Lady takes the sword and walk deosil (clockwise) around the space to be cast. The wait has a small bell with them. Beginning at the East, the sword, in a non-threatening manner, is raised. The wait rings the bell. All fill fall silent. Moving clockwise the Lord/Lady salute each direction. If there are four novices present each will stand to the directions as the Lord/Lady passes. Lord/Lady: Let all those that wish to partake enter ye now ! (the bell is rung) Everyone enters by stepping forward (no actual circle has been cast yet) Wait: My Lord/Lady all those that wish to partake in this Magickal Rite are now present. I pray you, cast the Sacred Circle. Lord/Lady: What thou doth sees makes here this night, shall be forever within this circle. So Mote It Be ! (When anyone speaks the So Mote It Be or Blessed Be, all shall repeat it) Again at the East, the Lord/Lady takes the sword and draws within the ground or upon the floor the circle saying as the pass... "I draw this magick circle let no evil or ill will cross its mark." Once the Lord/Lady has reached the East again, They take the sword and place it upon the shoulders of the novice, and says... "be thou the guardian of this gate... I call I summon I stir oh ye spirits of Air, come forth now I pray thee and witness our Rite. So Mote It Be !" The Guardian answers: I am he/she the guardian, no evil or ill will shall pass by me, My Lord/Lady. the Wait rings the bell The Lord/Lady goes to each quarter and perform the same, on each guardian. The Wait will ring the bell as each guardian answers. Once the quarters are called the Lord/Lady goes to the center of the circle as the Wait preforms the cleansing of the circle with salt and water. 541 Incense can be used instead of salt and water mixture. The Lord/Lady summons the spirit of the Great Lady and the Great Lord by saying.... Great Lady witness now your children who stand before you in Perfect Love and Perfect Trust. Standing East, with the censer the Lord/Lady says.... Great Maiden Come To Us..... All repeat.... Standing South, with the torch or candle the Lord/Lady says.... Great Mother Come To Us.... All repeat... Standing West, with chalice of wine or water, the Lord/Lady says... Ancient Queen of Wisdom Come To Us.... All repeat... Standing North, with the salt, the Lord/Lady says.... Brother Come To Us... All Repeat... Drumming, rattles, any form of music making can be added to this. As you can take note there really isn't any particular God or Goddess called, this is the Avaloian Tradition. All Gods are one God, all Goddesses are one Goddess. So there is the very basic beginnings of Magical Workings... you can take it from here..... Do What Thou Wilt, Save Harm None, Shall Be the Whole. Bright Blessing... Lord OberRon Knight of the Sacred Light 542 LOOKING AT YOURSELF before you go a step further, take a good long look at your desires, motivation and skills. What role do you see yourself playing in this new group? "Ordinary" member? Democratic facilitator? High Priestess? And if the last -- why do you want the job? The title of High Priestess and Priestess are seductive, conjuring up exotic images of yourself in embroidered robes, a silver crescent (or horned helm) on your brow, adoring celebrants hanging on every word which drops from your lips... Reality check. The robes will be stained with wine and candle wax soon enough, and not every word you speak is worth remembering. A coven leader's job is mostly hard work between rituals and behind the scene. It is not always a good place to act out your fantasies, because the lives and well-being of others are involved, and what is flattering or enjoyable to you man not be in their best interest. So consider carefully. If your prime motive is establishing a coven is to gain status and ego gratification, other people will quickly sense that. If they are intelligent, independent individuals, they will refuse to play Adoring Disciple to your Witch Queen impressions. They will disappear, and that vanishing act will be the last magick they do with you. And if you do attract a group ready to be subservient Spear Carriers in your fantasy drama -- well, do you really want to associate with that kind of personality? What are you going to do when you want someone strong around to help you or teach you, and next New Moon you look out upon a handful of Henry Milquetoasts and Frieda Handmaidens? If a person is willing to serve you, the they will also become dependent on you, drain your energy, and become disillusioned if you ever let down the Infallible Witch Queen mask for even a moment. Some other not-so-great reasons for starting a coven: a) because it seems glamorous, exotic, and a little wicked; b) because it will shock your mother, or c) because you can endure your boring, flunky job more easily if you get to go home and play Witch at night. Some better reasons for setting up a coven, and even nomination yourself as High Priest/ess, include: a) you feel that you will be performing a useful job for yourself and others; b) you have enjoyed leadership roles in the past, and proven yourself capable; or c) you look forward to learning and growing in the role. Even with the best motives in the world, you will still need to have -- or quickly develop -- a whole range of skills in order to handle a leadership role. If you are to be a facillitator of a study group, group process insights and skills are important. These include: 543 1) Gatekeeping, or guiding discussion in such a way that everyone has an opportunity to express ideas and opinions; 2) Summarizing and clarifying; 3) Conflict resolution, or helping participants understand points of disagreement and find potential solutions which respect everyone's interests; 4) Moving the discussion toward consensus, or at any rate decision, by identifying diversions and refocussing attention on goals and priorities; and 5) Achieving closure smoothly when the essential work is complected, or an appropriate stopping place is reached. In addition to group process skills, four other competencies necessary to the functioning of a coven are: ritual leadership, administration, teaching, and counseling. In a study group the last one may not be considered a necessary function, and the other three may be shared among all participants. But in a coven the leaders are expected to be fairly capable in all these areas, even if responsibilities are frequently shared or delegated. Let us look briefly at each. Ritual leadership involves much more that reading invocations by candlelight. Leaders must understand the powers they intend to manipulate: how they are raised, channeled and grounded. They must be adept at designing rituals which involve all the sensory modes. They should have a repertoire of songs and chants, dances and gestures or mudras, incense and oils, invocations and spells, visual effects and symbols, meditations and postures; and the skill to combine these in a powerful, focused pattern. They must have clarity of purpose and firm ethics. And they must understand timing: both where a given ritual fits in the cycles of the Moon, the Wheel of the Year, and the dance of the spheres, and how to pace the ritual once started, so that energy peaks and is channeled at the perfect moment. And they must understand the Laws of Magick, and the correspondences, and when ritual is appropriate and when it is not. By administration, we refer to basic management practices necessary to any organization. These include apportioning work fairly, and following up on its progress; locating resources and obtaining them (information, money, supplies); fostering communications (by telephone, printed schedules, newsletters etc.); and keeping records (minutes, accounts, Witch Book entries, or ritual logbook). Someone or several someone's has to collect the dues if any, buy the candles, chill the wine, and so forth. 544 Teaching is crucial to both covens and study groups. If only one person has any formal training or experience in magick, s/he should transmit that knowledge in a way which respects the intuitions, re-emerging past life skills, and creativity of the others. If several participants have some knowledge in differing areas, they can all share the teaching role. If no one in the group has training and you are uncertain where to begin, they you may need to call on outside resources: informed and ethical priest/esses who can act as visiting faculty, or who are willing to offer guidance by telephone or correspondence. Much can be gleaned from books, or course -- assuming you know which books are trustworthy and at the appropriate level -- but there is no substitute for personal instruction for some things. Magick can be harmful if misused, and an experienced practitioner can help you avoid pitfalls as well as offering hints and techniques not found in the literature. Counseling is a special role of the High Priest/ess. It is assumed that all members of a coven share concern for each other's physical, mental, emotional and spiritual welfare, and are willing to help each other out in practical ways. However, coven leaders are expected to have a special ability to help coveners explore the roots of their personal problems and choose strategies and tactics to overcome them. This is not to suggest that one must be a trained psychoanalyst; but at the least, good listening skills, clear thinking and some insight into human nature are helpful. Often, magickal skills such as guided visualization, Tarot counseling and radiasthesia (pendulum work) are valuable tools as well. Think carefully about your skills in these areas, as you have demonstrated them in other organizations. Ask acquaintances or co-workers, who can be trusted to give you a candid opinion, how they see you in some of these roles. Meditate, and decide what you really want for yourself in organizing the new group. Will you be content with being a catalyst and contact person -- simply bringing people with a common interest together, then letting the group guide its destiny from that point on? Would you rather be a facillitator, either for the first months or permanently: a low- key discussion leader who enables the group to move forward with a minimum of misunderstanding and wasted energy? Or do you really want to be High Priestess -- whatever that means to you -- and serve as the guiding spirit and acknowledged leader of a coven? And if you do want that job, exactly how much authority and work do you envision as part of it? Some coven leaders want a great deal of power and control; others simply take an extra share of responsibility for setting up the rituals (whether or not they actually conduct the rites), and act as "magickal advisor" to less experienced members. Thus the High Priest/ess can be the center around which the life of the coven revolves, or primarily an honorary title, or anything in between. 545 That is one area which you will need to have crystal-clear in your own mind before the first meeting (of if you are flexible, at least be very clear that you are). You must also be clear as to your personal needs on other points: program emphasis, size, meeting schedule, finances, degree of secrecy, and affiliation with a tradition or network. You owe it to prospective members and to yourself to make your minimum requirements known from the outset: it can be disastrous to a group to discover that members have major disagreements on these points after you have been meeting for six months. 546 BLOOD SACRIFICE by Althea Whitebirch We have all moved through periods of crisis in our lives; things ranging from the sublime to the ridiculous, from the death of someone close to us to final exams. Events which are extremely stressful--which threaten our lives, home, future or security--would seem t call for strong measures of assistance. There have been many times that I have felt that the course of events required swift and strong intervention of a deity. Blood sacrifice is, to my mind, one of the more powerful magics one could perform, and so seemed particularly suitable for this. But it's rather ethically sticky. I may feel that the kind of energy contained in the outpouring of blood would be most efficacious in a serious situation, but I'm dead-set against the use of an unwilling victim for the purpose. So, in the past I've spilled my own blood with an athame, at the same time offering up prayers; it just didn't seem to work as well as I thought it would. Perhaps, I thought, one needs lots of blood to generate any appreciable amount of energy. Then a friend suggested what seemed the perfect solution--blood donation! I'd been giving blood for several years and the thought just never had occurred to me before. So the next time I went in to donate, I approached it as ritual sacrifice for a particular purpose, and both the process and results seemed to be much improved. Since then I've gone to donate blood many times, each time with a prayer for healing for the recipient of my blood, and a request for aid from the deity that seemed most appropriate. For those of you who've never donated blood before, I can provide a few details of the process. It's not very frightening, and it can be a very spiritually moving experience, I'll tell you! As well, remember that you don't sell blood (at least not in Puget Sound), you donates it. You can sell plasma--the straw-colored fluid that makes up the bulk of your blood--but not blood itself. The first time you go in you'll fill out a medical questionnaire: the Puget Sound Blood Bank doesn't want your blood if you're ill right then (or just getting over something), taking certain medications, ever had hepatitis or malaria, or are in a high-risk category for contracting AIDS (Haitian, homosexual, needle-using drug user or prostitute). If you have any questions, they'll be happy to answer them. After you fill out the questionnaire, they'll take your blood pressure and a blood sample (like sticking your finger with a pin) to test your hemocrit (% of hemoglobin) as well as determining what type your blood is. If your hemocrit count isn't high enough they'll send you home. Nowadays, all blood is sent to a lab to be tested for presence of AIDS anti-bodies as well; if you test positive they'll notify you by mail. You'll be asked if you've eaten in the last four hours, and if not, sent to the canteen for cookies and juice. 