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201 I. The Board shall meet regularly, at least four times per year, at a time and place to be fixed by the Board. Additionally, The Chair or any two Directors may call a Board meeting upon giving at least 7 days notice to all Directors by U.S. Mail, or upon at least 2 days notice given by telegram. Said notice will be deemed delivered when deposited in the U.S. Mail with the last known address of the Director and proper postage thereon prepaid, or when the given to the telegram company. Any Director may waive notice of any meeting. The attendance of a Director at any meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice, except when the Director attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of business because the meeting has not been lawfully called or convened. The notice of meeting need only contain the date, time, and place of the meeting. J. The Board may make rules to govern the conduct of its own meetings. K. All Board Meetings are open to the membership of DAWN. Accordingly, any Director is required to furnish information regarding dates, times, and places of upcoming Board meetings to any DAWN member upon request. II. STEERING COMMITTEE A. The Steering Committee shall be composed of the Directors, one representative from each member coven and proportional representation for such DAWN members as do not belong to any member coven (hereinafter referred to as Solitaries). The method of choosing a coven representative is left to the discretion of the individual coven. A method for choosing representation for Solitaries will be determined by said Solitaries, subject to approval by the Board. There shall be at least one (1) representative of the Solitaries, who is not a Director, on the Steering Committee. B. Steering Committee members must commit to serve for at least six (6) months. They may serve as long as their constituents wish them to serve. C. The Steering Committee shall elect a Speaker, Deputy Speaker, and Clerk of the Committee from among its members. D. A quorum of the Steering Committee for the purpose of amending the Bylaws or Constitution shall be two-thirds (2/3) of the committee. A quorum for other business shall be a majority of the Committee. E. Steering Committee members will not have alternates. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 202 F. The Steering Committee may make rules to govern the conduct of its own meetings. G. Decisions made by the Steering Committee shall be referred to the Board for action, except as otherwise provided for in these Bylaws. H. Any recommendation that dues be levied or changed must receive at least two-thirds (2/3) of the votes cast by the Steering Committee, ten (10) days notice having been given that dues will be discussed. I. The Steering Committee shall meet regularly at a time and place to be fixed by the Committee. Additionally, the Board may call Steering Committee meetings with 15 days notice should such meetings be necessary. III. OFFICERS A. Chair - duties shall include: 1. Presiding over meetings of the Board. 2. Presiding over meetings of the general membership of DAWN. 3. Preparing an agenda for Board meetings. 4. Preparing an agenda for meetings of the general membership of DAWN. B. Vice-Chair - shall perform the duties of the Chair when the Chair is absent or incapacitated. C. Secretary - duties shall include: 1. Maintaining accurate and current minutes of all meetings of the Board and all business related meetings of the general membership of DAWN. All such minutes are to be made available, upon reasonable notice, to all members of the body so recorded, and are to be presented at the next meeting of the Board for approval. 2. Handling correspondence other than the newsletter and general announcements. 3. Maintaining an accurate and current list of members and friends of DAWN. The Secretary may NOT release the addresses, phone numbers, or full names of any person associated with DAWN, except as noted in this paragraph, to any person, without specific permission from said person. The Secretary will share this list with the Newsletter Editor. When leaving this job, the Secretary will turn over all copies of the membership list, in whatever form, to their successor in these duties. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 203 D. Treasurer - is responsible for maintaining all the financial records of DAWN. The Treasurer is also responsible for the safekeeping and expenditure of the monies held by DAWN as directed by the Board. E. Speaker - shall preside over meetings of the Steering Committee and prepare an agenda for said meetings. F. Deputy Speaker - shall perform the duties of the Speaker when the Speaker is absent or incapacitated. G. Clerk of the Committee - is responsible for maintaining accurate and current minutes of all meetings of the Steering Committee. All such minutes are to be available to members of the Steering Committee, and are to be presented at the next meeting of that body for approval. H. Newsletter Editor - duties shall include: 1. Providing timely announcements of meetings and other DAWN functions. 2. Providing a regular newsletter in keeping with DAWN policies. 3. Maintaining an accurate and current list of newsletter recipients. The Newsletter Editor may NOT release the addresses, phone numbers, or full names of any person associated with DAWN, except as noted in this paragraph, to any person, without specific permission from said person. The Newsletter Editor will share the mailing list with the Secretary. When leaving this job, the Newsletter Editor will turn over all copies of the mailing list, in whatever form, to their successor in these duties. IV. AMENDMENTS In orderto amendthis document, theproposed change mustreceive the votes of at least two-thirds of the Directors and must receive at least two-thirds of the votes cast at a proper meeting of the Steering Committee, both bodies having received at least 20 days notice of the proposed amendment. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 204 V. ELECTIONS Onthe secondSunday in October,The Steering Committeeshall meet to hold an election. At this time, the Steering Committee will elect replacements for Directors whose term is expiring. Names will be taken in nomination, consent obtained from those nominated, and one ballot cast. Each Committee member, including retiring and interim Directors, shall have as many votes as there are vacancies. The qualified candidate with the most votes will fill the first vacancy - two year terms being filled first. As each vacancy is filled, members of the successful candidate's coven are stricken from the list. If only one vacancy remains and either part I.A.2 or part I.A.3 of the Bylaws has not been fulfilled, then only those candidates who meet the criterion can be selected; otherwise, the position will remain vacant to be filled by the Board, as soon as possible, by appointment. If a tie exists between equally qualified candidates, where all may not serve, a runoff election shall be held between those candidates. Misspellings shall not invalidate ballots where the appropriate person can be discerned; nor shall voting for fewer than the number of vacancies. Voting for too many candidates shall invalidate that ballot. No individual shall vote more than one time for the same person; therefore duplicate names on a single ballot shall count as only one vote. All elected persons take office at the first meeting in November. VI. Roberts Rules of Order Newly Revised (copyright 1970) will govern in any circumstances not covered by the Rules, Bylaws, or Constitution of DAWN. VII. DISTRIBUTION OF FUNDS ON DISSOLUTION In theevent of dissolutionof theorganization, all remainingassets will be delivered to a tax-exempt organization to be chosen at the time of dissolution by the Board of Directors. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 205 GLOSSARY OF TERMS COMMONLY USED IN WICCA Copyright 1992 by Rowan Moonstone and Durwydd MacTara AKASHA- the spiritual ether (or Aether); the omnipresent fifth occult element which embraces the other four- earth, air, fire, and water; and from which they stem. This is the realm of "pattern" or causality, from which the realm the normally thought of "five senses manifests. Some define it is the "other" of the "two worlds" that the witch or magician walks between. ARADIA- Daughter of the Goddess Diana, and a name for the Goddess used by Italian Witches or Strega, commonly used in many Wiccan traditions today. ASPECTING- Any advanced magickal activity in which a practitioner manifests a particular aspect of the Goddess or God, in thought, feelings, behavior, appearance, etc.; Often as a direct result of a "Drawing Down". Often a minor variation of this phenomena occurs with the selection of a "Magical Name", of Craft Name. ASPECTS- Forms, facets, or personas of Deity: for example, Brighid, Iseult,Eos, and Kore are all aspects of the Maiden, and the Maiden is an aspect of the Goddess. ATHAME- black handled, double edged dagger. Principally used to cast and dissolve the circle, for which purposes it is interchangeable with the magic sword. A tool of the "Element" of Fire in the Georgian Tradition and some others. BELTANE- May Eve festival. One of the Ancient Celtic "Fire Festivals." on this night, the cattle were driven between two bonfires to protect them from disease. Couples wishing for fertility would " jump the fires" on Beltane night. Also the traditional Sabbath where the rule of the "Wheel of the Year" is returned to the Goddess. This Festival also marks the transition point of the threefold Goddess energies from those of Maiden to Mother. BOOK OF SHADOWS- Traditionally hand copied book of rituals, recipes, training techniques, guidelines, and other materials deemed important to a Witch or a coven. Each tradition has it's own standard version of the Book and each Witch's book will be different as he or she adds to it with time from many different sources. Only another Witch can see your book of shadows. Also, traditionally, it may never leave your hands or possession until death, when it should be destroyed, or (in some traditions) returned to the coven to be disposed of. BURNING TIMES- a term used by some Witches for the period of persecution in the Middle Ages and later. It is in fact a misnomer in some places, as Witches were only burned in Scotland, and on the continent of Europe. In England and the U.S., they were hanged. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 206 CANDLEMAS- Festival held on Feb. 1. One of the 4 Celtic "Fire Festivals. Commemorates the changing of the Goddess from the Crone to the Maiden. Celebrates the first signs of Spring. Also called "Imbolc" (the old Celtic name). This is the seasonal change where the first signs of spring and the return of the sun are noted, i.e. the first sprouting of leaves, the sprouting of the Crocus flowers etc. In other words, it is the festival commemorating the successful passing of winter and the beginning of the agricultural year.This Festival also marks the transition point of the threefold Goddess energies from those of Crone to Maiden. CARDINAL POINTS- North, South, East, and West, marked in the Georgian Tradition by candles of green, red, yellow, and blue, respectively. The Circle is drawn to connect these four points. CHALICE- one of the tools of the Witch. Placed on the altar to represent the element of Water. CHARGE OF THE GODDESS- The Traditional words of the Goddess to her followers, or "hidden children". Normally declaimed by the HPS at every coven Circle. CIRCLE- the area in which the magickal worship and spells takes place. Can also be used to designate a particular group of Witches or Pagans such as "Silver Acorn Circle". CONE OF POWER- power raised in the circle by the Witches assembled, and sent out into the world to work magick, is usually visualized as being retained and built in the form of a "cone" prior to release. COVEN- an organized group of Witches, led by a High priestess and/or a High Priest who meet regularly for worship and fellowship. The traditional membership is 13, but in fact most covens number considerably less. 3 is the minimum in the Georgian Tradition. In Middle English, "Covin" a group of confederates; In Old French "Covine" a band or group with a single purpose; Latin "Com"-together, "Venire"-to come or move. COVENSTEAD- regular meeting place for a coven. Usually the home of the High Priestess or High Priest. COWAN- a non-Witch. Formerly used in a very derogatory manner. Still used in Masonic Ritual to indicate the non initiate and/or pretender to "real craft". Not often used today among most Witches. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 207 COYOTE ENERGY- trickster energies. Named for the American Indian Trickster, Coyote, who tricks man into learning what he needs to learn. Applies to one who constantly jokes and clowns. Also applies to the concept of "Holy Fool" in many traditions. CROSS QUARTER DAYS- The modern name for the Celtic Fire Festivals of Samhain, Imbolc, Beltane, and Lammas. DEOSIL- clockwise, or sunwise. Traditional direction for working "building" magick. DRAWING DOWN THE MOON- Ritual invocation of the spirit of the Goddess into the body of the High Priestess by the High Priest. DIVINATION- magical method of exploration or inquiry into a situation via such methods as Tarot cards, runestones, I- Ching, etc. ELEMENTS- Earth, air, fire, and water, plus spirit, which includes them all. These are regarded as realms or categories of nature (both material and non-material) and are not to be confused with the physicists table of elements, which the modern witch, of course, accepts. ESBAT- weekly or biweekly meeting of a coven. Traditionally held either on the full moon or the new moon. FAMILIARS- Either a Witch's pet animal which has been trained to be a magickal helper, or an artificially created "elemental" which performs the same functions as the animal friend. FIVEFOLD KISS, FIVEFOLD SALUTE- The Witches' ritual salute, with kisses; (1) on each foot, (2) on each knee, (3) above the pubic hair, (4) on each breast, and (5) on the lips- really 8 kisses in all. It is only used within the Circle, but the words that go with it are the origin of "Blessed Be." GARDNERIANS- Tradition of Witchcraft descended from the teachings of Gerald Gardner. GNOMES- an "entity" or "elemental" that dwells in the plane of Earth or is associated with the EARTH Element. GREAT RITE- The rite which is the main feature of the third degree initiation, and which is also laid down for certain festivals. It is sexual in nature, but may be `actual' (and private to the couples concerned) or symbolic, as the participants wish. HALLOWS- name used by some traditions for Samhain, or Halloween Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 208 HANDFASTING- Wiccan equivalent of a wedding. It can be made legal if the Priestess and/or Priest are registered as clergy with the local authorities, or it may only be considered binding within the coven. HIGH PRIEST/ESS- Technically speaking, a Witch who has received the 3rd. degree initiation. More usually, the male and female leaders of a coven. IMBOLC- Celtic name for Candlemas. INVOCATION- The ritual "calling-in" of an entity (or energies) higher than human, either for communication with the caller through a medium or by visible manifestation or else to enter into a human body as in the Drawing Down the Moon. In some traditions, a Prayer. LAMMAS- August 1st. Witch Festival. The Old Celtic name for this festival is Lughnassadh. It is the Festival of the First Fruits, and is the first of the 3 harvests. This festival also marks the change of the Threefold Goddess energies from that of Mother to Crone. MAIDEN- An appointment held by one of the women of the coven. She is virtually the assistant High Priestess. This term is also the descriptive term used to describe the first of the aspects of the Threefold Goddess Energies (Maiden, Mother, and Crone). It is traditionally associated with the Waxing Moon, and the period from Imbolc (Candlemas) to Beltane (May eve) where the energies are those of initiating, beginning, and creation. OLD RELIGION- another name for the Craft. PAGANING- Presentation of an infant to the Circle and to the Gods. PENTACLE- a disc shaped talisman; in particular, the metal disc which represents the earth element among the witch's working tools. PENTAGRAM- The five-pointed star. With a single point uppermost, it represents the human being. Inverted, with two points uppermost, it can have Satanist associations; but not necessarily. Some traditions of Wicca use the inverted pentagram to signify an initiate of the second degree. QUARTERS- The North, East, South, and West parts of a magickal circle or other ritual area. (See also "Watchtowers") REDE- rule or law. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 209 SABBAT- one of the Eight festivals or high holy days of Wicca. SALAMANDER- an entity that dwells in the realm of Fire. SAMHAIN- The festival of remembrance for the dead, held on the eve of Nov. 1st. It is the last of the three harvests. This festival also marks the transition of rulership of the "Wheel of the Year from that of the Goddess to that of the God. SCRYING- divination, usually using such methods as crystal gazing, or divination via incense smoke, or water as opposed to tarot or other manipulative means. SPELL- a prayer, or verbal direction of magickal energies toward the accomplishment of some goal. SUMMONER- The male officer of the coven who corresponds to the Maiden. He is the assistant High Priest. SYLPH- an "entity" or "elemental" that dwells in the plane of Air or is associated with the AIR Element. TRADITIONS- any of the various "sects" of Wicca such as Gardnerian, Alexandrian, Georgian, Seax, etc. UNDINE- an "entity" or "elemental" that dwells in the plane of Water or is associated with the WATER Element. WAND- A rod or staff that is prepared so that it may be used for magickal or psychic purposes, usually to project some form of power. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 210 WARLOCK- a term coined in the Burning Times . It was used to denote a traitor to the Craft, or one who had betrayed the followers of the Old Religion. It's origin is Scottish. Because of the negative connotations, it is not used by most Wiccans today. WATCH TOWERS- Originally from the Enochian branch of Ceremonial Magick, now incorporated into many "Traditions" of Wicca, these are the four elemental "directions" or "quarters" (corresponding to the appropriate points on the compass) called to protect the Circle during its establishment. Each of them have a correspondence between the compass point, an element, and (varying amongst different traditions) color associated with them. WICCA- the name most modern day Witches use for the Craft. It comes from the Anglo-Saxon word Wicce, meaning to bend or to shape. This is the root word from which we get wicker. WIDDERSHINS- counter clock wise. Used for "tearing down" OR BANISHING magick. WHITE HANDLED KNIFE- the working knife of a Witch. It is used to carve candles, and for fashioning the other tools. Traditionally, it can only be used in a Circle. Copyright 1991 by Rowan Moonstone and Durwydd MacTara. Permission to reprint for educational purposes at no cost is hereby granted to all and sundry, provided the text is not altered in any way. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 211 MOON WEB C/O Michael Harismides PO Box 4538, Sunnyside, New York 11104-4538 Subscription $3.00 a year RITUAL FOR THE HEALING AND PRESERVATION OF RAINFORESTS May 24th, 1988 8 pm local time (Individual version): Cast a circle Invoke elements by calling upon them in protective aspects (for example, you might invoke Watchfires or Beacons in the South). Chant the names of the Earth Goddess, beginning with your personal favorites, then naming as many as you can think of. Take a piece of green string. Begin to tie knots in it, while chanting: Tying the Cord, Renewing the Earth; We are Her Children, bringing Rebirth. (The knots may be simple or elaborate, but leave enough string to tie together at the end.) As you chant, see the world as a network of connected systems. Breathe the air that comes from the jungles of South America. Feel the living fire of an ocelot's power. Taste the rain on the leaves at the tops of the trees. Feel the delicate structure of the soil at the forest floor.) Tie the cord together in a loop; hold it up, strung around your two hands, and begin chanting: We are the Flow and we are the Ebb; We are the Weavers, we are the Web. As you chant, see yourself standing guard over the borders of the rainforest. See yourself with others, protecting rainforest as you would protect yourself,_because that's what you're doing._ Bury the cord in a container of earth. Earth the power; thank the Deities and elements; open the circle. Later bury the cord in the forest if possible. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 212 (If circumstances make the above impossible): Sit quietly and see: the network of ecosystems that make up the world; the rainforests thriving; plants and animals breeding; the Earth, green and filled with life; yourself, standing guard. Breathe, and know that the air comes from the sea and the jungles of Brazil. Drink and know that the water has been around the world, and circulates through you as it does through the air, land, and sea. Stand up and stretch; the strength of your body is the Earth's strength. RITUAL FOR THE HEALING AND PRESERVATION OF RAINFORESTS (Group version): Facilitators give each participant a slip of paper containing the name of an Earth Goddess and a Nature God. Facilitators invoke elements, stressing protective/preservative aspects of each one and ending with "Into this circle I call the Element Air! (Fire, Water, Earth.)" After each such invocation, a dancer or dancers representing the particular element come into the circle from outside and do an elemental dance. A facilitator says: "We now call upon the Earth Goddess by her many names!" Participants call out the Goddess name on their slip of paper, then any other Goddess names they wish. This ends on a signal from the drums. A facilitator says: "We now call upon the God of Nature by his many Names!" The God is invoked in the same fashion as the Goddess, ending with a drum signal. The elemental dancers go to the quarters and begin passing out pieces of green string, while a facilitator explains that the condition of the rainforests affects us all, that all things are connected, and that the worldwide climate is changed every time another acre of rainforest is lost. S/he explains that these sections of cord represent parts of the Life Circle of Earth, and that they must be joined to protect her. When the above speech has been made and all the cords have been passed out, a facilitator ties the first knot, saying that tying the cord is renewing the Earth, that we are her children, bringing her rebirth. This is the signal to begin the chant: Tying the Cord, Renewing the Earth; We are Her Children, bringing Rebirth. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 213 Clockwise around the circle, one by one, each cord is tied to the next. When the circle is complete, the elemental dancers go to the quarters and hold the cord aloft (participants should not let go yet). The chant continues until the facilitators begin a second chant: We are the Flow and we are the Ebb; We are the Weavers, we are the Web. (Since this is to the same tune, the transition should be easy and seamless.) When this chant begins, the elemental dancers begin to gather in the cord, gently pulling it away from the participants, who gently release it. The elementals bury the cord in a container of earth in the center of the circle, then return to the outside to lead a spiral dance in to the center and back out (once) as the chant continues. When the participants are standing in a circle once more, the chant builds to a cone of power and fires. The Deities and Elements are thanked, the power is earthed, the circle opened, hugs exchanged. Later bury the cord in the woods. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 214 WHAT ARE RUNES ~-~-~-~-~-~-~- LOKRIEN In the most mundane sense, runes are an alphabet much as our own alphabet and others such as the Greek and Cyrillic alphabets. Each rune represents a sound and was/is used to write words with. But that is in the most MUNDANE of senses. Runes were used long before the concept of writing was around. Each rune is an archetype of a force. People had concepts for such things as Fire, Honour, Birth, and each of these concepts were given names to make them easier for us to comprehend. In this way, runes are very similar to the Hebrew alphabet. Each 'letter' not only has a sound and a name, but is a complete word with all associated concepts. This similarity with Hebrew extends even farther. Each hebrew word is made of several Hebrew letters, therefore each Hebrew word is made of several Hebrew words. The initial letters of several words in a sentence, or of the first letters of each sentence or paragraph may be gathered to form a new word that is used to help explain and expand upon what is already written. The same can be done with runes. Runes lend themselves readily to numerology. The Runic alphabet is properly shown as three rows of eight letters. Therefore each letter can be identified by row:column number. Additionally, each rune has it's sequential number identified by it's placement in the alphabet. Much like us numbering A as 1, B as 2, ... , and Z as 26. Each rune can be placed in position on a tree pattern much like the traditional Qabbalah. They may represent the different worlds or paths of the tree and can be expanded and expounded upon as much as the Qabbalah itself is. In fact, Runic Qabbalah is quite intriguing and does contain a life of study (as do all other facets of Runework). Runes can be used for fortunetelling. They can be drawn and placed and read much like tarot cards. The can be cast or strewn and the relationship of groupings, distance and angles and patterns formed will tell the caster what he wishes to know. Runes are also entities in and of themselves. Much like the angels, princes, demons, sylphs, undines and watchtowers of the ceremonial magician. Each rune can be invoked or evoked and the power harnessed to work ones will to enlighten the intellect. They are a fantastic meditation tool and will always increase ones knowledge. Much as the primal elements of Earth, Water, Air, Fire and Spirit, each rune also has it's part in the manifestation of all things manifested. Chaos, grass, people, sunlight, honour, dragons, hopes, and sex are all replete with runes are could not ever exist without the runic force that creates, shapes, releases, destroys and changes them. I have equated runes to many other branches of esoteric, occult, phsycological and intellectual pursuits. This is in the hopes that if you are already familiar or interested in one of these, you will realize that runes are already familiar to you or that you are already interested in them and don't yet realize it. May you approach the Well of Wyrd and may your sip there only increase your thirst. Lokrien @ The Sacred Grove (206) 634-1980 (WA) Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 215 MODELS OF MAGIC by Frater U.'.D.'. (Germany) In the course of exploring the possibilities of new, more efficient techniques of magic I was struck by the fact that a structuralist view of the history of magic to date might prove helpful. After all, magicians have always aspired to restate the theory and practice of magic in the language of their times i.e. in different models pertaining to current world views. There is, however, some risk involved in such an approach: models do not really explain anything, they are only illustrations of processes, albeit rather useful ones. What's more, over-systematization tends to obfuscate more than it clarifies and one should not mistake the map for the landscape anyway, a fallacy a great many kabbalists seem to be prone to. Thus, the following five (or rather: four plus one) models of magic should be seen as a means of understanding the practical possibilities of various magical systems rather than as definitive theories and/or explanations of the way magic works. It has proved effective in practice to view magic under the following categories: THE SPIRIT MODEL THE ENERGY MODEL THE PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL THE INFORMATION MODEL THE META-MODEL *** THE SPIRIT MODEL This is purportedly the oldest model of magic though it may very well have come into existence after or simultaneously with the energy model. We can find it worldwide in shamanic cultures as well as in many religions. Its basic premise is the existence of an otherworld inhabited by more or less autonomous entities such as spirits, angels, demons, gods etc. The shaman or magician is someone who can enter this otherworld at will, who has travelled widely in it, knows its language and customs and has made friends, smitten enemies and/or acquired allies and servitors there. This is important as all magic is of these entities' making. The modern German word for witch, "Hexe" (f.) illustrates this rather neatly if we take a closer look at its etymology. It derives from Old High German "hagazussa" which translates as "fence rider". The hagazussa is riding the "fence between the worlds" i.e. she is at home in the world of everyday life as well as in the magical otherworld of spirits. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 216 In the spirit model magic is seen as being effected by these entities who are usually invisible, at least to the average punter, and it is the shaman's or magician's task to make them put his will into effect. This may be done by prayer, by barter, by cajoling or even - vide medieval demon magic - by the application of magical force, threats and pressure. The otherworld may have its own geography but it is usually considered to coexist with the world of everyday life. The key to entering it is an altered state of consciousness, controlled trance or ecstasy of which the shaman is an expert. The spirit model has prevailed in traditionalist or Dogmatic magic until today, some of its most noted exponents being Franz Bardon and, at least to a great extent, Aleister Crowley. THE ENERGY MODEL The rise of the energy model in the West is marked primarily by the appearance of Mesmerism towards the end of the 18th century. Anton Mesmer, who was not an occultist but who was on the other hand regarded by his contemporaries to be a "miracle worker" of sorts, rediscovered amongst other things the ancient healing disciplines of hypnosis and magnetism. He popularized his theory of "animal magnetism" which he saw as a subtle force inherent in organisms, but he also made heavy use of metal magnets for healing purposes. While the French Revolution put a temporary end to Mesmer's movement, his ideas were not lost. They were taken up by a number of others, primarily occultists, who drew on them while developing their own theories of magic. One of the first to do so was Bulwer Lytton of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (SRIA), who postulated the existence of a subtle energy which he termed Vril, possibly deriving from Latin virilitas or "force, power, strength". (This was actually the model for the naming of Bovril, from Latin "bovis" or "ox", and Vril or "life force".) We can observe interesting parallels to this concept in the vitalist theories of biology which emerged around the same time. Other exponents of the energy model of magic (not then so termed) were Reichenbach with his concept of Od, Eliphas Levi and his Astral Light and Mme. Blavatsky, who adopted the theories of Prana from Yoga physiology. This was also the time when anthropology and ethnology discovered the Polynesian concept of Mana and Asiatic scholars began to concern themselves with the Chinese principle of Ki or Ch'i (Chi). The latter two go to show, of course, that the idea of subtle energies utilized by magic is far older than the 18th century. In fact, we can observe it already in early shamanic cultures. Shamanic magic is very frequently a mixture between spirit and energy model, e.g. the shaman may call upon his spirits or gods to give him "power" or he may, vice versa, use his power to extort favors from them. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 217 In its pure form, however, the shaman or magician is not in need of spirits and other entities. The world is viewed as being "vitalized" by subtle forces or energies and his primary task consists in mastering the art of perceiving and manipulating them. As all phenomena are basically energetic in nature, the existence of an otherworld is not strictly required. Thus, the magician is more of an "energy dancer" than a "fence rider" or go-between. But even here the key to the perception, charging and general utilization of these forces is again the magical trance or, as Chaos Magic terms it, gnosis. Theories and practices pertaining to the energy model can be found with many magical authors but it has seen its real, large scale popularity only since the seventies of our century when the general influx of Eastern thinking (pace the Hippie movement) made concepts such as chakra and kundalini work a mainstay of most occult disciplines. Strong energy model elements can also be found in Franz Bardon's system of "electromagnetic fluids", "condensators" etc. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL Sigmund Freud's theory of the subconscious revolutionized Western thinking in general and psychology (which he did not, as some people are wont to believe, invent all by himself) in particular. Suddenly, man was seen as a being which was only partially conscious and in control of itself. While psychology is still fighting for its academical recognition as a science, it has stamped its mark on therapeutic disciplines - and on magic. The psychological model of magic does not purport to explain how magic works, its only premise is that the subconscious (or, as Carl Jung later retagged it, the unconscious) will do the job if it is properly addressed and/or conditioned. This again is achieved by magical trance, suggestion and the use of symbols (i.e. selective sensory input) as tools of association and as a means of communication between the magician's conscious will and his subconscious faculty responsible for putting it into effect. Aleister Crowley dabbled a great deal in the psychological model which comes as no surprise as he not only tried to keep up with all major academic disciplines of his time but thought himself to be the world's greatest psychologist into the bargain. But all considered he remained a traditionalist exponent of the spirit model: after all Aiwass was, in his belief, a preternatural entity. Nevertheless he did have a knack of explaining magic in psychological terms to make it sound sensible to the skeptics of his time. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 218 A more radical approach was taken by Austin Osman Spare whose sigil magic rests on the basic tenets of the psychological model. Spare's brilliant system is in principle an inversion of Freud's theory of complexes: by actively suppressing his will in the form of a graphical sigil and forgetting it, the magician creates an artificial "complex" which then starts to work on similar lines just as suppressed, subconscious traumas will cause neurotic behavior etc. The psychological magician is a programmer of symbols and different states of consciousness. He is not necessarily in need of a transcendent otherworld or even subtle energies, though in practice he will usually work on the assumption that one or the other (or both) do in fact exist and can be utilized by his subconscious. Authors such as Israel Regardie, Dion Fortune, William Butler, Francis King, William Gray and to some extent Pete Carroll subscribe to the psychological model which seems to be the primary domain of the English speaking world of magic and which has become the prevailing paradigm ever since the seventies of this century. THE INFORMATION MODEL The information model of magic is being developed since about 1987 and there is still considerable debate about the direction it shall ultimately take. Its basic premises to date are as follows: a) Energy as such is "dumb": it needs information on what to do; this can be so called laws of nature or direct commands. b) Information does not have mass or energy. Thus, it is faster than light and not bound by the restrictions of the Einsteinian spacetime continuum. It can therefore be transmitted or tapped at all times and at all places. In analogy (but of course only as such!) it may be likened to quantum phenomena rather than relativistic mass-energy. It can, however, attach itself to a medium e.g. an organism or any other memory storage device. At the start of the theoretical debate it was still believed that the postulation of morphic (or, more precisely, morphogenetic) fields as hypothesized by Rupert Sheldrake had to be an essential factor by way of explaining the mode of actual information transmittance. This, however, while still being discussed, does not appear to be strictly prerogative though it cannot be not ruled out that an act of information magic may create such fields. It does seem more probable, though, that the concept of information matrices will prove to be the most promising theory in the long run. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 219 The application of the as yet evolving information model has led to the discipline I have termed Cybermagic (from "cybernetics" or the "science of control systems"). Contrary to the other models described above, Cybermagic does not rely on magical trance to achieve its effects. Rather, the Cybermagician activates either his own main memory banks, namely brain and spine (the Golf-club chakra, so-called because of its shape reminiscent of a golf-club) or those of the target person. The desired information is then called up and transmitted quite similarly to a copy command on an MS-DOS computer. The copy command analogy holds good insofar as the information (not having mass) is not actually "lost" in the process (as energy would be) but rather is duplicated. This is an important point as it allows for the magician to perform his magic even in a state of very low physical power, possibly even when almost completely intoxicated, as long as his basic "life support systems" are still functional and the command syntax is employed correctly. It is, however, obvious that this technique demands a fair control of what used to be termed kundalini effects and practice has shown ever and again that a good amount of Yoga and meditation experience is a great help in achieving to Cybermagic. Unfortunately, the full theory and practice of Cybermagic cannot be described here due to lack of space and will thus have to be the subject of a separate article to be published later. To date the main experimental research work is being done within the Magical Pact of the Illuminates of Thanateros (IOT) and some quite astounding results have already been achieved, especially in the field of language and knowledge transfer as well as magical healing. In spite of its very modern, untraditionalist outlook the basic principles of Cybermagic may in truth well be the oldest form of magic extant. For we can, for example, find a number of reports in the East to the effect of a guru transferring all his knowledge to his successor before his death, which is usually achieved by an act of long, mutual meditation. This goes to show that magic as a whole has always existed in many, coexisting models. What has changed, however, is the stress laid on one model or the other in the course of time. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 220 THE META-MODEL The meta-model of magic is not a model as such but rather an instruction on the use of the others. For its only advice to the magician is: "Always use the model most adequate to your aims." This may sound a bit trite but we will see that it is not quite as self evident amongst magicians as one might expect. It is rooted in Chaos magic's assertion "Nothing is true. Everything is permitted", which ultimately boils down to pragmatic utilitarianism. Before this aspect is enlarged upon, though, let us look at an example of the models presented here as applied in practice. We shall take the situation of magical healing to demonstrate how these models differ from each other. In the spirit model healing is regarded as an exorcism: illness is caused by "evil" or, at least, undesired entities which have to be negated. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 221 The Eight Paths and other Wiccan miscellany Dogs in the Temple: The "dogs" were MALE Canaanite temple prostitutes (normally eunuchs, as I understand it), with whom male worshippers had intercourse in order to obtain various boons from the gods, of which the fertility of themselves, their herds and their crops were the chief. A "dog"'s earnings couldn't be contributed to Yaweh's treasury. (Nor could that of a FEMALE temple prostitute!) Now if they were doing the Great Rite with male priests way back when TO make things more fertility, why should Stewart Farrar have a cat over gay men and lesbians being involved in the Craft now?!? (Although, in fairness to him, I'll bet he's never thought of it that way! He strikes me as a reasonable man, all in all... ) As for the Paths: Meditation is the first and--in my opinion--the most basic, because you use it to get to or enhance some of the other Paths. Trance work is the second, which includes astral projection exercises. Perhaps it's the most important, because it gets us where we go to exercise the power or obtain the wisdom that we want to. Dancing is a Path that I personal can't use because I'm lame; but I've been told by able-bodied Pagan friends that it's great because it engages the whole self--and especially it helps you be grounded AND Elsewhere at the same time. Binding with cords and other forms of sensory deprivation are good for helping the mind travel beyond the body's limits because one wishes to escape the tedium and discomfort of them. (I'm sorry, but even a flotation tank gets uncomfortable eventually!) Scourging and other repetitive acts also use tedium as a release but are more stimulating than being bound or floating in a tank. (They do NOT use pain. If they're being done THAT intensely, they're being done incorrectly... ) Chanting and mantras use repetitive sound and the inherent nature of some sounds to produce altered states of consciousness. Drugs (which normally means incense and MAYBE alcohol but NOT hallucinogens and such) variously stimulate, relax, disinhibit or otherwise change one's mental state. And that brings us back to the Great Rite and other forms of sex magick, which attempt to involve all levels from the physical to the Divine Within at one time. That's VERY thumbnail; but if anyone wants to know more, I'll be glad to elaborate on the ones I use or have seen used. Oh, and I can--and should--add that the various Paths can be used in combination as well as separately, that there's some variation from one tradition to another as to what the Eight Paths are, and that not ALL traditions have Eight Paths per se! Bright blessings! Granny Spider Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 222 Balance of the God and Goddess Adrienne I see the God as That is Created and Destroyed; the Goddess is the Creator and the Destroyer. His knowledge is experiential and he sees the cycle of rebirth from the unique perspective of the being that experiences it. He understands, more so than the Goddess, how the cycle shapes the world of the living. His life cycle of birth to full power to age to death to rebirth parallels our own lives on this earth. The Goddess loves Her children, the God understands His. Through the love they bear for each other, they share in both the knowledge of the mystery of rebirth and in the power, but the knowledge remains His province and the power rests in Her. --- Maximus-CBCS v1.02 * Origin: Pandora's Box, Ottawa, Ontario (93:9630/1) Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 223 Where do we go from here? By Pete Carroll Occult revivals occur when the social, economic or intellectual status quo is disturbed by the unexpected. Affluence combined with the collapse of the Roman state religion caused one revival. The rediscovery of classical knowledge in the Renaissance brought about another. Dissatisfaction with catholic hellfire christianity spawned spiritualism, theosophy, the Golden Dawn and Crowley. In our own time anti-semitism, affluence, drugs and oriental ideas spawned another outburst. Occult revivals are stimulated by economics and by the availability, rather than the creation of ideas. Roman culture was subject to a huge influx of ideas, cults and philosophies from conquered peoples. Written material surviving from this synthesis appeared again as hermetics in the Renaissance. The revivals of the late nineteenth century and the nineteen-sixties owe much to the availability of scientific ideas and oriental philosophies. It is probably more useful then, to look for impending changes in the general situation rather than within the occult itself if we want to second guess the next revival. The period between one revival and the next is shortening rapidly and we are probably due for another around the turn of the century, give or take a decade. I`d like to try and identify some of the factors which may help shape it. Firstly the millennium. Christianity is unfortunately not yet completely extinguished and humanity will have to cope with a rising tide of apocalypse mania as the calendrical millennium draws closer. Right wing christian fundamentalists in America may even be in a political position to inaugurate a real Armageddon by then. I hope that whatever courage and imagination there is in the occult is put to good use in undermining this sort od idiocy. Those occultists who do jump on the millennial bandwagon have only disaster or ridicule to look forward to. Economics has a powerful effect on the occult climate. A fairly rapid increase in affluence will often provoke a revival as leisure time becomes available and some minds turn to higher things. Conversely, a decline in living conditions will sometimes make people seek what they have lost, or a substitute, by occult means. Boom propelled revivals are usually much more fun than slump propelled upsurges. In this country, any increment in occultism arising from socio-economic desperation, is likely to be some species of neo-nazi mystic nationalism. As with millennium madness, the greater honour will, in the long run, go to those occultists who oppose such nonsense. However, the metaphysical fallout from the sixties may yet carry us through to the next boom revival and these problems may not yet arise. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 224 It seems unlikely that anthropology or archaeology will be able to make fresh ideas available for cannibalization by the occult in the next revival. Computerized libraries, satellite photography and global communication systems leave few stones unturned. There seems little chance lost ancient manuscripts, magical tribes or forgotten occult civilizations coming to light nowadays. So it is to science itself that I think we should turn for fresh ammunition. There are already discernable strains of space mysticism in some quarters of the occult. Questions about the reality or otherwise of supposed visits by aliens should not distract us from recognizing that UFO-mania itself is a mystico-religious phenomena. The UFO-ologist wants to personally receive wisdom for the whole of humanity from some superhuman being. Seeking angels in space suits is to repeat humanity`s perennial mistake, pretending to look outside for what is really inside ourselves. Quantum physics has been quietly undermining the whole basis of mechanistic cause and effect type science for nearly sixty years. It has been said that if you are not shocked by the implications of quantum physics then you have not understood it. This may be perfectly true for the scientist but for the magician, quantum physics provides elegant confirmation of many of his theories. A quantitative approach to quantum physics is beyond all but the best mathematician. Many of the principles are enshrined in equations for which we have few verbal or visual analogies. Because of this very few laymen or philosophers have been able to appreciate what has been going on. Briefly in qualitative terms, we now have hard experimental evidence which strongly implies that physical process are, at root, acausal; they just happen out of themselves and that consciousness, or at least the decisions of the observer, can modify or control what happens. Secondly it would seem that pure information can travel anywhere instantaneously and perhaps persists indefinitely, providing there is some sort of affinity, or magical link as we would call it, between that which emits and that which receives. Very few liberties need to be taken with quantum physics to fit in virtually the whole of parapsychology. It remains to be seen if quantum physics can be presented in sufficiently accessible form to provoke another occult revival. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 225 A quantum based revival would effectively demolish the spirit hypothesis. A "spirit" would have to be recognized as nothing more than the information that a phenomenon emitted about itself when it existed physically. Anything else would have to be put down to the creativity of the observer`s subconsciousness. Thus the "tree-ness" of a tree or the quality of a thought is just an extension of the object itself on the plane of non-local information. If you talk to Egyptian gods your subconsciousness is, at best, simply animating the general personality characteristics of the gods projected by their worshippers millennia ago. Spirits cannot be gaseous vertebrates with powers of independent discursive thought. On the practical level quantum physics implies that the medium of magic is not some sort of nebulous psychic energy or force, it is simply a transfer of information. Magical healing or attack is accomplished by long range telepathic suggestion not by astral bandages or thunderbolts. The quantum paradigm forces a re-examination of reincarnation. There is no reason why anybody should not be able to tap the memories of any historical person. Conversely we can all look forward to fragments of our ideas and personalities manifesting in other people in the future. Telekinesis and related phenomena can be accommodated within the quantum paradigm if we allow intent to expand upon the small degree of fundamental uncertainty, or more properly indeterminacy, in the position and momentum of any object. Prophecy is always the most doubtful of the magical arts although short term prediction or precognition can often be impressive. The quantum model allows for this providing the operator later observes the precognised event. Such apparent nonsense as astrology and homeopathy begin to make more sense in a quantum paradigm which suggests that expectation can have real effects via what one might call a magical level. This is quite over and above the purely psychological effects of expectation that materialists usually invoke to explain away these things. I`ve heard the quantum occult paradigm described as Big Bang Mysticism and Electro Gnosis. I rather like this, for it implies that the universe is being viewed as a self-created magical organism and that magic itself is a technology we can potentially master because it is a part of the nature of ordinary reality. Of course, what is missing in this scheme are the pseudo certainties of belief in gods and higher powers or even a benign cosmic mind. It throws us back on our own powers and ingenuities, but isn`t this what the best occultism has always been about anyway ? Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 226 (811) Mon 29 Apr 91 3:26 By: Madoc To: Chris Anderson Re: What's this "Right" stuff, anyway? St: ------------------------------------------------------------ @PID: RA 1.01 @MSGID: 8:7703/8 4dba2fe8 >What would a Wiccan provide as an explanation for behavior that was >"contrary" in the sense that you've given? We've all seen folks behave in a way that is *apparently* inconsistent with stated beliefs, even those that are closely held. What do you believe is the basis for the difference between a "positive direction along the Path" and actual behavior that is contrary to this by one who earnestly seeks "the Path"? The answer is stated clearly enough for many other religions, but I've never had the opportunity to hear a Wiccan add his/her windage on this topic. Flip Wilson's answer obviously isn't going to apply, so where do we go with it? ;) Chris, sorry for the delay in answering your question. I have written and re-written my response, and although I still may not have answered your question herein, I feel that I must reply at last. First, I must stipulate that what follows is my own interpretation of Wiccan belief, and my own sense of "morals." You know, the usual disclaimer. Second, I wish to deal briefly with the concept of separation of Law and Moral. What I am writing here has absolutely no relation to the practice of law. I do not advocate murder, for example, nor do I think that murder should go unpunished by the State. I recognize that we live in a society which must have rules in order that the maximum amount of freedom may be enjoyed by all. I would not hesitate, if I were a juror, to vote to send a proven criminal to jail, or even to death, if the situation warranted it. Therefore, let none who read my words mistake my moral convictions with my beliefs about our judaical system - I am not in disagreement with the majority of our laws as they exist. Finally; the point: To save space, I'll omit the dictionary definition of 'sin.' I think we all understand that Christians believe in sin, Wiccans do not. As you have stated, members of other religions have their rules clearly stated, so that one may easily decide if one is in error or not (although it's often not quite *that* easy). Wiccans claim to follow only the Rede, which states, "An it harm none, do as thou shalt." You have asked how a Wiccan can stray from such a path. The answer is complex and far-reaching, and even delves into (ugh) philosophy. I'll try to keep it succinct. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 227 If one thoughtfully examines the Rede, it quickly becomes apparent that almost every action has the potential to harm some creature in some way. Drawing breath can kill micro-organisms that float unseen, in the atmosphere. Drinking water does the same thing. One could choose to marry, and ultimately bring pain and suffering on future generations of children by way of an unhappy union. There is literally no way that one could possibly foresee all circumstances and avoid harming anyone. Yet, that is what the Rede demands. What is the answer? In my opinion, the answer is obvious. The Wiccan must choose. Each and every Wiccan is responsible for their own actions, and will be accountable to themselves for the results of those actions. The wheels turns, and each Wiccan reaps what they have sown. No Godly mandate or indulgence can save us from the results of our own actions, be they good or bad. But, with ultimate responsibility comes ultimate freedom. No God can shackle my soul or subject me to that which I do not Will. I am supreme within myself, and I am the "captain of my soul." I have chosen to obey certain of society's laws and mores. I have chosen to be a "good" man. Mine is the reward for choosing such action, and mine will be the punishment if I fail to meet my self-imposed responsibilities. As you jested, I cannot claim Flip Wilson's famous defence. Nor do I claim that such things as I do well stem from my Creator - in ultimate hubris, I claim that "As I Will, so mote it be." Every day, I am met with new decisions. I make those decisions, and then I live with the consequences of my actions. In my opinion, that is what makes me human, what sets me apart from the animals. Man alone can choose, man alone is not chained to genetically imprinted behavior. I have been asked why, if there is the possibility that the Christian deity exists, do I not choose Christianity on the possibility that it is correct? This is Pascal's famous wager. If I wager that (the Christian) God exists and I am correct, then I win all. If I am wrong and God does not exist, then I have lost nothing, and have lived (hopefully) a good and productive life in the bargain. Why would anyone not accept this wager? My answer to that is that I would not willingly serve any God that would choose one of His/Her creations over another, the good over the bad, the shriven over the heathen. If I had definitive proof that such a God existed, I would actively oppose Him/Her. I would rather suffer the cold comfort of damnation than continue to exist in a hereafter peopled with only the "saved." This is my choice, and again, as I Will, so mote it be. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 228 >What do you believe is the basis for the difference between a "positive direction along the Path" and actual behavior that is contrary to this by one who earnestly seeks "the Path"? A fine, difficult question, Chris. As you've stated elsewhere, we've been dancing all around this one for some time. Here goes: I cannot determine what any one individual's Path is. I am not even sure of my own. I often follow forks in the road until they come to a dead end, and have to double back. Of course, that's the problem one faces in following one's own Will, and not a set of directions laid down by God. My concept of the Path is that it is like many roads, all of which lead eventually to self-knowledge (enlightenment, Godhead, nirvana, and so on). In my theology, my ultimate goal is to become one with the God of my creation by gaining divine knowledge, or gnosis. We've discussed the concept of "hidden knowledge" in the past, yet I feel that my understanding of gnosis differs from yours. The entire concept of the ancient mystery religions, and of modern "occult" (which mean only 'hidden' after all) religions and practices was based on the concept of the inverted filter. Each person passed through successive layers of filters, gaining knowledge and understanding at each stop, until they could absorb no more (and so could not pass through the next layer of filter). Of course, at each level, the initiate was given to believe that they were now in possession of secret knowledge, and ultimate truth. If they could find legitimate questions that led them to reject or doubt those 'truths' and seek deeper meaning, then they passed through to the next level of understanding. If they did not question, then they were satisfied that they had gained truth. This 'hidden knowledge' can be obtained outside of the constraints of organized religion; in fact it originally was obtained independently. Just as Newton's Laws could eventually be figured out by a person ignorant of his discoveries, one could find a Path to enlightenment separate from any of the mystery religions. However, just as one attends school to learn that which is already known, so one pursues illumination from the teachings of those who have already achieved more than oneself. Further, I do not believe that there is one 'right' Path. I accept that the OTO has valuable knowledge to impart. I accept that Christian Mystics, Jewish Quabalists, Muslim Sufis, and so on all have some piece of the puzzle, and that all will eventually converge on the road to wisdom. I know because I have been to that intersection once or twice, although I am not there now. My Path is my own, and as Van Morrison said, I have "No teacher, no guru, no method." Can I move in a direction that is contrary to positive movement towards the Laughing Light? You bet. The tough part is that the definition of what is or is not 'positive' is not static. An example: it might be proper that I learn what it means to take another human being's life by killing an intruder in my home. It might not be proper that I learn that lesson by following the orders of a superior officer in time of war. OR VICE VERSA. I must choose at every instance, and I might not immediately know if my choice has given or taken from my search for truth. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 229 There are also times when I might know that I am actively choosing to deviate from my Path. I might choose to sooth a feeling of anxiety about whether or not I can pay the rent this month by yelling at my wife. I'm not using this as an example because it is traditionally "wrong," but because I know that I cannot solve my problems by transferring my anxiety to others. If I choose to ignore what I have already learned, then not only have I lost ground, but I will have to deal with the anger that I've given out at some point. In conclusion, I believe that I am responsible for my own actions, as others are for theirs. I also believe that if I commit an action which may seem 'right' to me, but which society has deemed to be a crime, I'll be punished by society for breaking that law. I would punish those who break the laws which are meant to hold our society together, such as prohibitions on murder, burglary, and so forth. I believe that my moral convictions are binding only on myself, not on others, and that I'll ultimately deal with the consequences of my thoughts and deeds. I believe that I have no right to judge the moral content of another's actions. I believe in the Wiccan Rede, "An it harm none, do as thou shalt," and I further believe that it is meant to make me consider my actions and their consequences, and to make my own decisions, rather than as a prohibition against any specific action. There is much that I do not know about Godhead; much that I do not know about Right and Wrong. I have only my instincts and intellect to guide me, but I trust myself to make the right decisions eventually. Madoc Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 230 Sex & Magic Fra.: Apfelmann In this article I would like to address the issue of sex and magic. I am quite aware of the fact that this is a loaded subject. It is one of the oldest disciplines in occultism and virtually every magic tradition applies it somewhere down the road. Yet it has always been regarded as the innermost secret discipline. Witches, Shamans, Runesters, Yogis and Magicians of all varieties work with it in one form or another. To build up, strengthen, direct and aim this powerful energy is an awesome magical tool, as anyone who has ever worked with it knows. Being limited in time and space, but having such a wonderful and eclectic medium to work with, I want to give you a few unbiased ideas on the subject. No discipline of magic has attracted as much mumbo jumbo or misinformation as sex magic does. Nothing stirs the mind more than the left and right of the so-called middle path quite as vividly. Nothing is more ancient, powerful and misunderstood as Sex magic. Yes, the market on Tantra is booming, as a visit to any occult book shop will show you. Yet well researched, practical introductions into sex magic are virtually non-existent. Male sexist tunnel vision abounds. One of the reasons being that the general approach towards sexuality and women is steeped in Judeo-Christian hang ups. The most common approach seems to be: "Just lay down and be the altar dear, you are going to love it." Even such revolutionaries as Aleister Crowley have done very little to improve this. Louis Culling even dares to state in his contemporary work (1971), that a frigid woman is more conductive to sex magic practice than a sensual or, mind you, sexually aggressive one. For this would surely disturb ones concentration on the Great Work. No wonder that there are few women attracted to these kinds of partners! You will always get what you want in magic and the so-called true will does reveal itself in strange ways. Doing some soul searching and clarifying your motives is quite effective. Now, regarding literature on this subject there is hope. My german friend Fra.: U.D. has written a comprehensive, pragmatic book on sex magic. It`s title is "Secrets of the German Sex Magicians" (Llewellyn) and he told me last weekend that it is available in the States right now. (I hope he will give me some extracts to post them here...) It beats everything that has ever been published on the subject. Get it! Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 231 Now let me point out, one more time, that magic is a practical science. Merely reading about it or going to a workshop will not get you anywhere. The multitude of sexual expressions is just as great and manifold as human behavior in general. Here, like everywhere in Chaos Magic, it is useful to keep in mind that if it works for you, use it! Remember, the real sex magicians, male and female, have always known that and discarded social conditioning and taboos, right along with the do`s and don`ts of dogma. We do magic to liberate ourselves. So if it is possible for one thing to be sacred we logically conclude that everything else can be sacred too. Auto-, Hetero- and Homosexual expressions are equally valid in sex magic. It is more about expanding ones horizons that about finding a certain "right" way, partner or ritual to do it. The Chaos Magical paradigm kicks right in: Nothing is True, and Everything is Permitted! The next issue I want to address is the Auto-erotic practice. So let me state this loud and clear: Without auto erotic practice it is impossible to achieve anything in Sex magic! Auto-eroticism is of central importance because it is the ideal practice and playground. It constitutes a powerful technique in itself, and it makes us independent of partners. Especially in the beginning it is much easier to explore, prolong and amplify orgasmic trance states. For this very same reason it is possible to do effective sex magic with a partner who knows nothing about it but working with a partner who is equally trained in this art is ever so much more effective. Most amateurs believe that sexual magic is something that solely happens between partners in a ritual, but in reality the vast majority of sex magical arts are performed auto-erotically. Regarding the physical aspects of the sexual magical training first thing to consider is that your body is really _your temple_. And for it to be your ultimate tool and asset it has to be in peak condition. Physical and mental dependencies, be it alcohol, stimulants or even tobacco, will interfere with your ability to develop and direct this tool. I do not want to project a moral attitude on this, or any other subject, but mind, spirit and body are deeply intertwined. And the more you alter your mind from the outside by using drugs of any sort, the harder it gets to focus your will and physical reaction. If you are in a frizzy condition, you will get frizzy results! Here, as in all magic, the borders are fluid. A good training in practical magic will greatly enhance your sexual magic and vice versa. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 232 A lot of physical exercises in sex magic derive from Tantra Yoga. The only point of disagreement appears to be the way of using the orgasm. In particular, the "traditional" Tantra authors seem to cling to the idea that there is only a limited amount of sperm available to men. Therefore this precious substance is carefully guarded, held back and reassimilated when spent. Western magic does not agree with this belief. Its approach is rather like: the more you spend - the more you get! This applies to male magicians, women have always been pretty much inexhaustible in their orgasmic capacity. What joins both is that the intent in Sex magic is much more result oriented and concrete than in Tantra, where it is mainly transcendental. The longing for transcendence seems to be inherently natural in human behavior. Yet being western magicians living in the nineties we know that we have to handle the "real world", our physical reality first, and then we can move on to the loftier goals. A good manual for your physical preparation and training is "Stalking the Wild Orgasm" by Christopher Scott Kilham. Hie work not only includes some excellent yoga exercises, but also gives you some great clues regarding nutrition and aphrodisiacs. When you get going in this direction you will find that it soon penetrates into many other areas of your magical work. You will be in better physical shape, more relaxed, focused and grounded. Magic is a gut level art. We have to remove it from the intellectual stuff. Trust your own experiences. Strive to conduct your magic work from this part of your body where all magic originates - your loins. Have fun! With fractalic greetings and laughter * Fra.: Apfelmann * Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 233 THE RIDDLE OF THE TRICKSTER a cross-cultural overview by Thunderspud of Dragonfhain Who is this trickster archetype, the one who inspires such mixed feelings and brouhaha? Trickster has been with us from the beginning. Trickster will be there at the ending. (If there is an ending, Trickster will probably trigger it). Trickster is a creator, a transformer, a joker, a truth teller, a destroyer. Whoever has created a dance, a song, written a ritual, tailor-made a job, birthed a child or invented a game has partaken of a controlled Trickster energy. After all, in Northwest Native and Inuit tradition, Raven created the world; Loki is known to the Norse as a co creator (and the bringer of Ragnarok); Anansi the spider-trickster among the Ashanti of Ghana and Nareau the spider in Micronesia; Coyote among the Southwest Natives --these are the creator aspects of this wild and uncontrolled energy. Trickster often begins in the void, desiring to bring Order out of Chaos; once Order is imposed, however, Trickster represents the breaking free of negative power from the Universal Order of things. As a shape-shifter, Trickster is all things to all people, at one time or another, and often simultaneously. Of course Trickster is a creator and a destroyer. Sure he's a family man and a vagabond. Naturally he gives fire to humans and then steals their food before they can cook it. This is his style; when he acts out of selfishness, everyone benefits -- Maui of the Thousand Tricks might snare the Sun to slow it down, making life easier for humans, but he did it so his mother would have more time to cook for him. When he acts out of altruism, there's most always a negative effect --Marawa, a Lou Costello prototype from Banks Island carved human figures from wood and put them in the ground so they would grow and be strong; however, they merely rotted and death came into the world of humans. This shape- shifter not only moves from shape to shape, but from world to world. Number Eleven suffered at the hands of death to free his brothers; his brothers then took his lifeless body away and revived him. In the Winnebago cycle, Trickster dies three times and returns to life three times. In just one collection of Coyote stories, Giving Birth to Thunder, Sleeping With His Daughter, Coyote dies of a snake bite, a gunshot, an arrow wound, a broken heart, a rock-fall and a drowning; this resembles nothing so much as a Roadrunner cartoon. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 234 Trickster fuzzes the lines between Male and Female, between cunning and stupidity (in one story Coyote steals a horse, in another he almost drowns trying to eat some berries reflected in a stream), between wisdom and stupidity. Trickster tells us the truth about our selves, showing us with truth and wit the sides of our nature that we may be more comfortable not acknowledging; he's the one who points at the Emperor's nakedness, he's Lenny Bruce and Ashleigh Brilliant, Ken Kesey and Uncle Remus, Opus, Geech, Tom Robbins, Abbie Hoffman, Don Becker, Weird Al Yankovich and David Letterman, holding up a skewed mirror of reality for us to look into. Among the Aztecs, as serious a culture as this continent has ever seen, Ueuecoyotl, a funny and outrageously unacceptable clown figure; in the Southwest, at serious rituals, he's the Koshare speeding around the circle with tickling feathers and rattle, being ignored completely by the priest. Trickster shines on as a culture bringer: Prometheus steals fire for his poor stunted creations, and pays a terrible and eternal price for his philanthropy. Loki also steals fire for humans, as do Anansi, Raven, Coyote, Maui; so far I have found no less than seventeen stories from different cultures on this theme. Anansi tricked Nyankopon the Sky-God out of his stories and gave them to the humans. Clat, from Banks Island, taught humans how to sleep. In the stories of the Ashanti, Anansi invented the tar-baby as a ruse to trap an elemental spirit, but in the Native American stories, Coyote is trapped by a tar-baby set up by a farmer. Actually the farmer had caught a rabbit with his tar-baby, but Coyote happened along and asked Rabbit what he was doing there. "The farmer who owns this field got mad at me because I wouldn't eat his melons, so he stuck me here and said he'd come back and make me eat chicken." Rabbit replies, "But I told him I wouldn't do it." Of course, greedy Coyote extricates Rabbit and wraps himself around the tar-baby where he still his when the farmer comes out and shoots him. So this is the Trickster, the energy that allows us to break out of our stereotypes, whether they've been imposed by ourselves, our families, our culture. This is the energy that opens the world of limitless possibilities and it behooves us all to work with it before it destroys us, to touch the Trickster as he touches us. ...........from RMPJ, Oct.'86 Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 235 Notes on Kabbalah (a continuing series of many parts) Copyright Colin Low 1991 Chapter 1.: The Tree of Life At the root of the Cabalistic view of the world are three fundamental concepts and they provide a natural place to begin. The three concepts are force, form and consciousness and these words are used in an abstract way, as the following examples illustrate: - high pressure steam in the cylinder of a steam engine provides a force. The engine is a form which constrains the force. - a river runs downhill under the force of gravity. The river channel is a form which constrains the water to run in a well defined path. - someone wants to get to the center of a garden maze. The hedges are a form which constrain that person's ability to walk as they please. - a diesel engine provides the force which drives a boat forwards. A rudder constrains its course to a given direction. - a politician wants to change the law. The legislative framework of the country is a form which he or she must follow if the change is to be made legally. - water sits in a bowl. The force of gravity pulls the water down. The bowl is a form which gives its shape to the water. - a stone falls to the ground under the force of gravity. Its acceleration is constrained to be equal to the force divided by the mass of the stone. - I want to win at chess. The force of my desire to win is constrained within the rules of chess. - I see something in a shop window and have to have it. I am constrained by the conditions of sale (do I have enough money, is it in stock). - cordite explodes in a gun barrel and provides an explosive force on a bullet. The gas and the bullet are constrained by the form of the gun barrel. - I want to get a passport. The government won't give me one unless I fill in lots of forms in precisely the right way. - I want a university degree. The university won't give me a degree unless I attend certain courses and pass various assessments. In all these examples there is something which is causing change Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 236 to take place ("a force") and there is something which causes change to take place in a defined way ("a form"). Without being too pedantic it is possible to identify two very different types of example here: 1. examples of natural physical processes (e.g. a falling stone) where the force is one of the natural forces known to physics (e.g. gravity) and the form is some combination of physical laws which constrain the force to act in a well defined way. 2. examples of people wanting something, where the force is some ill-defined concept of "desire", "will", or "drives", and the form is one of the forms we impose upon ourselves (the rules of chess, the Law, polite behavior etc.). Despite the fact that the two different types of example are "only metaphorically similar", Kabbalists see no fundamental distinction between them. To the Kabbalist there are forces which cause change in the natural world, and there are corresponding psychological forces which drive us to change both the world and ourselves, and whether these forces are natural or psychological they are rooted in the same place: consciousness. Similarly, there are forms which the component parts of the physical world seem to obey (natural laws) and there are completely arbitrary forms we create as part of the process of living (the rules of a game, the shape of a mug, the design of an engine, the syntax of a language) and these forms are also rooted in the same place: consciousness. It is a Cabalistic axiom that there is a prime cause which underpins all the manifestations of force and form in both the natural and psychological world and that prime cause I have called consciousness for lack of a better word. Consciousness is undefinable. We know that we are conscious in different ways at different times - sometimes we feel free and happy, at other times trapped and confused, sometimes angry and passionate, sometimes cold and restrained - but these words describe manifestations of consciousness. We can define the manifestations of consciousness in terms of manifestations of consciousness, which is about as useful as defining an ocean in terms of waves and foam. Anyone who attempts to define consciousness itself tends to come out of the same door as they went in. We have lots of words for the phenomena of consciousness - thoughts, feelings, beliefs, desires, emotions, motives and so on - but few words for the states of consciousness which give rise to these phenomena, just as we have many words to describe the surface of a sea, but few words to describe its depths. Kabbalah provides a vocabulary for states of consciousness underlying the phenomena, and one of the purposes of these notes is to explain this vocabulary, not by definition, but mostly by metaphor and analogy. The only genuine method of understanding what the vocabulary means is by attaining various states of consciousness in a predictable and reasonably objective way, and Kabbalah provides practical methods for doing this. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 237 A fundamental premise of the Cabalistic model of reality is that there is a pure, primal, and undefinable state of consciousness which manifests as an interaction between force and form. This is virtually the entire guts of the Cabalistic view of things, and almost everything I have to say from now on is based on this trinity of consciousness, force, and form. Consciousness comes first, but hidden within it is an inherent duality; there is an energy associated with consciousness which causes change (force), and there is a capacity within consciousness to constrain that energy and cause it to manifest in a well-defined way (form). First Principle of / Consciousness \ / \ / \ Capacity Raw to take ________________ Energy Form Figure 1. What do we get out of raw energy and an inbuilt capacity for form and structure? Is there yet another hidden potential within this trinity waiting to manifest? There is. If modern physics is to be believed we get matter and the physical world. The cosmological Big Bang model of raw energy surging out from an infinitesimal point and condensing into basic forms of matter as it cools, then into stars and galaxies, then planets, and ultimately living creatures, has many points of similarity with the Cabalistic model. In the Big Bang model a soup of energy condenses according to some yet-to-be-formulated Grand-Universal-Theory into our physical world. What Kabbalah does suggest (and modern physics most certainly does not!) is that matter and consciousness are the same stuff, and differ only in the degree of structure imposed - matter is consciousness so heavily structured and constrained that its behavior becomes describable using the regular and simple laws of physics. This is shown in Fig. 2. The primal, first principle of consciousness is synonymous with the idea of "God". Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 238 First Principle of / Consciousness \ / | \ / | \ Capacity | Raw to take _____________ Energy/Force Form | \ | / \ | / \ | / Matter The World Figure 2 The glyph in Fig. 2 is the basis for the Tree of Life. The first principle of consciousness is called Kether, which means Crown. The raw energy of consciousness is called Chockhmah or Wisdom, and the capacity to give form to the energy of consciousness is called Binah, which is sometimes translated as Understanding, and sometimes as Intelligence. The outcome of the interaction of force and form, the physical world, called Malkuth or Kingdom. This quaternery is a Cabalistic representation of God-the- Knowable, in the sense that it the most primitive representation of God we are capable of comprehending; paradoxically, Kabbalah also contains a notion of God-the-Unknowable which transcends this glyph, and is called En Soph. There is not much I can say about En Soph, and what I can say I will postpone for later. God-the-Knowable has four aspects, two male and two female: Kether and Chokhmah are both represented as male, and Binah and Malkuth are represented as female. One of the titles of Chokhmah is Abba, which means Father, and one of the titles of Binah is Aima, which means Mother, so you can think of Chokhmah as God- the-Father, and Binah as God-the-Mother. Malkuth is the daughter, the female spirit of God-as-Matter, and it would not be wildly wrong to think of her as Mother Earth. One of the more pleasant things about Kabbalah is that its symbolism gives equal place to both male and female. And what of God-the-Son? Is there also a God-the-Son in Kabbalah? There is, and this is the point where Kabbalah tackles the interesting problem of thee and me. The glyph in Fig. 2 is a model of consciousness, but not of self-consciousness, and self- consciousness throws an interesting spanner in the works. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 239 The Fall Self-consciousness is like a mirror in which consciousness sees itself reflected. Self-consciousness is modelled in Kabbalah by making a copy of figure 2. Consciousness of / Consciousness \ / | \ / | \ Consciousness | Consciousness of ________________ of Form | Energy/Force \ | / \ | / \ | / Consciousness of the World Figure 3 Figure 3. is Figure 2. reflected through self-consciousness. The overall effect of self-consciousness is to add an additional layer to Figure 2. as follows: First Principle of / Consciousness \ / | \ / | \ Capacity | Raw to take _____________ Energy/Force Form | \ | / \ | / \ | / Consciousness of / Consciousness \ / | \ / | \ Consciousness | Consciousness of ________________ of Form | Energy/Force \ | / \ | / \ | / Consciousness of the World | | | Matter The World Figure 4 Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 240 Fig. 2 is sometimes called "the Garden of Eden" because it represents a primal state of consciousness. The effect of self- consciousness as shown in Fig. 4 is to drive a wedge between the First Principle of Consciousness (Kether) and that Consciousness realized as matter and the physical world (Malkuth). This is called "the Fall", after the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. From a Cabalistic point of view the story of Eden, with the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, the serpent and the temptation, and the casting out from the Garden has a great deal of meaning in terms of understanding the evolution of consciousness. Self-consciousness introduces four new states of consciousness: the Consciousness of Consciousness is called Tipheret, which means Beauty; the Consciousness of Force/Energy is called Netzach, which means Victory or Firmness; the Consciousness of Form is called Hod, which means Splendor or Glory, and the Consciousness of Matter is called Yesod, which means Foundation. These four states have readily observable manifestations, as shown below in Fig. 5: The Self Self-Importance Self-Sacrifice / | \ / | \ / | \ Language | Emotions Abstraction_______________Drives Reason | Feelings \ | / \ | / \ | / \ Perception / Imagination Instinct Reproduction Figure 5 Figure 4. is almost the complete Tree of Life, but not quite - there are still two states missing. The inherent capacity of consciousness to take on structure and objectify itself (Binah, God-the-Mother) is reflected through self-consciousness as a perception of the limitedness and boundedness of things. We are conscious of space and time, yesterday and today, here and there, you and me, in and out, life and death, whole and broken, together and apart. We see things as limited and bounded and we have a perception of form as something "created" and "destroyed". My car was built a year ago, but it was smashed yesterday. I wrote an essay, but I lost it when my computer crashed. My granny is dead. The river changed its course. A law has been repealed. I broke my coffee mug. The world changes, and what was here yesterday is not here today. This perception acts like an "interface" between the quaternary of consciousness which represents "God", and the quaternary which represents a living self-conscious being, and two new states are introduced to represent this interface. The state which represents the creation Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 241 of new forms is called Chesed, which means Mercy, and the state which represents the destruction of forms is called Gevurah, which means Strength. This is shown in Fig. 6. The objectification of forms which takes place in a self-conscious being, and the consequent tendency to view the world in terms of limitations and dualities (time and space, here and there, you and me, in and out, God and Man, good and evil...) produces a barrier to perception which most people rarely overcome, and for this reason it has come to be called the Abyss. The Abyss is also marked on Figure 6. First Principle of / Consciousness \ / | \ / | \ Capacity | Raw to take _____________ Energy/Force Form | | |\ | /| | \ | / | --------------Abyss--------------- | \ | / | Destruction | Creation of_____\_____|_____ /____of Form \ | / Form | \ \ | / / | | \ \ | / / | | \ Consciousness / | | of | | / Consciousness \ | | / | \ | |/ | \| Consciousness | Consciousness of ________________ of \ Form | Energy/Force \ \ | / / \ \ | / / \ \ | / / \ Consciousness / \ of / \ the World / \ / \ | / \ | / \ | / Matter The World Figure 6 Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 242 The diagram in Fig. 6 is called the Tree of Life. The "constructionist" approach I have used to justify its structure is a little unusual, but the essence of my presentation can be found in the "Zohar" under the guise of the Macroprosopus and Microprosopus, although in this form it is not readily accessible to the average reader. My attempt to show how the Tree of Life can be derived out of pure consciousness through the interaction of an abstract notion of force and form was not intended to be a convincing exercise from an intellectual point of view - the Tree of Life is primarily a gnostic rather than a rational or intellectual explanation of consciousness and its interaction with the physical world. The Tree is composed of 10 states or sephiroth (sephiroth plural, sephira singular) and 22 interconnecting paths. The age of this diagram is unknown: there is enough information in the 13th. century "Sepher ha Zohar" to construct this diagram, and the doctrine of the sephiroth has been attributed to Isaac the Blind in the 12th. century, but we have no certain knowledge of its origin. It probably originated sometime in the interval between the 6th. and 13th. centuries AD. The origin of the word "sephira" is unclear - it is almost certainly derived from the Hebrew word for "number" (SPhR), but it has also been attributed to the Greek word for "sphere" and even to the Hebrew word for a sapphire (SPhIR). With a characteristic aptitude for discovering hidden meanings everywhere, Kabbalists find all three derivations useful, so take your pick. In the language of earlier Cabalistic writers the sephiroth represented ten primeval emanations of God, ten foci through which the energy of a hidden, absolute and unknown Godhead (En Soph) propagated throughout the creation, like white light passing through a prism. The sephiroth can be interpreted as aspects of God, as states of consciousness, or as nodes akin to the Chakras in the occult anatomy of a human being . I have left out one important detail from the structure of the Tree. There is an eleventh "something" which is definitely *not* a sephira, but is often shown on modern representations of the Tree. The Cabalistic "explanation" runs as follows: when Malkuth "fell" out of the Garden of Eden (Fig. 2) it left behind a "hole" in the fabric of the Tree, and this "hole", located in the center of the Abyss, is called Daath, or Knowledge. Daath is *not* a sephira; it is a hole. This may sound like gobbledy-gook, and in the sense that it is only a metaphor, it is. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 243 The completed Tree of Life with the Hebrew titles of the sephiroth is shown below in Fig. 7. En Soph /-------------------------\ / \ ( Kether ) / (Crown) \ / | \ / | \ / | \ Binah | Chokhmah (Understanding)__________ (Wisdom) (Intelligence) | | |\ | /| | \ Daath / | | \ (Knowledge) / | | \ | / | Gevurah \ | / Chesed (Strength)\_____|_____/__ (Mercy) | \ | / (Love) | \ \ | / / | | \ \ | / / | | \ Tipheret / | | / (Beauty) \ | | / | \ | | / | \ | |/ | \| Hod | Netzach (Glory) _______________(Victory) (Splendor) | (Firmness) \ \ | / / \ \ | / / \ \ | / / \ \ | / / \ \ Yesod / / \ (Foundation) / \ / \ | / \ | / \ | / Malkuth (Kingdom) Figure 7 Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 244 From an historical point of view the doctrine of emanations and the Tree of Life are only one small part of a huge body of Cabalistic speculation about the nature of divinity and our part in creation, but it is the part which has survived. The Tree continues to be used in the Twentieth Century because it has proved to be a useful and productive symbol for practices of a magical, mystical and religious nature. Modern Kabbalah in the Western Mystery Tradition is largely concerned with the understanding and practical application of the Tree of Life, and the following set of notes will list some of the characteristics of each sephira in more detail so that you will have a "snapshot" of what each sephira represents before going on to examine the sephiroth and the "deep structure" of the Tree in more detail. Chapter 2.: Sephirothic Correspondences The correspondences are a set of symbols, associations and qualities which provide a handle on the elusive something a sephira represents. Some of the correspondences are hundreds of years old, many were concocted this century, and some are my own; some fit very well, and some are obscure - oddly enough it is often the most obscure and ill-fitting correspondence which is most productive; like a Zen riddle it perplexes and annoys the mind until it arrives at the right place more in spite of the correspondence than because of it. There are few canonical correspondences; some of the sephiroth have alternative names, some of the names have alternative translations, the mapping from Hebrew spellings to the English alphabet varies from one author to the next, and inaccuracies and accretions are handed down like the family silver. I keep my Hebrew dictionary to hand but guarantee none of the English spellings. The correspondences I have given are as follows: 1. The Meaning is a translation of the Hebrew name of the sephira. 2. The Planet in most cases is the planet associated with the sephira. In some cases it is not a planet at all (e.g. the fixed stars). The planets are ordered by decreasing apparent motion - this is one correspondence which appears to pre-date Copernicus! 3. The Element is the physical element (earth, water, air, fire, aethyr) which has most in common with the nature of the Sephira. The Golden Dawn applied an excess of logic to these attributions and made a mess of them, to the confusion of many. Only the five Lower Face sephiroth have been attributed an element. 4. Briatic color. This is the color of the sephira as seen in the world of Creation, Briah. There are color scales for the other three worlds but I haven't found them to be useful in practical work. 5. Magical Image. Useful in meditations; some are astute. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 245 6. The Briatic Correspondence is an abstract quality which says something about the essence of the way the sephira expresses itself. 7. The Illusion characterizes the way in which the energy of the sephira clouds one's judgement; it is something which is *obviously* true. Most people suffer from one or more of these according to their temperament. 8. The Obligation is a personal quality which is demanded of an initiate at this level. 9. The Virtue and Vice are the energy of the sephiroth as it manifests in a positive and negative sense in the personality. 10. Klippoth is a word which means "shell". In medieval Kabbalah each sephira was "seen" to be adding form to the sephira which preceded it in the Lightning Flash (see Chapter 3.). Form was seen to an accretion, a shell around the pure divine energy of the Godhead, and each layer or shell hid the divine radiance a little bit more, until God was buried in form and exiled in matter, the end-point of the process. At the time attitudes to matter were tainted with the Manichean notion that matter was evil, a snare for the spirit, and consequently the Klippoth or shells were "demonised" and actually turned into demons. The correspondence I have given here restores the original notion of a shell of form *without* the corresponding force to activate it; it is the lifeless, empty husk of a sephira devoid of force, and while it isn't a literal demon, it is hardly a bundle of laughs when you come across it. 11. The Command refers to the Four Powers of the Sphinx, with an extra one added for good measure. 12. The Spiritual Experience is just that. 13. The Titles are a collection of alternative names for the sephira; most are very old. 14. The God Name is a key to invoking the power of the sephira in the world of emanation, Atziluth. 13. The Archangel mediates the energy of the sephira in the world of creation, Briah. 14. The Angel Order administers the energy of the sephira in the world of formation, Yetzirah. 15. The Keywords are a collection of phrases which summarize key aspects of the sephira. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 246 ================================================================= Sephira: Malkuth Meaning: Kingdom ------- ------- Planet: Cholem Yesodeth Element: earth --------(the Breaker of ------- the Foundations, sphere of the elements, the Earth) Briatic Color: brown Number: 10 ------------- (citrine, russet-red,------ olive green, black) Magical Image: a young woman crowned and throned ------------- Briatic Correspondence: stability ---------------------- Illusion: materialism Obligation: discipline -------- ---------- Virtue: discrimination Vice: avarice & inertia ------ ---- Klippoth: stasis Command: keep silent -------- ------- Spiritual Experience: Vision of the Holy Guardian Angel ------ Titles: The Gate; Gate of Death; Gate of Tears; Gate of Justice; ------ The Inferior Mother; Malkah, the Queen; Kallah, the Bride; the Virgin. ------ God Name: Adonai ha Aretz Archangel: Sandalphon -------- Adonai Malekh --------- Angel Order: Ishim ----------- Keywords:the real world, physical matter, the Earth, Mother Earth, the physical elements, the natural world, sticks & stones, possessions, faeces, practicality, solidity, stability, inertia, heaviness, bodily death, incarnation. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 247 ================================================================= Sephira: Yesod Meaning: Foundation ------- ------- Planet: Levanah (the Moon) Element: Aethyr -------------- ------- Briatic Color: purple Number: 9 ------------- ------ Magical Image: a beautiful man, very strong (e.g. Atlas) ------------- Briatic Correspondence: receptivity, perception ---------------------- Illusion: security Obligation: trust -------- ---------- Virtue: independence Vice: idleness ------ ---- Klippoth: zombieism, robotism Command: go! -------- ------- Spiritual Experience: Vision of the Machinery of the Universe -------------------- Titles: The Treasure House of Images ------ God Name: Shaddai el Chai Archangel: Gabriel -------- --------- Angel Order: Cherubim ---------- Keywords: perception, interface, imagination, image, appearance, glamour, the Moon, the unconscious, instinct, tides, illusion, hidden infrastructure, dreams, divination, anything as it seems to be and not as it is, mirrors and crystals, the "Astral Plane", Aethyr, glue, tunnels, sex & reproduction, the genitals, cosmetics, instinctive magic (psychism), secret doors, shamanic tunnel. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 248 ============================================================= Sephira: Hod Meaning: Glory, Splendor ------- ------- Planet: Kokab (Mercury) Element: air ------ ------- Briatic Color: orange Number: 8 ------------- ------ Magical Image: an hermaphrodite ------------- Briatic Correspondence: abstraction ---------------------- Illusion: order Obligation: learn -------- ---------- Virtue: honesty, truthfulness Vice: dishonesty ------ ---- Klippoth: rigidity Command: will -------- Spiritual Experience: Vision of Splendor ------ Titles: - ------ God Name: Elohim Tzabaoth Archangel: Raphael -------- --------- Angel Order: Beni Elohim Keywords: reason, abstraction, communication, conceptualization, logic, the sciences, language, speech, money (as a concept), mathematics, medicine & healing, trickery, writing, media (as communication), pedantry, philosophy, Kabbalah (as an abstract system), protocol, the Law, ownership, territory, theft, "Rights", ritual magic. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 249 =============================================================== Sephira: Netzach Meaning: Victory, Firmness ------- ------- Planet: Nogah (Venus) Element: water -------------- ------- Briatic Color: green Number: 7 ------------- ------ Magical Image: a beautiful naked woman ------------- Briatic Correspondence: nurture ---------------------- Illusion: projection Obligation: responsibility -------- ---------- Virtue: unselfishness Vice: selfishness ------ ---- Klippoth: habit, routine Command: know -------- Spiritual Experience: Vision of Beauty Triumphant ------ Titles: - ------ God Name: Jehovah Tzabaoth Archangel: Haniel -------- --------- Angel Order: Elohim ---------- Keywords: passion, pleasure, luxury, sensual beauty, feelings, drives, emotions - love, hate, anger, joy, depression, misery, excitement, desire, lust; nurture, libido, empathy, sympathy, ecstatic magic. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 250 ================================================================ Sephira: Tipheret Meaning: Beauty ------- ------- Planet: Shemesh (the Sun) Element: fire -------------- ------- Briatic Color: yellow Number: 6 ------------- ------ Magical Image: a king, a child, a sacrificed god ------------- Briatic Correspondence: centrality, wholeness ---------------------- Illusion: identification Obligation: integrity -------- ---------- Virtue: devotion to the Great Work Vice: pride, self-importance ------ ---- Klippoth: hollowness Command: dare -------- Spiritual Experience: Vision of Harmony -------------------- Titles: Melekh, the King; Zoar Anpin, the lesser countenance, the ------ Microprosopus; the Son; Rachamin, charity. God Name: Aloah va Daath Archangel: Michael -------- --------- Angel Order: Malachim ----------- Keywords: harmony, integrity, balance, wholeness, the Self, self- importance, self-sacrifice, the Son of God, centrality, the Philospher's Stone, identity, the solar plexus, a King, the Great Work. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 251 ================================================================ Sephira: Gevurah Meaning: Strength ------- ------- Planet: Madim (Mars) -------------- Briatic Color: red Number: 5 ------------- ------ Magical Image: a mighty warrior ------------- Briatic Correspondence: power ---------------------- Illusion: invincibility Obligation: courage & loyalty -------- ---------- Virtue: courage & energy Vice: cruelty ------ ---- Klippoth: bureaucracy -------- Spiritual Experience: Vision of Power -------------------- Titles: Pachad, fear; Din, justice. ------ God Name: Elohim Gevor Archangel: Kamael -------- --------- Angel Order: Seraphim ----------- Keywords: power, justice, retribution (eaten cold), the Law (in execution), cruelty, oppression, domination & the Power Myth, severity, necessary destruction, catabolism, martial arts. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 252 =============================================================== Sephira: Chesed Meaning: Mercy ------- ------- Planet: Tzadekh (Jupiter) -------------- Briatic Color: blue Number: 4 ------------- ------ Magical Image: a mighty king ------------- Briatic Correspondence: authority ---------------------- Illusion: being right Obligation: humility -------- (self-righteousness) ---------- Virtue: humility & obedience Vice: tyranny, hypocrisy, ------ ---- bigotry, gluttony Klippoth: ideology -------- Spiritual Experience: Vision of Love -------------------- Titles: Gedulah, magnificence, love, majesty ------ God Name: El Archangel: Tzadkiel -------- --------- Angel Order: Chasmalim ----------- Keywords: authority, creativity, inspiration, vision, leadership, excess, waste, secular and spiritual power, submission and the Annihilation Myth, the atom bomb, obliteration, birth, service. ================================================================ Non-Sephira: Daath Meaning: Knowledge ----------- ------- Daath has no manifest qualities and cannot be invoked directly. Keywords: hole, tunnel, gateway, doorway, black hole, vortex. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 253 ================================================================ Sephira: Binah Meaning: Understanding, ------- ------- Planet: Shabbathai (Saturn) ------ Briatic Color: black Number: 3 ------------- ------ Magical Image: an old woman on a throne ------------- Briatic Correspondence: comprehension ---------------------- Illusion: death -------- Virtue: silence Vice: inertia ------ ---- Klippoth: fatalism -------- Spiritual Experience: Vision of Sorrow -------------------- Titles: Aima, the Mother; Ama, the Crone; Marah, the bitter sea; Khorsia, the Throne; the Fifty Gates of Understanding; Intelligence; the Mother of Form; the Superior Mother. God Name: Elohim Archangel: Cassiel -------- --------- Angel Order: Aralim ----------- Keywords: limitation, form, constraint, heaviness, slowness, old- age, infertility, incarnation, karma, fate, time, space, natural law, the womb and gestation, darkness, boundedness, enclosure, containment, fertility, mother, weaving and spinning, death (annihilation). Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 254 ================================================================== Sephira: Chokhmah Meaning: Wisdom ------- ------- Planet: Mazlot (the Zodiac, the fixed stars) -------------- Briatic Color: silver/white Number: 2 ------------- grey ------ Magical Image: a bearded man ------------- Briatic Correspondence: revolution ---------------------- Illusion: independence -------- Virtue: good Vice: evil ------ ---- Klippoth: arbitrariness -------- Spiritual Experience: Vision of God face-to-face ------ Titles: Abba, the Father. The Supernal Father. ------ God Name: Jah Archangel: Ratziel -------- --------- Angel Order: Auphanim ----------- Keywords: pure creative energy, lifeforce, the wellspring. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 255 ================================================================== Sephira: Kether Meaning: Crown ------- ------- Planet: Rashith ha Gilgalim (first swirlings, the Big Bang) -------------- Briatic Color: pure white Number: 1 ------------- ------ Magical Image: a bearded man seen in profile ------------- Briatic Correspondence: unity ---------------------- Illusion: attainment -------- Virtue: attainment Vice: --- ------ ---- Klippoth: futility -------- Spiritual Experience: Union with God -------------------- Titles: Ancient of Days, the Greater Countenance (Macroprosopus), the White Head, Concealed of the Concealed, Existence of Existences, the Smooth Point, Rum Maalah, the Highest Point. God Name: Eheieh Archangel: Metatron -------- --------- Angel Order: Chaioth ha Qadesh ----------- Keywords: unity, union, all, pure consciousness, God, the Godhead, manifestation, beginning, source, emanation. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 256 Chapter 3: The Pillars & the Lightning Flash ============================================ In Chapter 1. the Tree of Life was derived from three concepts, or rather one primary concept and two derivative concepts which are "contained" within it. The primary concept was called consciousness, and it was said to "contain" within it the two complementary concepts of force and form. This chapter builds on the idea by introducing the three Pillars of the Tree, and uses the Pillars to clarify a process called the Lightning Flash. The Three Pillars are shown in Figure 8. below. Pillar Pillar Pillar of of of Form Consciousness Force (Severity) (Mildness) (Mercy) Kether / (Crown) \ / | \ / | \ / | \ Binah | Chokhmah (Understanding)__________ (Wisdom) (Intelligence) | | |\ | /| | \ Daath / | | \ (Knowledge) / | | \ | / | Gevurah \ | / Chesed (Strength)\_____|_____/__ (Mercy) | \ | / (Love) | \ \ | / / | | \ \ | / / | | \ Tipheret / | | / (Beauty) \ | | / | \ | | / | \ | |/ | \| Hod | Netzach (Glory) _______________(Victory) (Splendor) | (Firmness) \ \ | / / \ \ | / / \ \ | / / \ \ | / / \ \ Yesod / / \ (Foundation) / \ / \ | / \ | / \ | / Malkuth (Kingdom) Figure 8 Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 257 Not surprisingly the three pillars are referred to as the pillars of consciousness, force and form. The pillar of consciousness contains the sephiroth Kether, Tiphereth, Yesod and Malkuth; the pillar of force contains the sephiroth Chokhmah, Chesed and Netzach; the pillar of form contains the sephiroth Binah, Gevurah and Hod. In older Cabalistic texts the pillars are referred to as the pillars of mildness, mercy and severity, and it is not immediately obvious how the older jargon relates to the new. To the medieval Kabbalist (and this is a recurring metaphor in the Zohar) the creation as an emanation of God is a delicate *balance* (metheqela) between two opposing tendencies: the mercy of God, the outflowing, creative, life-giving and sustaining tendency in God, and the severity or strict judgement of God, the limiting, defining, life-taking and ultimately wrathful or destructive tendency in God. The creation is "energized" by these two tendencies as if stretched between the poles of a battery. Modern Kabbalah makes a half-hearted attempt to remove the more obvious anthropomorphisms in the descriptions of "God"; mercy and severity are misleading terms, apt to remind one of a man with a white beard, and even in medieval times the terms had distinctly technical meanings as the following quotation shows [1]: "It must be remembered that to the Kabbalist, judgement [Din - judgement, another title of Gevurah] means the imposition of limits and the correct determination of things. According to Cordovero the quality of judgement is inherent in everything insofar as everything wishes to remain what it is, to stay within its boundaries." I understand the word "form" inprecisely this sense - itis that which defines *what* a thing is, the structure whereby a given thing is distinct from every other thing. As for "consciousness", I use the word "consciousness" in a sense so abstract that it is virtually meaningless, and according to whim I use the word God instead, where it is understood that both words are placeholders for something which is potentially knowable in the gnostic sense only - consciousness can be *defined* according to the *forms* it takes, in which case we are defining the forms, *not* the consciousness. The same qualification applies to the word "force". My inability to define two of the three concepts which underpin the structure of the Tree is a nuisance which is tackled traditionally by the use of extravagant metaphors, and by elimination ("not this, not that"). Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 258 The classification of sephiroth into three pillars is a way of saying that each sephira in a pillar partakes of a common quality which is "inherited" in a progressively more developed and structured form from of the top of a pillar to the bottom. Tipheret, Yesod and Malkuth all share with Kether the quality of "consciousness in balance" or "synthesis of opposing qualities", or but in each case it is expressed differently according to the increased degree of structure imposed. Likewise, Chokhmah, Chesed and Netzach share the quality of force or energy or expansiveness, and Binah, Gevurah and Hod share the quality of form, definition and limitation. From Kether down to Malkuth, force and form are combined; the symbolism of the Tree has something in common with a production line, with molten metal coming in one end and finished cars coming out the other, and with that metaphor we are now ready to describe the Lightning Flash, the process whereby God takes on flesh, the process which created and sustains the creation. In the beginning...was Something. Or Nothing. It doesn't really matter which term we use, as both are equally meaningless in this context. Nothing is probably the better of the two terms, because I can use Something in the next paragraph. Kabbalists call this Nothing "En Soph" which literally means "no end" or infinity, and understand by this a hidden, unmanifest God-in- Itself. Out of this incomprehensible and indescribable Nothing came Something. Probably more words have been devoted to this moment than any other in Kabbalah, and it is all too easy to make fun the effort which has gone into elaborating the indescribable, so I won't, but in return do not expect me to provide a justification for why Something came out of Nothing. It just did. A point crystallized in the En Soph. In some versions of the story the En Soph "contracted" to "make room" for the creation (Isaac Luria's theory of Tsimtsum), and this is probably an important clarification for those who have rubbed noses with the hidden face of God, but for the purposes of these notes it is enough that a point crystallized. This point was the crown of creation, the sephira Kether, and within Kether was contained all the unrealized potential of the creation. An aspect of Kether is the raw creative force of God which blasts into the creation like the blast of hot gas which keeps a hot air balloon in the air. Kabbalists are quite clear about this; the creation didn't just happen a long time ago - it is happening all the time, and without the force to sustain it the creation would crumple like a balloon. The force-like aspect within Kether is the sephira Chokhmah and it can be thought of as the will of God, because without it the creation would cease to *be*. The whole of creation is maintained by this ravening, primeval desire to *be*, to become, to exist, to change, to evolve. The experiential distinction between Kether, the point of emanation, and Chokhmah, the creative outpouring, is elusive, but some of the difference is captured in the phrases "I am" and "I become". Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 259 Force by itself achieves nothing; it needs to be contained, and the balloon analogy is appropriate again. Chokhmah contains within it the necessity of Binah, the Mother of Form. The person who taught me Kabbalah (a woman) told me Chokhmah (Abba, the Father) was God's prick, and Binah (Aima, the mother) was God's womb, and left me with the picture of one half of God continuously ejaculating into the other half. The author of the Zohar also makes frequent use of sexual polarity as a metaphor to describe the relationship between force and form, or mercy and severity (although the most vivid sexual metaphors are used for the marriage of the Microprosopus and his bride, the Queen and Inferior Mother, the sephira Malkuth). The sephira Binah is the Mother of Form; form exists within Binah as a potentiality, not as an actuality, just as a womb contains the potential of a baby. Without the possibility of form, no thing would be distinct from any other thing; it would be impossible to distinguish between things, impossible to have individuality or identity or change. The Mother of Form contains the potential of form within her womb and gives birth to form when a creative impulse crosses the Abyss to the Pillar of Force and emanates through the sephira Chesed. Again we have the idea of "becoming", of outflowing creative energy, but at a lower level. The sephira Chesed is the point at which form becomes perceptible to the mind as an inspiration, an idea, a vision, that "Eureka!" moment immediately prior to rushing around shouting "I've got it! I've got it!" Chesed is that quality of genuine inspiration, a sense of being "plugged in" which characterizes the visionary leaders who drive the human race onwards into every new kind of endeavour. It can be for good or evil; a leader who can tap the petty malice and vindictiveness in any person and channel it into a vision of a new order and genocide is just as much a visionary as any other, but the positive side of Chesed is the humanitarian leader who brings about genuine improvements to our common life. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 260 No change comes easy; as Cordova points out "everything wishes to remain what it is". The creation of form is balanced in the sephira Gevurah by the preservation and destruction of form. Any impulse of change is channelled through Gevurah, and if it is not resisted then something will be destroyed. If you want to make paper you cut down a tree. If you want to abolish slavery you have to destroy the culture which perpetuates it. If you want to change someone's mind you have to destroy that person's beliefs about the matter in question. The sephira Gevurah is the quality of strict judgement which opposes change, destroys the unfamiliar, and corresponds in many ways to an immune system within the body of God. There has to be a balance between creation and destruction. Too much change, too many ideas, too many things happening too quickly can have the quality of chaos (and can literally become that), whereas too little change, no new ideas, too much form and structure and protocol can suffocate and stifle. There has to be a balance which "makes sense" and this "idea of balance" or "making sense" is expressed in the sephira Tiphereth. It is an instinctive morality, and it isn't present by default in the human species. It isn't based on cultural norms; it doesn't have its roots in upbringing (although it is easily destroyed by it). Some people have it in a large measure, and some people are (to all intents and purposes) completely lacking in it. It doesn't necessarily respect conventional morality: it may laugh in its face. I can't say what it is in any detail, because it is peculiar and individual, but those who have it have a natural quality of integrity, soundness of judgement, an instinctive sense of rightness, justice and compassion, and a willingness to fight or suffer in defense of that sense of justice. Tiphereth is a paradoxical sephira because in many people it is simply not there. It can be developed, and that is one of the goals of initiation, but for many people Tiphereth is a room with nothing in it. Having passed through Gevurah on the Pillar of Form, and found its way through the moral filter of Tiphereth, a creative impulse picks up energy once more on the Pillar of Force via the Sephira Netzach, where the energy of "becoming" finds its final expression in the form of "vital urges". Why do we carry on living? Why bother? What is it that compels us to do things? An artist may have a vision of a piece of art, but what actually compels the artist to paint or sculpt or write? Why do we want to compete and win? Why do we care what happens to others? The sephira Netzach expresses the basic vital creative urges in a form we can recognize as drives, feelings and emotions. Netzach is pre-verbal; ask a child why he wants a toy and the answer will be "I just do". "But why," you ask, wondering why he doesn't want the much more "sensible" toy you had in mind. "Why don't you want this one here." "I just don't. I want this one." "But what's so good about that one." "I don't know what to say...I just like it." Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 261 This conversation is not fictitious and is quintessentially Netzach. The structure of the Tree of Life posits that the basic driving forces which characterize our behavior are pre-verbal and non-rational; anyone who has tried to change another person's basic nature or beliefs through force of rational argument will know this. After Netzach we go to the sephira Hod to pick up our last cargo of Form. Ask a child why they want something and they say "I just do". Press an adult and you will get an earful of "reasons". We live in a culture where it is important (often essential) to give reasons for the things we do, and Hod is the sephira of form where it is possible to give shape to our wants in terms of reasons and explanations. Hod is the sephira of abstraction, reason, logic, language and communication, and a reflection of the Mother of Form in the human mind. We have a innate capacity to abstract, to go immediately from the particular to the general, and we have an innate capacity to communicate these abstractions using language, and it should be clear why the alternative translation of Binah is "intelligence"; Binah is the "intelligence of God", and Hod underpins what we generally recognize as intelligence in people - the ability to grasp complex abstractions, reason about them, and articulate this understanding using some means of communication. The synthesis of Hod and Netzach on the Pillar of Consciousness is the sephira Yesod. Yesod is the sephira of interface, and the comparison with computer peripheral interfaces is an excellent one. Yesod is sometimes called "the Receptacle of the Emanations", and it interfaces the emanations of all three pillars to the sephira Malkuth, and it is through Yesod that the final abstract form of something is realized in matter. Form in Yesod is no longer abstract; it is explicit, but not yet individual - that last quality is reserved for Malkuth alone. Yesod is like the mold in a bottle factory - the mold is a realization of the abstract idea "bottle" in so far as it expresses the shape of a particular bottle design in every detail, but it is not itself an individual bottle. The final step in the process is the sephira Malkuth, where God becomes flesh, and every abstract form is realized in actuality, in the "real world". There is much to say about this, but I will keep it for later. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 262 The process I have described is called the Lightning Flash. The Lightning Flash runs as follows: Kether, Chokhmah, Binah, Chesed, Gevurah, Tiphereth, Netzach, Hod, Yesod, Malkuth, and if you trace the Lightning Flash on a diagram of the Tree you will see that it has the zig-zag shape of a lightning flash. The sephiroth are numbered according to their order on the lightning flash: Kether is 1, Chokhmah is 2, and so on. The "Sepher Yetzirah" [2] has this to say about the sephiroth: "When you think of the ten sephiroth cover your heart and seal the desire of your lips to announce their divinity. Yoke your mind. Should it escape your grasp, reach out and bring it back under your control. As it was said, 'And the living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning,' in such a manner was the Covenant created." The quotation within the quotation comes from Ezekiel 1.14, a text which inspired a large amount of early Cabalistic speculation, and it is probable that the Lightning Flash as described is one of the earliest components of the idea of sephirothic emanation. The Lightning Flash describes the creative process, beginning with the unknown, unmanifest hidden God, and follows it through ten distinct stages to a change in the material world. It can be used to describe *any* change - lighting a match, picking your nose, walking the dog - and novices are usually set the exercise of analyzing any arbitrarily chosen event in terms of the Lightning Flash. Because the Lightning Flash can be used to understand the inner process whereby the material world of the senses changes and evolves, it is a key to practical magical work, and because it is intended to account for *all* change it follows that all change is equally magical, and the word "magic" is essentially meaningless (but nevertheless useful for distinguishing between "normal" and "abnormal" states of consciousness, and the modes of causality which pertain to each). It also follows that the key to understanding our "spiritual nature" does not belong in the spiritual empyrean, where it remains inaccessible, but in *all* the routine and unexciting little things in life. Everything is equally "spiritual", equally "divine", and there is more to be learned from picking one's nose than there is in a spiritual discipline which puts you "here" and God "over there". The Lightning Flash ends in Malkuth, and it can be followed like a thread through the hidden pathways of creation until one arrives back at the source. The next chapter will retrace the Lightning Flash by examining the qualities of each sephira in more detail. [1] Scholem, Gershom G. "Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism", Schoken Books 1974 [2] Westcott, W. Wynn, ed. "Sepher Yetzirah". Many reprintings. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 263 Chapter 4: The Sephiroth ======================== This chapter provides a detailed look at each of the ten sephiroth and draws together material scattered over previous chapters. Malkuth ------- Malkuth is the Cinderella of the sephiroth. It is the sephira most often ignored by beginners, the sephira most often glossed over in Cabalistic texts, and it is not only the most immediate of the sephira but it is also the most complex, and for sheer inscrutability it rivals Kether - indeed, there is a Cabalistic aphorism that "Kether is in Malkuth, and Malkuth is in Kether, but after another manner". The word Malkuth means "Kingdom", and the sephira is the culmination of a process of emanation whereby the creative power of the Godhead is progressively structured and defined as it moves down the Tree and arrives in a completed form in Malkuth. Malkuth is the sphere of matter, substance, the real, physical world. In the least compromising versions of materialist philosophy (e.g. Hobbes) there is nothing beyond physical matter, and from that viewpoint the Tree of Life beyond Malkuth does not exist: our feelings of identity and self-consciousness are nothing more than a by-product of chemical reactions in the brain, and the mind is a complex automata which suffers from the disease of metaphysical delusions. Kabbalah is *not* a materialist model of reality, but when we examine Malkuth by itself we find ourselves immersed in matter, and it is natural to think in terms of physics, chemistry and molecular biology. The natural sciences provide the most accurate models of matter and the physical world that we have, and it would be foolishness of the first order to imagine that Kabbalah can provide better explanations of the nature of matter on the basis of a study of the text of the Old Testament. Not that I under-rate the intuition which has gone into the making of Kabbalah over the centuries, but for practical purposes the average university science graduate knows (much) more about the material stuff of the world than medieval Kabbalists, and a grounding in modern physics is as good a way to approach Malkuth as any other. For those who are not comfortable with physics there are alternative, more traditional ways of approaching Malkuth. The magical image of Malkuth is that of a young woman crowned and throned. The woman is Malkah, the Queen, Kallah, the Bride. She is the inferior mother, a reflection and realization of the superior mother Binah. She is the Queen who inhabits the Kingdom, and the Bride of the Microprosopus. She is Gaia, Mother Earth, but of course she is not only the substance of this world; she is the body of the entire physical universe. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 264 Some care is required when assigning Mother/Earth goddesses to Malkuth, because some of them correspond more closely to the superior mother Binah. There is a close and deep connection between Malkuth and Binah which results in the two sephiroth sharing similar correspondences, and one of the oldest Cabalistic texts [1] has this to say about Malkuth: "The title of the tenth path [Malkuth] is the Resplendent Intelligence. It is called this because it is exalted above every head from where it sits upon the throne of Binah. It illuminates the numinosity of all lights and causes to emanate the Power of the archetype of countenances or forms." One of the titles of Binah is Khorsia, or Throne, and the image which this text provides is that Binah provides the framework upon which Malkuth sits. We will return to this later. Binah contains the potential of form in the abstract, while Malkuth is is the fullest realization of form, and both sephiroth share the correspondences of heaviness, limitation, finiteness, inertia, avarice, silence, and death. The female quality of Malkuth is often identified with the Shekhinah, the female spirit of God in the creation, and Cabalistic literature makes much of the (carnal) relationship of God and the Shekhinah. Waite [7] mentions that the relationship between God and Shekhinah is mirrored in the relationship between man and woman, and provides a great deal of information on both the Shekhinah and what he quaintly calls "The Mystery of Sex". After the exile of the Jews from Spain in 1492, Kabbalists identified their own plight with the fate of the Shekhinah, and she is pictured as being cast out into matter in much the same way as the Gnostics pictured Sophia, the outcast divine wisdom. The doctrine of the Shekhinah within Kabbalah and within Judaism as a whole is complex and it is something I don't feel competent to comment further on; more information can be found in [3] & [7]. Malkuth is the sphere of the physical elements and Kabbalists still use the four-fold scheme which dates back at least as far as Empedocles and probably the Ark. The four elements correspond to four readily-observable states of matter: solid - earth liquid - water gas - air plasma - fire/electric arc (lightning) In addition it is not uncommon to include a fifth element so rarified and arcane that most people (self included) are pushed to say what it is; the fifth element is aethyr (or ether) and is sometimes called spirit. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 265 The amount of material written about the elements is enormous, and rather than reproduce in bulk what is relatively well-known I will provide a rough outline so that those readers who aren't familiar with Kabbalah will realize I am talking about approximately the