547 Then comes the fun part--you go lie down on a table where a phlebo- tomist (who draws the blood) asks you some questions, verifies your name, and then sets you up to donate. They tie a rubber hose around your arm, so the vein will stand out and be easy to find. They use cold liquid ethyl chloride on your arm, to numb it where the needle goes in. I won't say that it doesn't hurt when the needle is inserted--it does but it's tolerable--when it's in place though, you'll hardly know it's there. (You may get the idea from all this that I'm a stoic--hardly! I'm a wimp when it comes to pain, but this I can handle.) At this time they'll leave you there for up to five minutes while you clench and relax your hand (to keep the blood from clotting) and the blood flows into a little plastic bag. It's warm and red, and rather reassuring, really. At this time you can get into some really serious prayer, or hum a little healing chant for the person your blood's going to. (I once was doing this and got a flash image of a little boy, a burn victim. I always wondered who got my blood that day.) I wouldn't recommend getting too spaced-out though; remember you've got to be able to return to yourself when you want to, and the physical effects of giving blood can make some people light-headed or slightly woozie. When they ask you how you're feeling, be honest, not macho. You don't want to embarrass yourself by fainting. Afterwards they'll ask you to have some juice and cookies. By all means, do! For one thing, you've earned them; for another it's impor- tant to replace the fluid and blood sugar you just gave up. Working magic really takes it out of you, too (at least it does me). In my experience, there are several good reasons to use this parti- cular method of blood sacrifice: a) It doesn't require the death of one of the Gods' children. b) It is giving of yourself--for the good of others as well as your own. c) It is safe--the Blood Bank uses sterile instruments and never re-uses needles, so you can't catch anything. d) You have the added benefit of being able to see the blood as it's being given (somehow that adds to my experience), and a pint is a lot more than I've ever been able to get with a knife! Next time you want to get the Gods' attention, try it! 548 The Grove of Phoenix Rising * FOUR WEEK FAST * FIRST WEEK * If you normally eat meat, begin to eliminate it from your diet during this first week. If you feel you must eat it, eat a small amount and no more than 3 times during the week. * Eliminate all alcoholic beverages, carbonated beverages (except for bottled waters such as Artesia, etc.), and diet drinks. Substitute fruit juices or fruit drinks. * Refrain from smoking (anything), or using any other intoxicants. * Cut way back on any other stimulants, such as coffee or tea or cocoa. No more than three cups a day if you are a heavy coffee or tea drinker. * Use as little salt as possible and no other spices. * Refrain from sweets - cakes, pies, candy. * Drink large amounts of fluids, especially water. * * SECOND WEEK * Eliminate meat entirely. Substitute dairy products - IN MODERATION. * Continue to limit intake of stimulants (coffee, tea, cocoa), cutting back to no more than two cups a day. * Continue to avoid tobacco, alcohol, other intoxicants, spices, and soft drinks, and use as little salt as possible. * Continue to drink large amounts of water. * Your diet should consist largely of vegetables and grains, with large amounts of liquids. * * THIRD WEEK * Limit intake of stimulants (coffee, tea, cocoa) to one cup a day. * Continue to avoid tobacco, alcohol, other intoxicants, meat, spices, and soft drinks, and use as little salt as possible. * Do not use meat in seasoning vegetables. * Your diet should consist of vegetables and fruits only. Raw vegetables and fruits are best (nuts can be included). Drink large amounts of water and substitute fruit or vegetable juices for meals as often as possible. * FOURTH WEEK (first four days) * 549 Fluids only. Fruit and vegetable juices in desired quantity, cutting back each day. Drink large amounts of water. If you feel you must have coffee, limit it to a cup a day (a half cup if possible). * If you feel you must have something the first day or so of this week, a small handful of raisins or other dried fruit may be taken. Nibble slowly. As the week progresses, continue to cut back on nibbles and the amount of juice taken. A spoonful of honey added to hot water helps satisfy the craving for hot beverages and gives you an energy boost. * * THE FAST * The fast should last for three days. It is best to do this on a weekend and if possible, alone and in the woods. (Go camping!) * Drink lots of water and if you feel the need for an energy stimulant, a small amount of honey may be added to hot water. * Spend as much time as possible in meditation. This period should sooth your spirit as well as cleanse your body. RELAX! * You will probably want to sleep a lot. Do so. Allow yourself to drift with your thoughts. Do not attempt to solve your problems during this time. They will solve themselves later, for your mind will be clearer after the fast is over. * Most people feel great the first day, a little weakness the second day, and great again on the third day. * * AFTER THE FAST * Eat lightly for your first meal after the fast. It is best to begin by returning to fruit and vegetable juices and working your slowly into solid foods over a few days. * * THE MOST IMPORTANT THING TO REMEMBER IS TO DRINK LARGE AMOUNTS OF WATER ALL THE WAY THROUGH! This flushes out toxins the body is releasing. 550 THE ANCIENT ART Once upon a time, a long time ago, there were people who believed in laughter, joy and love. They believed in many deities, but the most important to them was their Great Mother Goddess. They believed in and lived with the powers of Nature. They reveled in the Wind, the Rain, the Snow and the Sunlight. They marveled at and revered the changing of the seasons and saw therein great excitement and wisdom to be gained. They knew that if they tended, cared for and loved the Earth, in return She would provide for, care for and love them. They saw that all around them the world was filled with Life, much as their own but in many different and wonderful forms. They felt the life of the flowers, plants and trees and respected them for that life essence. They looked about and observed all the many types of animals and saw that they were kindred to them and loved them. They felt and observed the great Love of the Goddess all about them and knew kinship with the Moon. They were practioners of The Old Religion, worshipers of The Great Mother. Witch! The very word instantly invokes visions for each of us, visions which vary greatly from individual to individual. Many of these visions, however, are quite false, brought about by many centuries of severe persecutions, misrepresentations, prejudice and, in recent years, lack of knowledge. Witchcraft! What is it really? Witchcraft is the oldest, most irrepressible religion in the world because it stimulates the intellect, promotes a simple, practical way of life and, most importantly, is emotionally satisfying. Its roots lie in the ancient Matriarchal systems of Goddess worship. A religion of Nature in which the primary deity is female (The Essence of Femininity, The Earth Mother, The Great Mother, etc.). It was easy for the Wise Ones to look at the world around them and see the great importance of Feminine Principle. The female was, indeed, the one who bore the young, perhaps the most magickal of all events to ancient man. Then, she played by far the most important role in rearing the young, being totally responsible for feeding, for without her milk there was no life past birth. She was responsible for the teaching and early care of the young. In all youths the greatest comfort and nurturing love were connected with the mother. These revelations and experiences could hardly lead to any other choice than the total reverence and deification of the female. Although The Great Mother is the most important deity, Witches do, generally, recognize many Goddesses and/or Gods and are, therefore, polytheistic. The tenets of Witchcraft are few but all-encompassing, for with three simple Universal Observations all of life can be explained and understood: 1) Reincarnation - Mortality 2) Cause & Effect - Magick 3) Retribution - Morality Reincarnation enlightens the Witch to the fact that, as we come 551 to this material world over and over in a series of learning periods, or lifetimes, we will eventually have to experience all things, be all things, understand all things. This creates a great tolerance for other viewpoints in the Witch. Cause & Effect, and an understanding of it, allows the Witch to see what makes the world work and how to live most efficiently. It gives them a great advantage in that it explains the working of Magick. Retribution shows the Witch, in graphic terms, that every thought one might have, every action one may take, is returned in like kind. This realization forms the basis of the Moral Code of the Witch. The Patriarchal Societies which evolved in later times had no tolerance for the Goddess religions and systematically set out to destroy the material vestiges, kill or convert the adherents and wipe out all knowledge of them. They destroyed the temples and other places of worship, desecrated the sacred groves and magickal places, attempted to pervert the old deities, mutilated and totally suppressed sacred art, tore down libraries and burned books, tortured and killed the practitioners of the Old Religions, demeaned, persecuted and oppressed women in general and passed strictly enforced laws which made theirs the State Religion and forbade all other viewpoints. Despite the centuries of insidious persecution, deliberate destruction and perversions at the hands of the Christian Conspirators, Witchcraft has survived. COMMON INQUIRIES I've heard the terms 'White Witch' and 'Black Witch'. Can you explain? In this connotation, white is referring to Positive, Black is referring to Negative. A White Witch then is someone who tries to do Positive or Good things. Black Witch could be a term used to describe someone who deliberately does Negative or Bad things. A True Witch believes in the Law of Retribution and would never deliberately harm anyone or anything or participate in Negative or Destructive acts. 552 Is it possible for me to practice Witchcraft and remain a Christian? No. The Christian Doctrine states, unequivocally, that Christians shall have no other Gods before the Christian God. Christian Doctrine says to believe in any other deities or to practice any other religion is not only evil but should be punished by death, specifically naming Witchcraft. The Christian Doctrine also denies Reincarnation and prescribes punishment for those who practice Magick. Devil worship? Witches do not worship the Devil. Witchcraft predates Christianity and does not incorporate a belief in the Christian Devil. The Wise Ones did deify the Masculine Principle and quite often He was depicted as The Great Horned God; Pan, Cernunnos, the Great Stag, The Green Man. To the Traditional Witch, the Masculine Deity (the Goddess' Consort) is very important, revered and loved. He is the perfect Father, the Lord Protector. The Horned God of the Witches is loving, kind and good. Don't men have difficulty with a supreme female deity? There are some groups which give equal status to the female and male deities. Neo-Pagans are, by definition, people who attempt to live with the Old Country Ways in a new, modern day manner. And while, in this modern era, equal status for the deities may be popular, as it relates to Witchcraft it is historically incorrect. Therefore, a group which does not recognize the Goddess as primary deity is not practicing The Ancient Art. Indeed, they, generally, know very little about Witchcraft, despite their claims. Traditional Dualistic Witches do most emphatically believe that women and men are equal, but have no trouble relating to the Goddess. The Male Witch finds great comfort and solace in his Great Mother. Do I have to join a Coven? No. It is not necessary nor is it desirable for a great many people. Some people enjoy the support and companionship a Coven provides, others enjoy solitary worship. The Coven, which is an extremely close knit worship group, may not be possible for some because of location, family climate, availability, etc. 553 Why is Witchcraft secretive? The horror of the 'Burning Time' is still very real to the Witch. The past persecutions were severe. Even so, in today's more enlightened society the need for complete secrecy has lessened and many are able to share their beliefs openly. Very few, however, are willing to expose their very personal and private religious expressions to others who may not understand. What do I have to do to become a Witch? The answer to this question is very simple. To become a Witch one must follow the religion of Witchcraft. To do this one must believe in the Goddess as primary deity and follow the three basic tenets. How simple! How uncomplicated! How Pagan! Everything else concerning witchcraft is simply minor details. Details that vary from Aspect to Aspect, Coven to Coven and individual to individual. The details are relatively personal. They should not become more important than the basic tenets. If you do not understand, believe and practice Witchcraft, you are not a Witch. No one can make you a Witch. Reading about it can not make you a Witch. An Initiation can not make you a Witch. Saying you are a Witch, one thousand and fifty two times, can not make you a Witch. In the search for your individual path beware of those who would take advantage of you. Do not fall prey to the unscrupulous charlatans who would swindle you in a monetary sense (mail-order courses, charges for teaching or initiations, vows of poverty, etc.), exploit you sexually or manipulate you for their own personal ego-trips. 554 'Of all forms of caution, caution in love is perhaps the most fatal to true happiness.' -- Bertrand Russell CHARMED, I'M SURE The Ethics of Love Spells ========================= by Mike Nichols * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * To gain the love of someone: On a night of the full moon, walk to a spot beneath your beloved's bedroom window, and whisper his/her name three times to the nightwind. --Ozark love spell * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * It seems tobe an immutable law ofnature. You are interviewedby a local radio or TV station, or in some local newspaper. The topic of the interview is Witchcraft or Paganism, and you spend the better part of an hour brilliantly articulating your beliefs, your devotion to Goddess and nature, the difference between Witchcraft and Satanism, and generally enlightening the public at large. The next day, you are flooded with calls. Is it people complimenting you on such a splendid interview? No. People wanting to find out more about the religion of Wicca? Huh-uh. People who are even vaguely interested in what you had to say??? Nope. Who is it? It's people asking you to do a love spell for them! This used to drive me nuts. I'd take a deep breath and patiently explain (for the thousandth time) why I won't even do love spells for myself, let alone anyone else. This generally resulted in my caller becoming either angry or defensive, but seldom more enlightened. 'But don't you DO magic?', they ask. 'Only occasionally,' I answer. 'And aren't most magic spells love spells?', they persist. That was the line I really hated, because I knew they were right! At least, if you look at the table of contents of most books on magic, you'll find more love spells than any other kind. This seems as true for the medieval grimoire as for the modern drugstore paperback. Why? Why so many books containing so many love spells? Why such an emphasis on a kind of magic that I, personally, have always considered very negative? And to make matters even more confusing, the books that do take the trouble of dividing spells between 'positive' and 'negative' magic invariably list love spells under the first heading. After all, they would argue, love is a good thing. There can never be too much of it. Therefore, any spell that brings about love must be a GOOD spell. Never mind that the spell puts a straightjacket on another's free will, and then drops it in cement for good measure. 555 And thatis whyI hadalways assumedlove magicto benegative magic. Years ago, one of the first things I learned as a novice Witch was something called the Witch's Rede, a kind of 'golden rule' in traditional Witchcraft. It states, 'An it harm none, do what thou will.' One uses this rede as a kind of ethical litmus test for a spell. If the spell brings harm to someone -- anyone (including yourself!) -- then don't do it! Unfortunately, this rule contains a loophole big enough to fly a broom through. It's commonly expressed, 'Oh, this won't HARM them; it's really for their own good.' When you hear someone say that, take cover, because something especially nasty is about to happen. That's why I had to develop my own version of the Witch's Rede. Mine says that if a spell harms anyone, OR LIMITS THEIR FREEDOM OF THOUGHT OR ACTION IN ANY WAY, then consider it negative, and don't do it. Pretty strict, you say? Perhaps. But there's another law in Witchcraft called the Law of Threefold Return. This says that whatever power you send out, eventually comes back to you three times more powerful. So I take no chances. And love spells, of the typical make-Bobby-love-me type, definitely have an impact on another's free will. Sowhy are they so common? It's taken me yearsto make peace with this, but I think I finally understand. The plain truth is that most of us NEED love. Without it, our lives are empty and miserable. After our basic survival needs have been met, we must have affection and companionship for a full life. And if it will not come of its own accord, some of us may be tempted to FORCE it to come. And nothing can be as painful as loving someone who doesn't love you back. Consequently, the most common, garden-variety spell in the world is the love spell. Is there ever a way to do a love spell and yet stay within the parameters of the Witch's Rede? Possibly. Some teachers have argued that if a spell doesn't attempt to attract a SPECIFIC person into your life, but rather attempts to attract the RIGHT person, whomever that may be, then it is not negative magic. Even so, one should make sure that the spell finds people who are 'right' for each other -- so that neither is harmed, and both are made happy. Is there ever an excuse for the make-Bobby-love-me type of spell? Without endorsing this viewpoint, I must admit that the most cogent argument in its favor is the following: Whenever you fall in love with someone, you do everything in your power to impress them. You dress nicer, are more attentive, witty, and charming. And at the same time, you unconsciously set in motion some very powerful psychic forces. If you've ever walked into a room where someone has a crush on you, you know what I mean. You can FEEL it. Proponents of this school say that a love spell only takes the forces that are ALREADY there -- MUST be there if you're in love -- and channels them more efficiently. But the energy would be there just the same, whether or not you use a spell to focus it. Iwon't attempt to decidethis one for you. People must arrive at their own set of ethics through their own considerations. However, I would call to your attention all the cautionary tales in folk magic about love spells gone awry. Also, if a love spell has been employed to join two people who are not naturally compatible, then one must keep pumping energy into the spell. And when one finally tires of this (and one will, because it is hard work!) then the spell will unravel amidst an emotional and psychic hurricane that will make the stormiest divorces seem calm by comparison. Not a pretty picture. It should be noted that many spells that pass themselves off as love spells are, in reality, sex spells. Not that there's anything surprising 556 in that, since our most basic needs usually include sex. But I think we should be clear from the outset what kind of spell it is. And the same ethical standards used for love spells can often be applied to sex spells. Last year, the very quotable Isaac Bonewits, author of 'Real Magic', taught a sex magic class here at the Magick Lantern, and he tossed out the following rule of thumb: Decide what the mundane equivalent of your spell would be, and ask yourself if you could be arrested for it. For example, some spells are like sending a letter to your beloved in the mail, whereas other spells are tantamount to abduction. The former is perfectly legal and normal, whereas the latter is felonious. One mitigating factor in your decisions may be the particular tradition of magic you follow. For example, I've often noticed that practitioners of Voudoun (Voodoo) and Santeria seem much more focused on the wants and needs of day-to-day living than on the abstruse ethical considerations we've been examining here. That's not a value judgement -- just an observation. For example, most followers of Wicca STILL don't know how to react when a Santerian priest spills the blood of a chicken during a ritual -- other than to feel pretty queasy. The ethics of one culture is not always the same as another. And speaking of cultural traditions, another consideration is how a culture views love and sex. It has often been pointed out that in our predominant culture, love and sex are seen in very possessive terms, where the beloved is regarded as one's personal property. If the spell uses this approach, treating a person as an object, jealously attempting to cut off all other relationships, then the ethics are seriously in doubt. However, if the spell takes a more open approach to love and sex, not attempting to limit a person's other relationships in any way, then perhaps it is more defensible. Perhaps. Still, it might be wise to ask, Is this the kind of spell I'd want someone to cast on me? Love spells. Whether to dothem or not. If you area practitioner of magic, I dare say you will one day be faced with the choice. If you haven't yet, it is only a matter of time. And if the answer is yes, then which spells are ethical and which aren't? Then you, and only you, will have to decide whether 'All's fair in love and war', or whether there are other, higher, metaphysical considerations. 557 DRAWING DOWN THE MOON In this ritual the Goddess becomes incarnate in the High Priestess. The High Priestess stands in front of the altar with her back to it. She holds the wand in her right hand and the scrounge in her left. She crosses her wrists and crosses the wand and scrounge above them while holding them close to her breast. The High Priest stands in front of her and says: "Diana, queen of night In all your beauty bright, Shine on us here, And with your silver beam Unlock the gates of dream; Rise bright and clear. On Earth and sky and sea, Your magic mystery Its spell shall cast, Wherever leaf may grow, Wherever tide may flow, Till all be past. O secret queen of power, At this enchanted hour We ask your boon. May fortune's favor fall Upon true witches all, O Lady Moon!" The High Priest kneels before the High Priestess and gives her the Five Fold Kiss; that is, he kisses her on both feet, both knees, womb, both breasts, and the lips, starting with the right of each pair. He says, as he does this: "Blessed be thy feet, that have brought thee in these ways. Blessed be thy knees, that shall kneel at the sacred altar. Blessed be thy womb, without which we would not be. Blessed be thy breasts, formed in beauty. Blessed be thy lips, that shall utter the Sacred Names." For the kiss on the lips, they embrace, length to length, with their feet touching each others. When he reaches the womb, she spreads her arms wide, and the same after the kiss on the lips.The High Priest kneels again and invokes: "I invoke thee and call upon thee, Mighty Mother of us all, bringer of all fruitfulness; by seed and root, by bud and stem, by leaf and flower and fruit, bylife and love doI invoke theeto descend uponthe body of this, thy servant and priestess." 558 During this invocation he touches her with his right forefinger on her right breast, left breast, and womb, repeats the set and finally the right breast. Still kneeling, he spreads his arms out and down, with the palms forward and says: "Hail Aradia! From the Amalthean Horn Pour forth thy store of love; I lowly bend Before thee, I adore thee to the end, With loving sacrifice thy shrine adore. Thy foot is to my lip (he kisses her right foot) my prayer up borne Upon the rising incense smoke; then spend Thine ancient love, O Mighty One, descend To aid me, who without thee am forlorn." The High Priest stands up and steps backwards. The High Priestess draws the Invoking Pentagram of Earth in the air with the wand and says: "Of the Mother darksome and divine Mine the scrounge, and mine the kiss; The five point star of love and bliss Here I charge you in this sign." The High Priestess should be in a trance now. This is a good time to do the Charge or the Witches' Creed. When the Charge or Creed is finished, the Goddess must be dismissed. It is bad magical practice not to do so. The High Priest faces the Priestess and says: "We thank you Our Lady for attending our rites. We bid you farewell till next we call you. Blessed Be." Farrar, Janet and Stewart; "Eight Sabbats For Witches"; Robert Hale 1983 and dismissal added by Seastrider. Distributed over various BBS systems via Ravensong. 559 CALLING ALL CRONES by Grey Cat Into the dark, the pale light of the waning moon brings forth shapeless shadows; bushes, a wandering stone fieldwall, nameless areas of blackness. Some still, some moving; no night for good folk to stray from cot or castle. Black hares amove across the moors, black cattle idly gossip together, one old woman dressed in black searches the grass for secret herbs. And there amongst the standing stones, age heavy upon their backs, three hags dare all the mercy of God's Holy Mother Church to make the magic of an older race. ``Call old Mother Piggot, she knows the proper words for warts.''... ``Tis Goody Nurse you'll need if it's a son ye want.''... ``Tis naught but an Old Wives Tale.''... ``Don't mind Mother, she hasn't been herself since she went through the Change of Life.'' Looming high over the imagination of humankind, the shadow of the Crone casts a miasma of fear and uselessness, power and casting-- out, across the myths of our race and society. I have talked and talked to women who either have arrived at crone time or who are preparing themselves for this transition and we have found much to talk about. And I think that it is important that we keep right on talking after the season of Gatherings has passed for the year. I have absolutely no interest in trying to start a newsletter for Crones, nor really of founding OWL (Old Woman's League), SOW (Salty Old Women), CRONE (Clearly Rational Older Natural Energy), nor HAG (Honorable Aged Geniuses). However, I, no more than many of you, want to have to wait until next year to get a chance to discuss all these fascinating topics. So how about some suggestions, and perhaps some offers of help. Would we like to cooperate in an APAZine* which dispenses with an editing and layout burden, leaving some low-- level bookkeeping which I don't mind doing. Does someone feel like working on a Newsletter? Do we want to form a loose organization as part of or instead of the above? Or are most of us too busy to do anything about this between gatherings? I'll be sending this letter to people I know personally and to many Pagan publications; you'll probably see it often enough to be sick of the whole idea. But there is a lot of magick available in the Time of the Crone. There is a lot of sociological pressure to understand, combat or accept. And there is a whole lot of our lives left for us to function as Crones. If we don't figure out what it is and what to do with it, nobody else will. So write me at the address below (SASE appreciated) and let me know what you think about the whole idea, what you might be willing to do, what insights you may have about Crone Time -- let's figure out what has been left out of all the books. We're already ``Uppity Women'' and we've nothing to lose but a bad rap. (Crones are assumed to be women more or less at the age of menopause or past it. Baby Crones are any who realize that this time is not far away.) Grey Cat P.O. Box 181 Crossville, TN 38555 560 THE ELEMENTS Air Fire Water Earth Akasha Characteristics Transparent, light Force of motion Clear, Heavy Massive Essence Reflective Animator Reflective, Insula. Insulator Multi dimensional Insulator Weightless Absorptive Resists motion Transformative Compressible & Radiative Non-compressible non compress/Expand Compr/Expandable Expandable Compr/Expandable Expandable Endurance Endurance, mobile Moveable, Mutable Non-mutable Smooth flowing Stable, solid Highly mutable Malleable Storable Malleable/mutable Non-mutable malleable, balanced, Male, Penetrating Male,Penetrating Female,Receptive Receptive-to water Transcends E,A,F,W Mediator Evaporates water Mediator Female yet immanent Reacts to Energy for movement by Carries Fire Renews and Carries Fire air Air & Earth nourishes Non-local Essence Logos, switching Power, force Act of choosing Underlying Underlying, mechanism prime mover Intuitive Stability connecting all Energy Flow Crown down Spine behind Front to heart Base of spine up Non local heart to hands with love energy Feeling Free Enthusiastic, Love Centeredness Ecstasy & Bliss energized Correspondences Direction East South West North Center Direction of view Outward Forward/Future Inward To past Holistic Part of Person Mind Will, lifeforce Emotions,intuition Body Spirit (spirit) Consciousness Intelligence Will Wisdom Memory Enlightenment Physical action Thinking Asserting will Making love Sleep, experiencing Breaking barriers Partying, unity Spiritual aspect Enlightenment Life-force Compassion Serenity/beingness Om tat sat Colors Clear/White/Blue Red/Yellow Silver/blue/purple Green/gold/brown Ultraviolet Time Dawn Noon Sunset Night Now and all time Season Spring Summer Fall Winter Kalpas Astrological Libra, Aq., Gemini Ares,Leo,Sagitar. Cancer,Scorp,Pices Capr.,Taurus, Virgo 3,7,11 House Mercury Tarot Swords (esp. Queen) Rods Cups Disks Physical state Gas Plasma/Energy Liquid Solid Singularity Spirits Sylph Salamander Undine Gnome Demigods,God(ess)s Deities Zeus, Urania, Ares, Hestia, Poseidon, Aphrodite Gaia, Pan, Hera Isis, Buddha, Ahura Athena, Aradia Brigid, Hermes Tiamat,Isis Demeter, Rhiannon Mazda, Quan Yin, True Thoth, Pele, Vulcan,Agni Adonis, Dionysus will, Zeus, Hera Power Animals Eagle/hawk Dragon, lion Fish, seal Buffalo, stag Any Otter Symbol Circle Triangle Crescent Square Infinity Sign, white egg, equal arm cross Tools Incense Red Candle Chalice Pentagram Wand, Athame, Crystal 561 cauldron, ankh Incense/Odor Sandlewood/mellow Frankincense/spicy Rose/flowery Musk/Goaty/earthy Combination incense Feeling cool & fresh Warm Tingles like spray Rigidity, Centered Taste Salty Bitter Image Billowing clouds Erupt. Volcano Waterfall Mountain/landscape Blue-white light plants & animals Word of Power YOD-EH-VAV-HE ADNI(add dough nay) AHIA (Aiy Hey Yeh) AGLA (ah gal lah) OM Kabbalistic action Movement Expansion Contraction Stability Underlying essence 562 Wind Spirit Eurus Notus Zephyrus Borus Tornado of power manifesting deities Bija Yam (Yaungg) Ram (Raumgg) VAM (Vaungg) Lam (Laung) Hum (Haumgg)/Om Affirmation I am intelligent I am powerful I am creative I am strong, I am balanced & intuitive centered & know I am all Posture Arms raised Arms above head Arms extended Arms extended back straight Parallel forming triangle palms up palms down arms sweep then at side Virtues Intelligence, Courage, Love, compassion Centeredness Beyond practical, joy enthusiasm, receptivity,flexib. Patience, truth willpower forgiveness thorough, dependable Vices Impulsive,frivolous Anger, jealousy Indifference, Dullness, laziness Beyond boasting, hatred, bullying depression inconsiderateness easily fooled unstable hang-ups Chakra Heart behind waste Behind sex organ Base Crown/third eye Other Quick response Brigid Networking communicative linking people into social unit active Dawn, day, drive heat, yellow plants expression of DNA Benevolent dictator Purple Billowing clouds 563 THE AUTARCHIC CREED We of the Old Religion have our own particular compact with our deities that charges simply, "An it harm none, do as ye will." And our gods do not despise us for being human but delight in our celebrations of life and love. We are ageless souls, only for a while within bodies - merely visitors upon this plane. We are brothers to the gods and only temporarily cousins to the ape, and our lives belong to us, not to this world nor to its earthly governors. We are not doomed to shame and decay; not lost; not indentured to perish with earthly manifestations; not disposed to eternal misery for any past or present lapses of courage or wisdom. We are as children in the school of life who must learn our lessons, on life at a time, before we graduate. Our lives span the march of time, striving upward, subordinate only to our individual probity and growth. But in this mortal life, greedy, trivial hierophants and mundane rulers have perpetrated a fraud upon humanity. They have purloined for profit and temporal power, our legitimate heritage, and that of all society, and have substituted for it shame, despair, and fear, inventing evil deities to terrify and to constrain mankind from the exercise of his own native conscience. Still we take our uncertain portion time and again, joining with the species on this plane, only to meet with earthly disunity and distress; only to be told by bogus, uncelestial shepherds that we are deficient and fundamentally iniquitous; constantly rebuked that our natural birthright is insubstantial or even sinful, and that we must cleave to the pious injunctions of reigning mortals, no matter how oppressive, or suffer beyond measurable time, yearning for some mythical golden glory just out of reach, but somehow never quite worthy of it. That is the apocryphal hell and the fabled satan; they are of mortal creation; they are now, not in some remote bye-and-bye; and those who choose to believe in them perpetuate them in this earth. But nevertheless, by sublime design, despite narrowness, folly or fear, we all, each and every one, possess this wondrous legacy: that each of us sustains a singular covenant with the cosmic, in that the soul is and ever was, one with the universe, conducting itself in concordance with the absolute. And whatever paths it may walk, or whichever faith it may follow, on sojourn at a time, each shall as a consequence of that oneness, and attuning with its destiny, eventually return on its own to its source to again be part of that totality, atoned, aware and unshackled. "JUSTIFICUS" 564 Dealing with psychic attack Zhahai Stewart What to do if you think you are being attacked. 1 - Question if it is really either imagination, or coming from within yourself. Something may be trying to get your attention, but it may not be external, and by focussing on an external "enemy" you may be missing the point. 2 - Check to see if you are yourself inadvertently sending something out; maybe someone is just reflecting some energy back! Nothing is gained if you get into adversarial mode in that case. Many people have been taught that reflecting is the proper response. 3 - Put up a grounding shield. Ground it out, send it to the Mother who can recycle the energy. Grounding is usually taught to every student. If you don't feel you can be a "conduit" safely, ground it by reflecting it downward to the Earth; that is a big target and easy to hit. By grounding it out, you are protecting yourself, yet not being caught up in it. What not to do. 1 - Figure out who is sending it and counter attack. You might be wrong, and may be starting a feud. You might be right, but they may not realize that they are "sending" so you may start a feud or cause unnecessary harm. Even if you are right, you are escalating a feud, of which we have too many. This is commonly discussed as a bad idea. 2 - Put up a reflective shield which will return the energy to the sender. This is commonly discussed as a good idea, but we disagree. We think this is unwise. For one thing, it is not necessary; if you can make an accurate return reflection, you can certainly reflect it to Earth instead (where it can be recycled). There is no reason you should not be able to ground out more energy than you can accurately reflect to the sender, if viewed properly. For another, your accuracy in returning it may be less than perfect. You might hit close but not close enough; if you can't reflect it to earth, you are going to have trouble reflecting it to an unknown person. Sometimes this is discussed as if once you return it, the sender will just stop; because they will awaken to what they are doing, or because the returning energy will be too much to handle. The thing which is seldom mentioned is that if the sender (assuming there is one) was consciously attacking, they will likely already be prepared with their own mirrors, etc. Great, if we put near perfect mirrors at each end and pump in energy, maybe we can get a psychic laser effect; guess who is just on the other side of the mirrors to catch the intensified leakthru? 565 If they weren't aware of sending, they will probably just assume they are being attacked and take countermeasures. If they follow the 3 steps above, fine, nothing is damaged. But many of them will immediately think they have to put up a defensive mirror, or maybe worse (see below; they may decide to teach you a lesson for attacking them). Few people naturally respond to perceived attacks positively (especially if they are in such a bad mood already as to be sending without even realizing it). Another serious concern is getting drawn into a unacknowledged feud by your own weaknesses. It is often agreed that one should reflect back exactly what is received, without adding anything of one's own. But the same people who advocate that may use terms implying "returning it with enthusiasm". There appears to be an easily tapped source of self-righteousness in most people feeling attacked, and it is _very hard_ not to get drawn into imagining, at some level, the satisfying effects of the energy going back to the attacker; that draws one into a "counter-attack" even without realizing it. Grounding it does not. Watch for yourself when people are discussing "returning to sender"; see if there isn't very often a hidden desire for revenge or retribution lurking there grasping for their "control panel" - and deflecting their normal attempts at staying centered by claiming to do no more than is "justified". Justified is not the question; self knowledge and balance are. There is another thread which shows up often in discussions like these; the need to "teach the sender a lesson". In some cases, I have even heard this justified as "protecting the community". This way lies many│ᬠ­╔Ř▒PRINT D did the goddess give you an "agent of threefold return" marshall's badge, that exempts you from any consequences "because you are just an agent"? That hubris is gonna teach some hard lessons, but the self appointed marshall may be the major recipient. It would be a little bit healthier to just shed the self-righteousness and call it an ego driven feud. "Teaching them a lesson" gets filed under the pitfalls of righteousness, the ways that one's own weaknesses seduce one. Also consider, what if despite your initial impression, the negative energy is really coming from inside, from part of you? Are you going to be better off "reflecting it back" (maybe with additional conscious or unconscious oomph) or grounding it? "Gee, I returned it but good, and now they have stepped it up; the sender really needs a lesson!". That may be more true than you know, bucko. Notice that nowhere do we say that one has no "right" to put up a reflective shield; of course one does, and is fully justified. Also, possibly, unwise. There is a distinction between what one has a "right" to do in "self defense", and what is wise to get drawn into. Reflecting it is neither necessary, nor likely to produce positive results, but if _that itself_ is the lesson to be learned, what can I say? Each chooses their own path, and that is as it should be. At least if one has considered the above, one should know what they are stepping into. 566 ETHICS OR ETIQUETTE by Ellen Recently in conversation with friends in a small intimate gathering, I mentioned outer-court names and passed on gossip. Later I was told that I had "violated etiquette." Had I? Etiquette is socially accepted forms of behavior, agreed upon by the members of a community. Ethics involves morality, the nature of right as determined by a group or an individual.I believe there is a great deal of confusion of these terms in the "Pagan Community." Going by fairly traditional rules there are the "Laws of Wicca." Among these there is a very firm one saying one should never reveal another person as a Witch without their permission. However a person who has revealed themselves publicly as a witch shouldn't complain. And is it a violation of ethics to tell of a person by their outer-court name? Only insiders could know the legal name of the person, so what is the danger? Ethics can be fairly easily agreed upon in the general pagan community. Anything that puts someone else in an embarrassing or dangerous position is unethical. We all make mistakes at times, but we try to act in a manner consistent with our ethical code. Etiquette, on the other hand, is very deceiving. We assume, since we are all members of the "Neo-Pagan Community" that we have the same etiquette. But the only etiquette I have ever been explicitly told about involves greetings to be exchanged between members of a group and their high priestess or between two high priestess of different groups. What about a more common meeting? Say a friend of mine is tired of being a solitary and wishes to come to a group celebration. What etiquette should I follow to bring this person to such a circle? I could either contact the group beforehand and ask permission, or tell them I will be bringing a guest, or I could simply bring a guest - with no warning at all. In the first situation, the responsibility and decision is theirs; in the second I am responsible for my guest's behavior; in the third I am a boor and will never be invited to their circles again. No one has covered all the possible conflict situations in the Pagan Community. So there is no way I could agree to follow an "etiquette." My general code is simply to use common sense, and give the other person an easy out. For example, if you think someone else is a Witch and wish to find out, you might tell them that you are one. To receive trust you have to give it first. 567 A secondary problem in this situation is how does one keep a secret? Should one only speak in whispers, or when no one is within 100 paces? I think that looks furtive and produces suspi- cion in the mind of outsiders. Or do we follow Poe's lead and put the secret out in the open and disarm the opposition? I know several people who studiously "maintain secrecy" but everyone knows that they are "witches." Worse, because of their secrecy, their colleagues don't know what a witch is except it must be nasty since they won't speak of it. I do not proclaim my religion, nor do I hide it, and I have never had any problems. I hear 3rd hand horror stories but would like to hear first hand experiences, good or bad. Please write me c/o Panegyria. 568 Dream News ---------- NUCLEAR NIGHTMARES: With the threat of nuclear war hanging overhead, it is not surprising that our dreams might reflect this source of anxiety. In fact, reports peace psychologist Randy Morris, PhD, many children in our country, not to mention in other nations, have had nuclear imagery in their dreams. Are such dreams simply another example of how daily anxieties are reflected in our nighttime ruminations? Possibly, but Dr. Morris offers another explanation. "Could it be some kind of collective survival mechanism to come as close as possible to experiencing, in order to reject, our self-destruction?" . "I believe," he states, in answer to his question, "that nuclear nightmares represent an impulse on the part of this collective psyche to confront directly the horror of nuclear war, literally, to 'imagine the unimaginable,' and by so doing to take the first step toward healing this festering rupture in the family of man. These dreams, as expressions of pure emotion, have the power to motivate people to work in new ways for peace movement." Dr. Morris notes that the threat of nuclear war is increased by the number of people who simply cannot imagine that it would ever happen. Nuclear nightmares tend to be very "real" in their feeling, and thus may be a natural counterbalance to the ostrich syndrome. . Anyone who has had a nuclear nightmare, or any kind of dream involving nuclear imagery, is invited to write a letter to Randy Morris, PhD, Hiroshima International School, 2-2-6 Ushita-naka, Higashi-ku, Hiroshima 730, Japan, leave a message in ANECDOTAL PSI or PREMONITIONS REGISTRY. SUDDEN DEATH SYNDROME: SUICIDE BY NIGHTMARE: A healthy adult goes to sleep at night but then never wakes up. The medical examiners can find no cause of death? What happened. No one knows, but it happens enough to have earned a name, "sudden death syndrome," and to warrant having the Atlanta Center for Disease Control monitor the incidence of such cases. One population group, Laotian refugees, has a higher than average mortality from sudden death syndrome. Dr. Joseph Jay Tobin, reporting in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (July, 1983), presents a case study that leads him to suggest that this phenomenon may be suicide by nightmare. . The patient was a male refugee from war-torn Laos, who had been recently relocated with his family to their own apartment in an American city. Shortly thereafter, the man complained of difficulty sleeping. He reported nightmares in which something (once a cat, once a dog and once a woman) came to him in his bedroom, sat on his chest and tried to prevent his breathing. Dr. Tobin arranged for a Laotian healer to perform a "spirit cure," which was consistent with the patient's world view. Afterwards, Dr. Tobin investigated further into the patient's background. 569 . Examination of the patient's history revealed that he was suffering from "survivor's guilt." This post-traumatic malady, first identified in survivors of the Holocaust, combines depression and paranoia with the nagging feeling, "why was I saved when so many others died?" Dr. Tobin also discovered that among South Asian persons there is the belief in something akin to "voodoo death," called banqunqut, or "Oriental nightmare death," in which a person is believed to be killed during sleep by a spirit which squeezes out the breath. Apparently a similar belief was held in Europe during the Middle Ages. At that time, the name, "incubi" was given to the presumed spirit, from the Latin word for nightmare, incubus. . Previous medical research has indicated that heart attacks can be precipitated in dreams and that certain psychosomatic disorders can be dangerously aggravated during the sleep state. Other research focussing on the healing potential of dreams, nevertheless receives indirect support for the physical potency of dreams by the suggestion that they might also be a vehicle of death. DREAM AFTER SURGERY RESTORES INTEGRITY OF PERSONALITY: Major surgery is a harrowing experience, a trauma to the personality, for the person submits their life, while unconscious under anesthesia, to the operation of other people's hands upon their vital organs. The most critical aspect of the surgery experience--the operation itself--seems beyond the reach of the patient's personality to integrate, as would be needed following any traumatic experience, because of the anesthesia. Patient's occasional reports of "witnessing" their operation, and statements, by psychics such as Edgar Cayce or philosophers such as Alfred North Whitehead, that the mind never sleeps, that it registers everything, would suggest that despite the anesthesia, it should be theoretically possible for the post-operative patient to regain access to the surgery experience so that it could be digested and the recovery made more complete. Dr. Paul W. Pruyser, of the Menninger Foundation, reporting in the Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic (June, 1983) suggests that such an integration of the surgery experience may occur through a dream! . Dr. Pruyser writes about his experience undergoing emergency, triple coronary bypass surgery and how his recuperation was helped by a dream he had five days after the operation. In his dream, he visits a little-known, secluded part of the hospital grounds, a ruins site from the 19th century, where he encounters a heavy metal door. The door opens with eerie creak and he enters a dimly lit cave. He finds three strange, two-story, cubical habitats, each with leaky and rusty pipes meant to furnish heat to the inside from a centrally located, old-fashioned wood-burning cook stove that was very dilapidated. 570 . When he awoke from this dream, he reports that he felt elated and immensely satisfied, because, in his own words, "my mind had found access to an experience I was not supposed to have undergone at all because of the total anesthesia." He believes, for example, that the creaking of the door was actually the sound of his rib cage when it was opened by the surgeon. He provides background information to develop an interpretation of the details of the dream, which in essence refers to his confrontation with his heart and its clogged arteries and with his ancestral history of coronary deficiency. More generally, he ascribes to his dream an act of restoration of the integrity of his personality--"a guarantee of the continuity of selfhood"--after being the threatened by his near brush with death. The ability of dreams to spontaneously provide this otherwise missing ingredient to total recovery deserves further investigation. (Author's address: Menninger Foundation, P.O. Box 829, Topeka, KS 66601). GROUP DREAMING: What happens when a group of people attempt to dream about the same thing? The December, 1983 issue of Omni Magazine reports the work of Henry Reed (DreamNet Sysop) on an intriguing approach to studying the psychic potential of dreams. A group of dreamers would be gathered together, he would introduce them to a stranger said to be suffering from an undisclosed problem, and ask the group to dream for this person, to see if they could dream up a solution to the person's problem. In the morning the dreams were analyzed, the person's problem was revealed, and the pieces of information from the several dreams were pieced together to develop a solution. Most of the dreams evidenced psychic information in the dreams. Pooling the dreams enhanced the visibility of the psychic effect. Having a good reason for dreaming telepathically seems to increase the probability of psychic material in the dreams. For further reading: "Dreaming for Mary, "Sundance Community Dream Journal, #3 (See Mail Order Services). EXPLORING YOUR DREAMS: For a "hands-on" guide to the "New Dreamwork" see the October, 1983 issue of New Age Journal. It has a comprehensive special section on what's happening in the world of the new dreamworker. It gives several different approaches to dreamwork, has articles on some of the prominent dreamworkers, as well as general discussion of current developments and controversies. 571 NEW LUCID DREAM INDUCTION TECHNIQUE: Robert Price and David Cohen, of the University of Texas at Austin, report that they have accidentally discovered a method for inducing lucid dreams. It happened while they were researching the ability of a subject to control, while asleep in the dream state, the sounding of a tone being played in the dream laboratory. A biofeedback setup was used, such that whenever the sleeping subject entered the dream state, with rapid eye movements (REM), a loud tone would be played. This tone would interrupt sleep, but if the subject could increase the amount of rapid eye movements, he could terminate the tone, and sleep in peace. They found that their research subject could learn this task. Then the subject began to report lucid dreaming, that is being aware in the dream state that he was dreaming, and reported that he tried to move his eyes as a means of signalling to the experimenter. A "communication" system was thus set up between the experimenter and the dreaming subject. The researchers suggest that such a biofeedback situation may be an effective way to learn lucid dreaming. Reported in Lucidity Letter, November, 1983 (See Mail Order Services). TELEPATHIC DREAMS IN COUNSELING: A counselor whose dreams provide psychic information about clients has a powerful addition to his kit of clinical tools. Kenneth Orkin, Ph.D., has written an article entitled, "Telepathic Dreams: Their Application During the Counseling Process," describing his experiences with psychic dreaming about clients. He is in private practice in Miami, Florida. He recounts several types of psychic dreams, including precognitive dreaming about the problems of a client who would be coming for a consultation in the future, with the dream providing information about the source of that person's problem. He also recounts a story about a dream that provided past-life information about a client. His article appeared in the November, 1983 issue of A.R.E. Journal. You may write to the author c/o A.R.E., P.O. Box 595, Virginia Beach, VA 23451. 572 Dream Life & Waking Life: Both are Creations of the Person There is a growing appreciation for the variety of dream phenomena, such as the creativity in dreams and their sometimes transpersonal aspects. Older theories that generally ignored such facts are being replaced by newer ones that attempt to account for such phenomena. Most recently, Gordon Globus, M.D., Professor of Psychiatry and Philosophy at the University of California, Irvine, has taken a stab at integrating such perspectives as psychoanalysis, transpersonal psychology, cognitive science, and phenomenological philosophy in a pleasantly person- able statement of a view of dreams that readers of Perspective can live with. That dreams are a creative experience is one of the main factors that he wishes to explain. The author rejects the notion, in existence before Freud made it law, that dreams are merely rearrangements of past memory experiences. Instead, the author claims that dreams are created "de novo," meaning from scratch. In defending this position, he finds himself arguing that our waking life is also an experience that we create, thus placing his work close at hand to the metaphysical perspective that claims that we "create our own reality." Both realms are created "in the image" (meaning "in the imagination") of the person, in the same way God has been said to create the world. The symmetry between the creative aspect of both dream existence and waking existence, and the "divine" role given to the person, is pleasing both to the ancient Buddhist and modern spiritual metaphysician. The question is, how does this modern, scientifically grounded theoretician justify such a metaphysical basis to dreams and waking life? He does so by reference to both the leading edge theories of perceptual psychology and certain philosophical traditions. Perceptual psychology has long abandoned the camera analogy to explain how we see things. Plato's concept of the archetype, the transpersonal, non-material "ideas" that govern the actual ideas and things that we experience, has gained new favor in modern thinking about the perceptual process. Instead of theorizing that our perceptual mechanisms "photograph" what is out there, modern work has forced the theory that we already "know" or "suppose" what it is that we are trying to perceive, and then we search and analyze data bits according to their significance and fit to what we are attempting to "perceive." Meaning and intention are more significant to perception, in modern theory, than light waves and photo-sensitivity. In other words, the creative and subjective processes in perception are given more central prominence, and the physics of perception are accorded more the status of tools than primary determinants. Similarly, the philosophy of science has been arguing that facts, as such, do not exist; rather theories--in other words, intentional approaches to creating meaning--are what determine which data bits constitute facts, and determines whether or not the data bits will even be noticed. 573 Perhaps such philosophical abstractions seem cloudy or irrelevant, but the mechanistic, sensory-based, objective approach to perception (whether in visual perception or scientific knowing) has been undergoing radical changes. Fans of the transpersonal dimension of life who assume that the eye sees like a camera have an unnecessarily tough time trying to justify as scientific their views on ESP. Realizing how scientific and philosophical views on perception have evolved makes ESP seem more natural than supernatural. Thus the author's work does us a great service. It provides a readable treatise on how one can argue, on the basis of both scientific and philosophical grounds, that dreams, not to mention our lives, are pregnant with meaning (sometimes transpersonal meaning), and deserve our attention. Source: Dream life, waking life: The human condition through dreams. Published by the State University of New York Press, 1987. 574 Taken from AMERICAN HEALTH July/August 1987. How to problem-solve in your dreams ----------------------------------- Your dreams are "written" in your own private vocabulary; that's why their meaning is often unclear (and why dream books you buy at the corner newsstand won't explain your own visions). Moreover, the language of dreams is sensory and visual, whereas the language of daily life is verbal. You need to translate a dream much as you would a foreign language. Unfortunately, the same force s that make us disguise problems in our dreams are likely to hinder our recognizing them when we're awake. Even Freud had trouble with self-analysis. So an impartial listener - attained therapist - can help. "It's a collaborative process," says New York psychoanalyst Walter Bonime, author of the classic text, THE CLINICAL USE OF DREAMS (Da Capo Press, $29.50) But that doesn't mean you shouldn't explore your dreams alone or with a partner. People who keep dream journals say that over time, patterns often emerge. To put your dreams to work solving problems, try this routine: o Program yourself to wake up after every REM period. I did it while writing this article simply by telling myselfI wanted to at bedtime. But don't make it a regular habit. "The ability to maintain consciousness during sleep can backfire," says Dr. Neil Kavey, director of the Columbia-Presbyterian sleep lab. "If you can't shut it off, you may have trouble remaining asleep, or you may sleep so poorly that you feel you didn't sleep at all." o Put a notebook and pen or tape recorder at your bedside. o At bedtime, select a problem and sum it up with a question, such as "Should I take this new job?" Write it down and list possible solutions. o Turn off the lights and reflect on these solutions. Stick with it until you drift off to sleep. o When you wake up - during the night or in the morning - lie still. To jog your memory, pretend you're a detective interviewing an eyewitness. What's the last thing you remember? Before that? Going backward can help you more easily reconstruct a dream. o Write down or tape record all that you remember. Do it before you shower and have breakfast. o If you have trouble catching dreams, try sleeping late on weekends The longest dreams occur in the last part of sleep and many of us cut sleep short on week nights. 575 Once you've recorded your dream, how do you decode it? Tell it to yourself in the third person, suggest psychologist Lillie Weiss in DREAM ANALYSIS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY (Pergamon Press, $11.95). This may give you some distance from the dream and help you see the actions more clearly. Then look at the part of the dream that is the most mysterious. "Frequently the most incongruous part provides the dream message," Weiss says. In her dream-therapy study, Cartwright asks participants to examine and try to change repetitive, troublesome dreams along seven dimensions: o Time orientation. Do all your dreams take place in the past? Try positioning them in the present or future. o Competence to affect the outcome. Tryfinding a positive way to resolve a dream. o Self-blame. In your dreams, do you hold yourself responsible when things go wrong? Must you? o Relation to former role: If your divorced, do you still dream of yourself as married? If you have lost your job, do you still see yourself at work? Consider alternatives. o Motivation. Do you dream of being nurtured? Can you think of a way to take care of yourself? o Mood. What would make a dream more pleasant? o Dream roles: Do you like the part you play in your dreams? What role would you prefer? 576 . This following is an excerpt from "Psi Notes", prepared by William Braud, Ph.D., of the Mind Science Foundation in San Antonio, Texas. Question: What percentage of a person's dreams are precognitive (foretell the future) and how can we recognize the difference between a precognitive dream and an ordinary dream? Answer: A large proportion of precognitive experiences occur during dreams. One survey indicates that as many as 65 percent of precognitive experiences occurred during sleep. Precognitive dreams also seem to provide more complete and more accurate information than do waking psychic experiences. . There's no way to know with certainty what percentage of our dreams are precognitive. The content of the majority of our dreams is probably quite mundane, involving replays of experiences of the day, perhaps some wish fulfillment, and maybe even "random" content. But now and then, dreamers do have accurate glimpses of the future as they sleep. . The only way to know with certainty which dreams are precognitive and which are not is to keep a dream diary of all dreams and check to see which come true and which don't. Some persons are able to associate certain feelings of confidence in connection with psychic dreams - but these are very subtle feelings which are difficult to put into words and which may differ from person to person. . Let me describe a program of research in which we are more certain about what's going on. This research program was initiated by a New York psychiatrist, Dr. Montague Ullman, as a result of his observation that he and his patients were sharing telepathic dreams in the context of psychotherapy. A dream laboratory was set up at Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn. Ullman, along with his associates Stanley Krippner and Charles Honorton, designed experiments in which persons spent the night in the dream lab. They were monitored electro-physiologically in order to detect physiological indications of dreaming - these indications include: an activated EEG, rapid eye movements, and reduced muscle tension. When these indications of dreaming occurred, the sleeper was awakened and asked to describe his dream. These descriptions were tape-recorded and later transcribed. The next day, a target experience was randomly selected and the subject then went through some waking sensory experience. What was discovered was that the sleeper was able to have accurate dreams about events of which no one was as yet aware at the time of the dream, but which were randomly selected the next day. 577 DREAM BIBLIOGRAPHY ================== Appreciation is extended to Kathy Seward of the University of New England, in Biddefored, Maine for providing this information. 2 ALLEN-R-MICHAEL/ATTENUATION OF DRUG-INDUCED ANXIETY DREAMS AND PAVOR NOCTURNUS BY BENZODIAZEPINES./JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY. 1983 MAR VOL 44(3) 106-108. 3 ANON-/AN APPARENTLY PRECOGNITIVE DREAM. 1969, DEC, VOL. 45(742), 170-171. 4 ARENA-R. MURRI-L. PICCINI-P. 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SKINNER-J/AN APPRAISAL OF TELEPATHIC COMMUNICATION IN DREAMS/PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY. 1968, 4(3), 365. 52 GOLLUB-DAN/DREAM INTERPRETATION/PSYCHOLOGY: A QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR. 1983 VOL 20(2) 30-33. 53 GUNTER-P-RICHARD/RELIGIOUS DREAMING: A VIEWPOINT/ AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY. 1983 JUL VOL 37(3) 411-427. 54 HALL-CALVIN-S/""A UBIQUITOUS SEX DIFFERENCE IN DREAMS'' REVISITED/JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY & SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY/ 1984 MAY VOL 46(5) 1109-1117. 55 HALL-JAMES-A/TOWARD A PSYCHO-STRUCTURAL THEORY: HYPNOSIS AND THE STRUCTURE OF DREAMS/AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL HYPNOSIS. 1984 JAN VOL 26(3) 159-165. 56 HALL-JAMES-A/DREAMS AND TRANSFERENCE/ COUNTERTRANSFERENCE: THE TRANSFORMATIVE FIELD/CHIRON. 1984 31-51. 57 HARALDSSON-ERLENDUR/SOME DETERMINANTS OF BELIEF IN PSYCHICAL PHENOMENA/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1981 OCT VOL 75(4) 297-309. 58 HARTMAN-FRANK-R/A REAPPRAISAL OF THE EMMA EPISODE AND THE SPECIMEN DREAM/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOANALYTIC ASSOCIATION. 1983 VOL 31(3) 555-585. 59 HASTINGS-ARTHUR-C/DREAMS OF FUTURE EVENTS: PRECOGNITIONS AND PERSPECTIVES/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PSYCHOSOMATIC DENTISTRY & MEDICINE. 1977 VOL 24(2) 51-60. 60 HEARNE-KEITH-M/THREE CASES OF OSTENSIBLE PRECOGNITION FROM A SINGLE PERCIPIENT: 1. SADAT ASSASSINATION; 2. REAGAN ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT; 3. S.S. ACHILLE LAURO INCIDENT/ JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1982 JUN VOL 51(791) 288-291. 61 HEARNE-KEITH-M/AN AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR STUDYING PSI IN HOME ""LUCID'' DREAMS/JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1982 JUN VOL 51(791) 303-304. 62 HEARNE-KEITH-M/AN OSTENSIBLE PRECOGNITION OF THE ACCIDENTAL SINKING OF H.M/JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1982 JUN VOL 51(791) 283-287. 581 63 HEARNE-KEITH-M/""LUCID'' DREAMS AND ESP: AN INITIAL EXPERIMENT USING ONE SUBJECT/JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1981 FEB VOL 51(787) 7-11. 64 HEARNE-KEITH-M/LUCID DREAM INDUCTION/JOURNAL OF MENTAL IMAGERY. 1983 SPR VOL 7(1) 19-23. 65 HERMAN-JOHN-H ET AL/EVIDENCE FOR A DIRECTIONAL CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN EYE MOVEMENTS AND DREAM IMAGERY IN REM SLEEP/SLEEP. 1984 MAR VOL 7(1) 52-63. 66 HIMELSTEIN-PHILIP/DREAM SYMBOL OR DREAM PROCESS?/ PSYCHOLOGY: A QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR. 1984 VOL 21(1) 9-11. 67 HONE-VALERIE/DREAMS AS PREPARATION FOR DEATH: A STUDY OF THE MANIFEST AND LATENT DYING CANCER PATIENTS/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1984 MAY VOL 44(11-B) 3528. 68 HONORTON-CHARLES/SIGNIFICANT FACTORS IN HYPNOTICALLY-INDUCED CLAIRVOYANT DREAMS/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1972 JAN VOL. 66(1) 86-102. 69 HONORTON-CHARLES. STUMP-JOHN-P/A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF HYPNOTICALLY-INDUCED CLAIRVOYANT DREAMS/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1969, 63(2), 175-184. 70 HONORTON-CHARLES/REPORTED FREQUENCY OF DREAM RECALL AND ESP/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1972 OCT VOL. 66(4) 369-374. 71 HOWE-JOAN-B. BLICK-KENNETH-A/EMOTIONAL CONTENT OF DREAMS RECALLED BY ELDERLY WOMEN/SO PERCEPTUAL & MOTOR SKILLS. 1983 FEB VOL 56(1) 31-34. 72 INGMUNDSON-PAUL-T/DREAMING, REM SLEEP, AND MEMORY/ DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1985 JAN VOL 45(7-B) 2342. 73 JACKSON-M-P/SUGGESTIONS FOR A CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT TO TEST PRECOGNITION IN DREAMS/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1967, 61(4), 346-353. 74 JOHNSON-MARCIA-K. KAHAN-TRACEY-L. RAYE-CAROL-L/DREAMS AND REALITY MONITORING/JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: GENERAL. 1984 SEP VOL 113(3) 329-344. 75 KAUVAR-ELAINE-M/BLAKE'S INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS: ""MENTAL FORMS CREATING.''/AMERICAN IMAGO. 1984 SPR VOL 41(1) 19-45. 76 KIRTLEY-DONALD-D. SABO-KENNETH-T/AGGRESSION IN THE DREAMS OF BLIND WOMEN/JOURNAL OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT & BLINDNESS. 1983 JUN VOL 77(6) 269-270, 295. 77 KOH-JUSUCK/DESIGN FOR FANTASY AND FANTASY FOR DESIGN: USING FANTASY AND DREAM FOR CREATIVITY AND SYMBOLISM IN ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN/EDRA: ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN RESEARCH ASSOCIATION. 1983 NO 14 36-47. 78 KOLB-GISELA-E/THE DREAM IN PSYCHOANALYTIC GROUP THERAPY/ INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY. 1983 JAN VOL 33(1) 41-52. 79 AU KOUKKOU-M. LEHMANN-D/DREAMING: THE FUNCTIONAL STATE-SHIFT HYPOTHESIS: A NEUROPSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MODEL/ BRITISH JOURNAL OF 582 PSYCHIATRY. 1983 MAR VOL 142 221-231. 80 KRAMER-MILTON. KINNEY-LOIS. SCHARF-MARTIN/EXPERIENCES IN DREAMS/PSYCHIATRIC JOURNAL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA. 1983 MAR VOL 8(1) 1-4. 81 KRIPPNER-S ET AL/A LONG-DISTANCE ''SENSORY BOMBARDMENT'' STUDY OF EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION IN DREAMS/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1971, OCT, VOL. 65(4), 468-475. 82 KRIPPNER-S/INVESTIGATIONS OF ''EXTRASENSORY'' PHENOMENA IN DREAMS AND OTHER ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS/ JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PSYCHOSOMATIC DENTISTRY & MEDICINE. 1969, 16(1), 7-14. 83 KRIPPNER-S. ULLMAN-M. HONORTON-C/A PRECOGNITIVE DREAM STUDY WITH A SINGLE SUBJECT/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1971 APR VOL. 65(2) 192-203. 84 KRIPPNER-STANLEY. ULLMAN-MONTAGUE/TELEPATHY AND DREAMS: A CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT WITH ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM-ELECTRO-OCULOGRAM MONITORING/JOURNAL OF NERVOUS & MENTAL DISEASE. 1970, DEC, VOL. 151(6), 394-403. 85 KRIPPNER-STANLEY/NORMAL DREAM AND MAN'S PLIABLE FUTURE/ PSYCHOANALYTIC REVIEW. 1969, 56(1), 28-43. 86 KRIPPNER-STANLEY/ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ESP IN DREAMS: SEX DIFFERENCES IN SEVENTY-FOUR TELEPATHY SESSIONS/ JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1970, JUL, VOL. 64(3), 277-285. 87 KRIPPNER-STANLEY. HONORTON-CHARLES. ULLMAN-MONTAGUE/A SECOND PRECOGNITIVE DREAM STUDY WITH MALCOLM BESSENT/ JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1972 JUL VOL. 66(3) 269-279. 88 KRIPPNER-STANLEY. ULLMAN-MONTAGUE/TELEPATHIC PERCEPTION IN THE DREAM STATE: CONFIRMATORY STUDY USING EEG-EOG MONITORING TECHNIQUES/PERCEPTUAL & MOTOR SKILLS. 1969, DEC, VOL. 29(3), 915-918. 89 KRIPPNER-STANLEY/DREAMS AND OTHER ALTERED CONSCIOUS STATES/JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION. 1975 WIN VOL 25(1) 173-182. 90 KRIPPNER-STANLEY/DREAMS AND OTHER ALTERED CONSCIOUS STATES/PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF SOUTH AFRICA. 1981 DEC VOL 2(2) 18-34. 91 KRISHNAN-RANGA-R. VOLOW-MICHAEL-R. CAVENAR-JESSE-O. MILLER-PATRICIA-P/DREAMS OF FLYING IN NARCOLEPTIC PATIENTS. SO PSYCHOSOMATICS. 1984 MAY VOL 25(5) 423-425. 92 KUPER-ADAM/THE STRUCTURE OF DREAM SEQUENCES/CULTURE, MEDICINE & PSYCHIATRY. 1983 JUN VOL 7(2) 153-175. 93 LAMBERT-KENNETH/REFLECTIONS ON A CRITIQUE OF HILLMAN'S APPROACH TO THE DREAM BY WA. SHELBURNE/JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY. 1984 JAN VOL 29(1) 57-66. 583 94 LANG-RUDIE-J. OCONNOR-KIERON-P/PERSONALITY, DREAM CONTENT AND DREAM COPING STYLE/PERSONALITY & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES. 1984 VOL 5(2) 211-219. 95 LEBOEUF-ALAN. MCKAY-PATRICIA. CLARKE-KEITH/LATERAL EYE MOVEMENTS AND DREAM RECALL IN MALES: A RE-APPRAISAL/ COGNITION & PERSONALITY. 1983-84 VOL 3(1) 61-68. 96 LEHMANN-HERBERT/FREUD'S DREAM OF FEBRUARY 1918/ INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF PSYCHO-ANALYSIS. 1983 VOL 10(1) 87-93. 97 LEVITAN-HAROLD/DREAMS WHICH CULMINATE IN MIGRAINE HEADACHES/PSYCHOTHERAPY & PSYCHOSOMATICS. 1984 JUL VOL 41(4) 161-166. 98 LEWIN-ISAAC/THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY OF DREAMS IN THE BIBLE/JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY & JUDAISM. 1983 SPR-SUM VOL 7(2) 73-88. 99 LOTHANE-ZVI/REALITY, DREAM, AND TRAUMA/CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOANALYSIS. 1983 JUL VOL 19(3) 423-443. 100 LYNCH-VINCENT-J/WORKING WITH DREAMS: A COLLABORATION BETWEEN THERAPIST AND PATIENT/PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHIATRIC CARE. 1983 JAN-MAR VOL 21(1) 21-25. 101 MALAKOFF-CHERYL-A/DREAM RECALL AS A FUNCTION OF SELF CONCEPT AND PERSONAL VALUES/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1984 SEP VOL 45(3-B) 1021. 102 MANLEY-FRANCIS-J/THE EFFECT OF INTENTIONAL DREAMING ON DEPRESSION/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1983 JUN VOL 43(12-B) 4154. 103 MARTIN-JAY/THREE STAGES OF DREAMING: A CLINICAL STUDY OF HENRY MILLER'S DREAM BOOK/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS. 1984 APR VOL 12(2) 233-251. 104 MARTINETTI-RAYMOND-F/DREAM RECALL, IMAGINAL PROCESSES AND SHORT-TERM MEMORY: A PILOT STUDY/PERCEPTUAL & MOTOR SKILLS. 1983 DEC VOL 57(3, PT 1) 718. 105 MAYKUTH-PATRICIA-L/INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT IN DREAMS: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF 3- TO 8-YEAR OLDS/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1984 DEC VOL 45(6-B) 1941-1942. 106 MELSTROM-MARGARET-A. CARTWRIGHT-ROSALIND-D/EFFECTS OF SUCCESSFUL VS. UNSUCCESSFUL PSYCHOTHERAPY OUTCOME ON SOME DREAM DIMENSIONS/PSYCHIATRY. 1983 FEB VOL 46(1) 51-65. 107 MEZENTSEV-V-A/ARE THERE MIRACLES IN NATURE?/MOSCOW, USSR: MOSKOVSKII2 RABOCHII2, 1967. 240 P. 108 MONTRELAY-MICHELE/ON FOLDING AND UNFOLDING: AN EXAMPLE OF DREAM INTERPRETATION IN ANALYSIS/PSYCHOANALYTIC INQUIRY. 1984 VOL 4(2) 193-219. 109 MURRI-LUIGI ET AL/DREAM RECALL IN PATIENTS WITH FOCAL CEREBRAL LESIONS/ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY. 1984 FEB VOL 41(2) 183-185. 584 110 MYERS-ROBERT-K/THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DREAMS AND DREAMERS IN MODERN PSYCHOLOGICAL LITERATURE/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1985 JAN VOL 45(7-B) 2316. 111 MYERS-WAYNE-A/AN ATHLETIC EXAMPLE OF THE TYPICAL EXAMINATION DREAM/PSYCHOANALYTIC QUARTERLY. 1983 OCT VOL 52(4) 594-598. 112 NAROTRA-R-S/A STUDY OF DREAM ANALYSIS/ASIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY & EDUCATION. 1983 VOL 11(2) 14-18. 113 PALESKI-ZBIGNIEW/PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF BELIEF IN ''PROPHETIC'' DREAMS/PSYCHOLOGIA WYCHOWAWCZA. 1970, SEP, VOL. 13(4), 523-527. 114 PALOMBO-STANLEY-R/THE GENIUS OF THE DREAM/AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS. 1983 WIN VOL 43(4) 301-313. 115 PALOMBO-STANLEY-R/THE POET AS DREAMER/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS. 1984 JAN VOL 12(1) 59-73. 116 PALOMBO-STANLEY-R/RECOVERY OF EARLY MEMORIES ASSOCIATED WITH REPORTED DREAM IMAGERY/AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY. 1984 DEC VOL 141(12) 1508-1511. 117 PALOMBO-STANLEY-R/DECONSTRUCTING THE MANIFEST DREAM/ JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOANALYTIC ASSOCIATION. 1984 VOL 32(2) 405-420. 118 PARKER-A. BELOFF-J/HYPNOTICALLY-INDUCED CLAIRVOYANT DREAMS: A PARTIAL REPLICATION AND ATTEMPTED CONFIRMATION/ JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1970, OCT, VOL. 64(4), 432-442. 119 PATALANO-FRANK/COLOR IN DREAMS AND THE PSYCHOANALYTIC SITUATION/AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS. 1984 SUM VOL 44(2) 183-190. 120 PERLMUTTER-RICHARD-A. BABINEAU-RAYMOND/THE USE OF DREAMS IN COUPLES THERAPY/PSYCHIATRY. 1983 FEB VOL 46(1) 66-72. 121 PEROLD-ETIENNE-A/ON EXPLANATION IN PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE DREAM/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1983 NOV VOL 44(5-B) 1603-1604. 122 PETERS-LARRY-G/THE ROLE OF DREAMS IN THE LIFE OF A MENTALLY RETARDED INDIVIDUAL/ETHOS. 123 POTTINGER-JOSEPHINE-S/THE EFFECT OF POSTHYPNOTIC SUGGESTION ON DREAM RECALL/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1984 JAN VOL 44(7-B) 2257. 124 RANDALL-JOHN-L/CARD-GUESSING EXPERIMENTS WITH SCHOOLBOYS/JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH. 1974 SEP VOL 47(761) 421-432. 125 RENIK-OWEN/THE CLINICAL USE OF THE MANIFEST DREAM/ JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOANALYTIC ASSOCIATION. 1984 VOL 32(1) 157-162. 126 ROBBINS-PAUL-R. HOUSHI-FARZANEH/SOME OBSERVATIONS ON RECURRENT DREAMS/BULLETIN OF THE MENNINGER CLINIC. 1983 MAY VOL 47(3) 262-265. 127 RUIZ-KAY-N/AN EXPERIMENT USING AN IMAGING METHOD BASED ON SENOI-DREAMWORK WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITICS/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1983 JUL VOL 44(1-B) 324. 128 SABO-KENNETH-T/EMOTIONS IN THE DREAMLIFE OF PARAPLEGICS: A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1983 APR VOL 43(10-B) 585 3374-3375. 129 SALTZMAN-NOLAN/ELICITING EMOTIONS OF DREAMS AND MEMORY FRAGMENTS IN BIO PSYCHOTHERAPY/INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECLECTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY. 1984 SEP VOL 3(1) 1-6. 130 SARGENT-CARL-L. HARLEY-TREVOR-A/THREE STUDIES USING A PSI-PREDICTIVE TRAIT VARIABLE QUESTIONNAIRE/JOURNAL OF PARAPSYCHOLOGY. 1981 SEP VOL 45(3) 199-214. 131 SARGENT-LARRY/DREAMS IN THE NUCLEAR AGE/JOURNAL OF HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY. 1984 SUM VOL 24(3) 142-156. 132 SARLIN-M-BRUCE/THE USE OF DREAMS IN PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH DEAF PATIENTS/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS. 1984 JAN VOL 12(1) 75-88. 133 SCHAPIRO-S-A/A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR OUT-OF-BODY PHENOMENA/JOURNAL OF ALTERED STATES OF CONCIOUSNESS. 975-76 VOL 2(3) 259-265. 134 SCHROER-THOMAS/ARCHETYPAL DREAMS DURING THE FIRST PREGNANCY/PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES. 1984 SPR VOL 15(1) 71-80. 135 SCHUHL/SOCIETE MOREAU DE TOURS: IS THE PROBLEM OF SORCERERS ONE THAT IS PURELY PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL?/ANNALES MEDICO-PSYCHOLOGIQUES. 1968, 2(4), 592. 136 SECHZER-PHILIP-H/DREAMS WITH LOW-DOSE KETAMINE IN OBSTETRICAL PATIENTS/CURRENT THERAPEUTIC RESEARCH. 1984 MAR VOL 35(3) 396-404. 137 SHELBURNE-W-A/A CRITIQUE OF JAMES HILLMAN'S APPROACH TO THE DREAM/JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY. 1984 JAN VOL 29(1) 35-56. 138 SHEPARD-ROGER-N/ECOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS ON INTERNAL REPRESENTATION: RESONANT KINEMATICS OF PERCEIVING, IMAGINING, THINKING, AND DREAMING/PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW. 1984 OCT VOL 91(4) 417-447. 139 SIEGEL-RONALD-D/A COMPARISON OF FREUD'S AND JUNG'S APPROACHES TO DREAM INTERPRETATION/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1984 JUL VOL 45(1-B) 366. 140 SILBER-AUSTIN/A SIGNIFICANT ""DREAM WITHIN A DREAM.''/ JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOANALYTIC ASSOCIATION. 1983 VOL 31(4) 899-915. 141 SLOCHOWER-HARRY/FREUD'S DEJA VU ON THE ACROPOLIS: A SYMBOLIC RELIC OF ''MATER NUDA.''/PSYCHOANALYTIC QUARTERLY. 1970, 39(1), 90-102. 142 SMITH-ROBERT-C/A POSSIBLE BIOLOGIC ROLE OF DREAMING. PSYCHOTHERAPY & PSYCHOSOMATICS. 1984 JUL VOL 41(4) 167-176. 143 SPARROW-GREGORY-S./AN EXPLORATION INTO THE INDUCTION OF GREATER REFLECTIVENESS AND ""LUCIDITY'' IN NOCTURNAL DREAM REPORTS. DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1984 SEP VOL 45(3-B) 1050. 144 SPERO-MOSHE-H./A PSYCHOTHERAPIST'S REFLECTIONS ON A COUNTERTRANSFERENCE DREAM./AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS. 1984 SUM VOL 44(2) 191-196. 145 STEIN-MARTIN-H./RATIONAL VERSUS ANAGOGIC INTERPRETATION: XENOPHON'S DREAM AND OTHERS/JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOANALYTIC ASSOCIATION. 1984 VOL 32(3) 529-556. 586 146 STERN-DEREK-A. SAAYMAN-GRAHAM-S. TOUYZ-STEPHEN-W./ THE EFFECT OF AN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DEMAND ON NOCTURNAL DREAM CONTENT./JOURNAL OF MENTAL IMAGERY. 1983 FAL VOL 7(2) 15-31. 147 TART-CHARLES-T. FADIMAN-JAMES./THE CASE OF THE YELLOW WHEAT FIELD: A DREAM-STATE EXPLANATION OF A BROADCAST TELEPATHIC DREAM./PSYCHOANALYTIC REVIEW. 1974-1975 WIN VOL 61(4) 607-618. 148 TART-CHARLES-T./THE CONTROL OF NOCTURNAL DREAMING BY MEANS OF POSTHYPNOTIC SUGGESTION./INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PARAPSYCHOLOGY. 1967, 9(3), 184-189. 149 THACKREY-SUSAN-E./THE TROPICS OF THE DREAM: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CLASSICAL DREAM THEORY IN THE LIGHT OF THE STRUCTURALIST APPROACH/DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL. 1984 MAY VOL 44(11-B) 3512. 150 THALBOURNE-MICHAEL-A./SOME CORRELATES OF BELIEF IN PSYCHICAL PHENOMENA: A PARTIAL REPLICATION OF THE HARALDSSON FINDINGS./PARAPSYCHOLOGY REVIEW. 1984 MAR-APR VOL 15(2) 13-15. 151 THOLEY-PAUL./RELATION BETWEEN DREAM CONTENT AND EYE MOVEMENTS TESTED BY LUCID DREAMS./PERCEPTUAL & MOTOR SKILLS. 1983 JUN VOL 56(3) 875-878. 152 THOLEY-PAUL./TECHNIQUES FOR INDUCING AND MANIPULATING LUCID DREAMS./1983 AUG VOL 57(1) 79-90. 153 TOLAAS-JON./DREAMING: A PSI MODALITY?./ PSYCHOENERGETIC SYSTEMS. 1976 JUL VOL 1(4) 185-195. 154 TRENHOLME-IRENE. CARTWRIGHT-ROSALIND. GREENBERG-GLEN./ DREAM DIMENSION DIFFERENCES DURING A LIFE CHANGE./ PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH. 1984 MAY VOL 12(1) 35-45. 587 155 TYSON-PAUL-D. OGILVIE-ROBERT-D. HUNT-HARRY-T./ LUCID, PRELUCID, AND NONLUCID DREAMS RELATED TO THE AMOUNT OF EEG ALPHA ACTIVITY DURING REM SLEEP. PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY. 1984 JUL VOL 21(4) 442-451. 156 ULLMAN-M. KRIPPNER-S. HONORTON-C./A CONFIRMATORY STUDY OF THE TELEPATHIC DREAM WITH EEG-REM MONITORING/ PSYCHOPHYSICS. 1968, 5(2), 218. 157 ULLMAN-MONTAGUE./KRIPPNER-STANLEY. FELDSTEIN-SOL. EXPERIMENTALLY-INDUCED TELEPATHIC DREAMS: TWO STUDIES USING EEG-REM MONITORING TECHNIQUE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHIATRY. 1966, 2(5), 420-437. 158 ULLMAN-MONTAGUE/TI RAPID EYE MOVEMENT DREAM-MONITORING TECHNIQUES IN CURRENT ESP RESEARCH./TRANSACTIONS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 1967, 30(2), 265-270. 159 ULLMAN-MONTAGUE/PSI COMMUNICATION THROUGH DREAM SHARING. PARAPSYCHOLOGY REVIEW. 1981 MAR-APR VOL 12(2) 1-8. 160 ULLMAN-MONTAGUE & KRIPPNER-STANLEY/ESP IN THE NIGHT. PSY 1970, JUN, VOL. 4(1), 46-50, 72. 161 ULLMAN-MONTAGUE & KRIPPNER-STANLEY/AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TO DREAMS AND TELEPATHY: II. REPORT OF THREE STUDIES./AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY. 1970, 126(9), 1282-1289. 162 ULLMAN-MONTAGUE/TELEPATHY AND DREAMS./EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE & SURGERY. 1969, VOL. 27(1-2), 19-38. 163 ULLMAN-MONTAGUE. KRIPPNER-STANLEY/A LABORATORY APPROACH TO THE NOCTURNAL DIMENSION OF PARANORMAL EXPERIENCE: REPORT OF A CONFIRMATORY STUDY USING THE REM MONITORING TECHNIQUE/BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY. 1969, JUL, VOL. 1(3), 259-270. 588 FESTIVALS --------- Within the Pagan community there are many holidays and Sabbats celebrated for various means, and not all celebrate each holiday/Sabbat in the same exact way or for the same reasons. The following is a general list of the Holidays most common between all the Sects within Neo-Paganisim. YULE (Winter Solstice, December 20-23 (varies according to the particular date on the standard calendar according to when the Solstice will occurastronomically)).Longest nightof theyear, theturning point whenthe days shall afterwardsgrow longer as winterbegins its passageinto thecoming spring.It is,inthe Goddessworship, the time when she gives forth again to the birth of the Divine Sun child who shall be both child and eventually lover and father of the next child in the cycle. Winter Solstice for pagans is a time of feasting and the exchanging of gifts and is the original Holiday that the Christian religions modified into their own Christmas, even upto the birth of the child (Most theologians who have spent time studying the birth of Jesus admit he was born in either March or April, not the celebrated Christmas date we all know from the standard calendar - it was moved to this date to help induce Pagans to give up their old ways yet allow them their holidays during the spread of Christianity thru Europe and the British Isles). Traditional adornments are a Yule Log, usually of oak, and a combination of mistletoe and holly (also all later plagiarized into Christian ways). CANDLEMAS (Brigid's Day, February 2nd) Not common to all pagans, this is very popular with Wiccans and various Celtic sects. Brigid is the Celtic goddess of fire and inspiration (Poetry, smithcraft and healing) as well as yet another representation of the Fertility of Femininity and Love. Brigid had such a strong following among the Celtics that the Christian church decided it was easier to assimilate her into their own system, and so there came about the making of Saint Brigit and all the stories they created about her so that her followers would leave their old beliefs enough so they would not side with the Druids, who were known at that time as 'the snakes' because of their tendency to have tamed snakes that were used to help produce various healing mixtures via their venom, and who were violently opposing the Catholic church. In History, of course, the druids lost against the overwhelming odds presented by the church, led by a man who would then be himself sainted by the church, their Saint Patrick (who was no clergyman but a warrior). Thus Christian rule of various sorts came into Ireland. Handcrafts are often sacrificed to Brigid or dedicated to her as they are started on this day. Its celebration is done with many candles and as usual much feasting. The Christians also took, moved slightly and used this d a t e b y creating St. Valentine and using the day for one of chaste l o v e reflections. 589 Eostar Ritual (Spring Equinox, March 20-23 dependant on actual astronomical event) This is the start in the pagan year of spring, at least among Wiccans and Celtics. The first flowers are praised and the Gods and Goddesses thanked for the true return to happier times for all. Eostar is oneof the more colorful holidays, not one of the somber colors found in Yule and Candlemas. Feasting and socializing are the important factors in this holiday as well as the celebration of the return of color to the natural world. In the Christian calendar, again to draw early worshipers, they marked this as the final days and rebirth of Jesus (when according to history he died in June!) Beltane (May Eve, April 30th-May 1st) Most important to pagans, save f o r Samhain, I don't know of any Pagan group that doesn't celebrate t h i s holiday in some way. Beltane is the great Fertility rite of life, starting at dusk on the 30th and continuing until the dawn of the 1st. The union of the God and Goddess to conceive the sun-child to be takes place upon this holiday, no matter which tradition of paganisim is involved. Beltane is the one holiday most discouraged by the Christians, who didn't even use it as a point for a holiday of their o w n because the power and nature of the day involved. Still, even in Christianized Ireland the May day dance of the Maypole remained, as d i d the giving of flowers to those you loved or cared for as friends. T h e Maypole is a symbol of the union of the God and Goddess to create life, the pole itself a phallic symbol while the dancers and their streamers or vines of flowers represent the fertile womb of the goddess a s i t takes in the Phallus of the god and takes in his seed. Besides t h e Maypole often a bonfire is present, and members of the group are encouraged to jump the flames for luck and their own fertility. Food, drink and love are the order of the evening. In most sects the celebration of Beltane will become one large orgy as the participants are encouraged to enact their own unions of love. Beltane is the time o f m a n y marriages/handfastings in the pagan community (in some it is the point where one chooses to begin and end relationships of a physical nature). Clothing is very optional in most get togethers on this holiday, and mostly it is sensual and colorful. Even those sects that are prudish about things tend to accept the rules of the holiday, as it is the holiday of free love. It is said that a child conceived on this day will grow up to wield great power and knowledge and to be healthier than upon any other. Litha (Summer Solstice, June 20-23, dependant on actual astronomical event) Held on the longest day of the year, the Solstice is the celebration of lights triumph over darkness and that of the bountiful beauty that light brings into life. Flowers are common in the circle, roses and brightcheerful wildflowers are upon the altar and usually worn by all. It is the changing point of the year, and the celebration of the spiral dance of the year is common among Wiccans. It a celebration with much joy, and much feasting. Many wiccans will attire themselves i n bright colors and equally bright adornments of flowers. Litha' usual food fare may include honeycakes or cornbread. Litha is not celebrated by all sects nor in the same way. 590 Lughnasad (August 1st) The great corn ritual of Wiccan belief (in Celtic realms this is the celebration of the wheat god, corn is an Americanization and it is possible there is an American Indian traditional holiday near this date that was borrowed by the American Neopagans). THis is the big celebration of the harvest (Sort of a Pagan Thanksgiving, but the time clock is different as is that of the Celtics). Much feasting and dancing occur, thou it is a bit more somber than many of the other holidays. Some Pagans celebrate this day as merely the day to bake their bread and cakes for the coming winter and do no actual rituals save that of blessing the foods prepared. Mabon (Fall Equinox, Sept. 20-23, dependant on actual astronomical event) A lesser holiday, this is not widely celebrated and is most come with Pure wiccan groups, especially those who are based in the works of Starhawk and other Dianic sects. This is the weavers festival, and a braiding of cords are done in the process of casting a spell to add to ones life from what it is, each person weaving unto themselves what they wish and the coven as a whole weaving all the cords together to unite the power and efforts symbolically. SAMHAIN (Halloween Oct 31st) THe year ends traditionally in Wiccan beliefs with this holiday. Samhain is said to be the period of time when the gates between the worlds are least guarded and the veils their thinnest. It is a time for dimensional openings and workings, and a l s o t h e celebration of the death of the year king. It is a somber holiday, one of dark clothes and thoughts for the dead, it is said to be the time when those of necromantic talents can speak with the dead and it is certainly a time to remember ones dead. It is a time of endings of relationships and bad situations and it is the time when one can see the glimmer of hope in the future. THere are as many concepts attached to this holiday as any other. 591 THE HOLY FOOL: The Third member of the Triad -some musings by: the Bard * "Remember, the Moon is only half as big as the Earth, but it's twice as far away." -Anonymous * After some time musing on the concept of Goddess/God that is common in Wiccan (and most Neo-Pagan groups) and seeing the common theme of "things come in threes" in these belief systems, I fell to wondering "Why only the God and Goddess? If all things come in threes, where is the Third Aspect that should be there?" So what is this Third Aspect? I feel it is the Holy Fool; the Prometheus who is the Trickster, the God (neuter) that rolls the dice. This also fills in certain holes in neo-Pagan Theology that have bothered me for some time, too. First, we need to have a quick look at the Holy Fool in religious and/or cultural beliefs, both primitive and modern: American Indian: Aztec: Ueuecoyotl Caddo: Coyote Chinook: Coyote Coos: Coyote Haida: Raven Hopi: Mudhead Kachina, Clown Kachina Kiowa: Coyote Navaho: Coyote Nez Perce: Coyote Omaha: Coyote, Rabbit, Iktinike, Orphan Pueblo: Koshare Sioux: Spider Tillamook: Coyote Tinglit: Raven Winnebago: Rabbit Zuni: Coyote African: Spider, Tortoise, Rabbit, Jackal Graeco/Roman: Pan, Dionysis Celtic: Phooka and the like (see Irish: Fear Dearg, and a host of others. The Fool must love Ireland very much...He made so many of Itself there!) Norse: Loki...-and- Balder Banks Island: Clat Micronesia: Nareau England: Puck, Black Jack Davy Christianity: "Doubting" Thomas, and The Christ Himself, in many ways....and Judas, too. 20th Cent. North American: Bugs Bunny, The Joker, Mr. Mxyzpltk, Murphy, ("And Pooh is a -good- example, too!" said Eeyore) 592 Neo-Paganism: Discordians 18th thru 20th Cent. Appalachian: Jack (from British Isles) 18th and 19th Cent. N.A. Black: Br'er Rabbit, Long John, &c. German: Tyl Eulenspiegel Italy: Harlequin (check out Agatha Christie's stories about "Harley Quinn." VERY interesting!) Islamic: Juha, Abu Nawwas, Mullah Nasruddin, Nasreddin Khoja, Nasreddin Hodja Japanese: Fox, Hotei, and the whole concept of Zen...... And the many, many instances of the Hero figure and his Friend in most people's mythology....Gilgamesh and Enkidu, Robin Hood and Little John, the Mythic Hollywood Western Hero and his ridiculous sidekick, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza.....and many times you see the recurrent theme of the Great Betrayal of the Hero, which leads to His death...and to His Resurrection! One immediately sees that the Fool is a universal constant in folk belief, just as the Goddess and God are! (NB: I have not gotten more specific for two reasons: one, for limitations of space, and two, to encourage others to do a little reading on their own!) As most things, the Fool is Personified in three basic Aspects that (of course) overlap with each other and with the God and Goddess. The first is that of the Saviour God, the Prometheus, the Culture Hero, who brings Knowledge (and -occasionally- Wisdom) to Mankind. This Aspect loves Mankind with all His Being, and only wishes Good. His Good Intentions sometimes fall short of His (or Mankind's) expectations, however. Thesecond isthat ofthe Clown,the Nerd,the Jerk,that teaches by his own mistakes (and who usually comes out ahead because of His own Innocence.) This Aspect is mostly neutral, and is how He seems to mostly manifest Himself. Butletus notforget thethird,and darker,side oftheFool, best exemplified by Jack Nicholson's portrayal of The Joker in the film version of "Batman." Just as the Goddess has Her Dark side (the Crone, the Morrigan, &c) and the God has His (Odin as Death-God) so does the Fool have a terrifying Aspect (at least, from the human point of view): Chaos Personified. This is not an Aspect to invoke, as It does not care. Period. It is the ultimate psychopath, the ultimate Spoiled Brat, the quintessence of Ego-centric self-love. In some circles, it could be quite nicely named Ahriman, or Shaitan, or Satan, because it fits all concepts of that Middle-Eastern deity....except one: It does not care if Man worships It or not. It is not in -conflict- with the God and/or Goddess, It is -not- on the kind of power-trip that the Judeo-Christian Satan is represented as having, it just -is-. It should be considered as neither "good" nor "evil," though it can personify both or either....or neither! This is confusing, but with a little thought the concept will (hopefully) come clear. 593 (And, just in passing, the film version of "Batman" is perhaps a very good metaphor for the eternal struggle between the Fool-as-Prometheus (Batman) and the Fool-as-Chaos (the Joker). Areyou confused? If youare, GOOD! If you arenot, keep thinking by not-thinking. (wha-a-a-a-a-t?) Some of thebest examples ofthe three Personifications arefound in the Navaho and Zuni tales of Coyote, or the Br'er Rabbit tales, or the older Bugs Bunny cartoons, or even Walt Disney's Goofy. And, while speaking of classic animation, if you can see any of the cartoons of the Cannibal Boy and the Mynah Bird, do so! It shows not one, but TWO Aspects in action! For a look at His more serious (?) side, try J.R.R. Tolkien's wonderful evocation of Tom Bombadil.....who is described as "the oldest." Prof. Tolkien came very close to the core of the truth with that one! The Fool is your slightly daffy Uncle, that comes to visit at Christmas and is such fun to be with, but who seems to have a sadness about him too, that you found out later, when you were all grown up, was his slide into alcoholism. The Fool is the American sit-com "Daddy" who never seems to get anything right, but wins out in the end anyway. The Fool is the classic scene of Bugs Bunny, floating in a washtub in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, happily singing "As Time Goes By," blissfully uncaring about his obvious which would send a human into sheer despair....knowing that something will turn up, some scam that he can pull that will get him out of the washtub and into clover again. The Fool is the Tarot's Fool, of course....but He is also the Hanged Man. Do -not- invoke the Fool unless you are ready for literally ANYTHING to happen! He just might turn you into a Large Green Frog just to observe what happens......He is capricious. He is unpredictable. He is what He is, and nothing you can do will turn Him from His Purpose, whatever that may be at any given moment. He is "Murphy," and whatever can go wrong, WILL go wrong...or right. Unless you have an uncommonly flexible mind, you -might- not be able to handle it! He has no Festival, unless it is the Lupercal, or perhaps April Fool's Day, or even New Year's Eve, for every day is His, as He chooses. Some have inquired about the seeming overlap of functions in the Goddess/God/Fool triad, and this should be addressed here. The modern Western mind tends to "pigeonhole" things, and rigidly excludes other things from these pigeonholes. This, I feel, is in some ways an error in thinking, especially about the Triad. 594 One cannot and should not "compartmentalize" the God/Fool/Goddess into three rigidly separate Beings, but rather think of them as three separate sources of ripples in the same Pond: the ripples interact and intersect, and act on each other, but move within the same Source, whatever That may be. -the Bard at Samhain, 1990 CE I wish I could list all of my sources, but if I did, it would add several pages to this text, and I am trying to keep it short. I -will- recommend reading one book, however, that will give a great insight into the Holy Fool: CONTRARIWISE Zohra Greenhalgh, Ace (paperback) April 1989 0-441-117112-2 (it has a sequel, but I can't remember the title offhand....) * "Rimble, Rimble!" * Permission is granted to reprint this article, both in electronic and in print. Any copy of this article must include the WHOLE article, and any comments should be sent net-mail to "the Bard" at FIDOnet 1:114/29 (602) 439-7080. Copies of any printed reproduction of this article should be forwarded to "the Bard" c/o DEUS EX MACHINA BBS, PO Box 35190, PHOENIX, AZ 85069. Thanks! 595 PSYCHIC SELF-DEFENSE by =Carlin= One of the problems which faces the aspiring witch or magician is an increased sensitivity to and awareness of the "unseen" forces of the world. Usually this sensitivity is a delight, but occasionally it becomes a nightmare -- in the most literal sense of the word. In particular, this article deals with what spiritualists and shamans would refer to as spirit obsession -- a cluster of "symptoms" that differ from possession, but that still can destroy the integrity of the victims gives some background information on obsession, and then outlines a few "generic" techniques that will benefit those subject to this form of "psychic harassment." DEFINING OBSESSION Obsession occurs in every nation and subculture,and as a result every magical subculture has had it's own way of defining and dealing with the phenomena involved. Modern medicine, with the exception of Jungian and "New Age" psychiatry/psychology, tends to dismiss obsession as either hysteria or budding schizophrenia. The major religions, for the most part, now agree with this evaluation. Of course, the "New Right" fundamentalists are likely to see a demon in every corner.... Either of these approaches tends to disempower the afflicted person by destroying her/his trust in his own inner processes and making him dependent on the "expert" who will control the attempt to cure him/her. Spiritualists will warn you against psychic attack or unprotected dealings with the Dead. Work will tell you that the problem is either openness to astral influences or rebellion within the psyche . There is more to being human than the conscious mind, and unintegrated and unrecognized "complexes" within the psyche will sometimes have separate agendas that can lead to "attack from within" if those needs are continually ignored. My own tendency is philosophically Jungian-to-agnostic,but practically Shamanic. I tend to view such"entities" as psychological. However, the techniques I use are more effective if the problem is "projected" outward and treated as if it were the result of attack by a sentient being. Even if obsessions are caused by "complexes", a truly well established complex takes on enough "life" to be regarded as a "secondary personality" demanding of respect. If someone is having to live with obsession, chances are that the person is more interested in resolving the problem than debating metaphysics. The methodology outlined below is designed to work, whether you agree with the philosophy behind it or not. These techniques are "homeopathic" in nature, contrived with the idea of strengthening the victIm's "psychic immune system" to the point where s/he no longer can be victimized. Without this increase in inner power, the person can be temporarily freed from the obsession, but remains vulnerable to "evil influence" in the future. 596 THE BEGINNINGS OF OBSESSION Checking a person's personal history, one will usually find that obsessions begin during periods where stress,negative emotions, or injury have impaired that person's natural self-protective abilities. Or where the person has been unprepared or confused and has intentionally or unintentionally "dropped his/her guard" around someone already disturbed. Or where the person has been abused and degraded since early childhood and is consequently continually open to negative influences. In psychological terminology, old "complexes" are cathected during periods when the ego is foundered in depression, weakening the "auric shield" that normally will protect against "outside influences," as well as the physical body. This auric shield can also be "pierced" during "psychic attacks," leaving a "hole" through which invading astral-organisms can pass freely. In the same way, "evil spirits" are contagious. Emotional, sexual, or magical intimacy with someone already obsessed can allow the entity to pass over to oneself. And an extreme period of rage or vengefulness can attract like to like, bringing one to the attention of "vengeful creatures" in the "lower astral." SYMPTOMS OF OBSESSION Among the most common symptoms of obsession is a brooding fixation upon some negative thought or act. The obsessed person being unable to "turn off" the voice that urges her/him on to self-destructive or vindictive acts. The idea that one is the Messiah or the rightful ruler of the universe, or too low to continue to live may repeatedly intrude upon consciousness. To consider much addictive behavior to be the result of obsession by "earth-bound spirits" or elementals. No longer having physical bodies, the "astral low-lifes" push susceptible living humans into overindulging in whatever the discarnate entity still craves. In other cases, the symptoms take other forms. Sleep can be disrupted by repeated nightmares or night terrors. The individual may awaken with no memory of the contents of the dream, but over time will develop insomnia or a fear of sleep. Especially in children,the shadows of night can resolve themselves into terrifying images, and there can be an overwhelming sense of being constantly watched. Visual "hallucinations" may force themselves onto the physical plane or may manifest themselves solely upon the "mind's eye." At times the obsession can be relatively benign. Budding magicians can "pick up hitchhikers" during their initial workings, and these "creatures" may well content themselves with acting as Guardians of its cases the "entities" will only "act out"when the magician re-enters trance or attempts to work on the astral levels. People who work with divinatory techniques without proper training and grounding are especially vulnerable, with the Ouija board being the worst offender. This is one reason that the traditional religions, which do not want the general populace trained in magical techniques,urge people away from divinatory practices. Obsessions that strike those not trained to magick are usually not so courteous. In the more entrenched cases,physical symptoms other than insomnia can manifest. Especially when one is very tired or ill, the obsession attempt can escalate and begin to unbalance the homeostatic mechanisms of the body. Constipation,sinusitis and migraine headaches are the more usual manifestations, along with extreme pallor, edema, and mental confusion and memory loss. Poltergeist activity is also sometimes reported.The obsessing entity can also color the impressions of others. 597 One can suddenly find oneself being accused of unsavory attitudes or persistently misunderstood. At the same time, truly unsavory characters will be attracted to the new image and will begin to pop up out of the woodwork. THE MAGICAL APPROACH There are many things that one can do if one suspects that obsession has occurred. One can treat it as a demon and turn to spiritual authority for help. One can treat it as mental illness and turn to psychiatric explanations. One can ignore it as much as possible, or begin to avoid the activities that call it forth. One can also "raise one's energies" using self-help techniques such as those outlined in following paragraphs.Any one of the above reactions cripples one as a magician, however. From a ceremonial viewpoint, one must pass the "Guardian on the Threshold" before one can pass on to the next level of development.From a Jungian standpoint, one must develop rapport with and "reintegrate" the rejected portion; from a Shamanic standpoint, one must "turn" the entity and either dismiss it or convert it into a spirit helper. THE INNER DIALOGUE Step one, using the magical approach, is to become acquainted with the "entity" and engage it in dialogue.In some instances the entity will turn out to be malevolent, in other's only "immature" or confused and angry at being ignored. Before engaging in this activity, one is advised to ground and center, and to shield in whatever manner one's tradition suggests. One is also advised to begin/continue in whatever other spiritually protective exercises one has faith in.If there is someone available to work with the afflicted person, have that helper prepare a list of non-leading(Not "are you a demon?," but "what are you?") questions. Then drop into light trance and Then let the other person ask the questions while the victim answers with the first thing that pops into his/her head. In effect, s/he will be voluntarily "channelling" for the entity's unconscious and perhaps "denied" (officially) circumstances.If there is no other person, then the victim must do whatever form of divination or trance work he/she have developed to contact his/her subconscious. Those with vivid imaginations can simply find a quiet moment and ask "are you there?," personifying the "entity" in the same way that children create imaginary friends. Afterwards, no matter what the technique used, the obsessed person is to be certain that his/her aura is closed and that s/he is grounded and centered. AFTER "CONTACT" At this point s/he may have failed to make contact.In which case there is nothing to him/her to do but repeat the exercise until either it works or s/he is sure it isn't going to work. If real contact does not occur, then s/he might attempt to simply banish "it". It is possible that the entity will not answer directly, but will begin to up its activity level or bring a string of unusual circumstances into the obsessed person's life. 598 It is more likely, however, the have begun a dialogue. Sometimes "complexes"are immature parts of our own personalities that will calm down and begin to behave themselves once "they" no longer feel that they are being ignored.If the obsessing image is that of an animal, or even an ugly humanoid being, then it may simply be time to intensify one's spiritual quest and face down one's power animal or dark side. Frequently, these allies will attempt to come to the aid of someone undergoing psychic attack, and because of the general atmosphere of fear,will be perceived as threats and turned away themselves.Eventually, in either case the "entity" can either be"reintegrated" into the personality, or "kept" as a spirit-helper by those with shamanic leanings. If one is ALSO under psychic attack, the ally will probably help in the defense once asked and properly recognized. "LOST SOULS" AND WORSE On the other hand, "it" may claim to be a spirit or other entity that requires help. If the request is not ridiculous o consider honoring it. The author has personally dealt with a "poltergeist" who claimed to be a woman who had died of yellow fever over a century ago. When questioned, the "spirit" was confused at first, then admitted that she had died in delirium and had not realized that she was dead until "awakened" out of her stupor by some young people using a Ouija board. When asked what she wanted, the reply was "Pray for me." The poltergeist activity ended as soon as prayers were begun, and the last message received from the spirit was "Thank God, I'm free." Not being able to make herself understood on the material plane by any other means, the "spirit" had resorted to knocking physical objects around to attract attention. If someone of "mediumistic" nature had been about, she might have obsessed that person instead in her bid to gain attention. The obsession would have become malevolent only if the obsessed person repeatedly blocked her out or otherwise caused her to become cases of obsession in relatively "normal"persons will fall into one of the first few categories.In rare cases, the obsessed may have had his/her attempt at contact met with a voice screaming "DIE, DIE, DIE." Or something similar and profane. This is where the spiritual practices suggested in the following paragraphs will be of greatest benefit, followed by professional help or even exorcism, if necessary. (Even where an entity seems totally hostile, it is sometimes possible to "turn" it through raising "light"as described below.) 599 SELF-HELP WITH OBSESSION Not everyone is a magician and not everyone wishes to open the "can of worms" of the subconscious.The following activities are very useful in "uprooting"spiritual obsession by increasing "light". In cases of "mild" obsession only a few of these measures,or a simple ritual of dismissal, will be sufficient to be rid of the problem.In more entrenched cases, these techniques should be continued for the healing period, accompanied by Inner Work, depth psychology, or other techniques that promote self-understanding. Those suffering from physical symptoms should also work to strengthen their immune system and improve their diet and lifestyle. If possible, the severely afflicted individual should have a counselor, teacher, or trusted friend monitor his/her progress "just in case." EXAMPLE TECHNIQUES FOR "RAISING THE LIGHT" For a period of three months, the obsessed should "cleanse" him/herself daily in whatever manner her/his spiritual tradition decrees. Grounding and centering are excellent techniques, as is renewing oneself through visualizing the aura as strong and untainted. One can draw pictures of oneself expelling all darkness or meditate on the same image.Prayer is useful, as is catching oneself thinking the old negative thoughts and declaring that one has "taken that out of the Law" or "averted" the consequences. If the afflicted has friends who engage in spiritual pursuits, send him/her mental support and positive energy. The individual is also advised to spend time in sacred places where evil is barred from entering, and to refrain from the company of persons s/he knows are bad for her/him.If already attuned to ritual work, the victim can"cleanse" his/her home or have it cleansed by someone trusted. Those who have faith in Holy Water should sprinkle and apply it liberally. Afterwards, if the obsessed is truly serious about being rid of a persistent fixation, s/he can burn white candles constantly while awake and at home. This will act as a symbol of the"light" one wishes to draw into one's life. The most seriously affected are advised to surround their beds with a protective circle and never to sleep in a darkened room. Other religious/protective symbols can be placed in sight and called upon, and protective incenses such as sandalwood may be burned. The important thing is to keep one's spiritual goal constantly in mind and the"entity one's determination to improve. This may seem like a great deal of effort, but the effect will be to "open" the individual to positive influences, even if s/he doesn't believe in "demons".The individual will be "raising his/her energy" level to the point where something "dark" cannot even bear to approach her/him, and keeping the energy "high"for a long enough period that "it" will become "discouraged" and fade from sight.At the end of the three months, the "entity" should either be weakened severely from being "starved" or should be gone. If it is gone, then a ritually adept person can do a rededication wherein the formerly obsessed is declared sealed against recurrences. If the problem still exists, then the cause may actually be mental illness brought on by a brain imbalance or early trauma. In any case, entrenchment of that degree of severity is beyond the scope of any self-help article to deal with. In every case the author has seen or dealt with however, vast improvement over the three month period. 600 DIANISM IN A NUIT-SHELL Recently, I got back in touch with my teacherafter nearly two years and dropped a couple of bombshells on her: I had changed gender identity and had come together with two other women to form a Dianic coven. When the initial shock wore off, Rita sent me a complete run of Protean Synthesis and a solicitation for this article. Several yearsago I subscribed toseveral stereotypes regarding "those peculiar Dianics". They were thealogically unbalanced, they hated men, they denied that men had souls, they were all lesbians, they couldn't spell (in the orthographic sense; no one has yet accused Dianics of inability to work magick), etc. etc. When I came together with my covensisters, I realized that these notions were at most partially true and some cases were patently false. Ibelieve there are onlythree valid generalizationsthat can be made about Dianics: 1) We are all feminists. 2) We all look to the Goddess(es) far more than to the God(s). 3) We are all eclectics. Note well that there are plenty of non-Dianic feminist Witches, non-Dianic eclectics, and non-Dianics who are primarily Goddess-oriented. There are also doubtless a good many feminist, Goddess-oriented eclectics who do not choose to call themselves Dianic. In my own case I use the "If it quacks like a duck, it probably is a duck" argument, as well as the fact that my HPS learned the Craft as a Dianic and runs Dianic rituals. Some of thestereotypical generalizations I can dismiss out of hand. I don't know of a single Dianic who denies that men have souls. Even Z Budapest doesn't believe that piece of tripe anymore! It is true that Dianism is particularly attractive to separatists, and many separatists actually hate men. Many Dianics are lesbians. Some misspell words like "woman", women", "egalitarian", and "holistic" on purpose. Not all fit these, however, and I think that Z Budapest in her younger, or spiritual bomb-throwing, days represents an extreme and a small minority. There are a number of males involved in Dianism, and some of those are men [NB: I use the terms "man" and "woman" to indicate gender identity, that is, how one's heart, mind, and/or soul are configured. I use "male" and "female" to indicate physical sex, that is, how one's plumbing is configured. I hope this dispels confusion.]. Thealogical and magickalimbalance isnot soeasily dismissedand needs to be addressed further, as that is the most valid objection that thoughtful Witches have to Dianism. The apparent imbalance comes from the Dianic emphasis on Goddess-worship, often to the complete exclusion of God-worship. This upsets many Witches' sense of polarity balance. The resolution of this apparent imbalance lies in the consideration of other polarities than sexual and/or gender as the primary polarity. There are indeed many other polarities to consider: true-false, life-death, dark-light, rational-mystical, creation-destruction, order-chaos, and good-evil, to name but a few. One problem with the masculine-feminine polarity is that there is a strong tendency to express all other polarities in terms of it. The Chinese were particularly fond of this, and mapped everything they liked into the yang side, and everything they disliked or feared into the yin side, the patriarchal no-accounts!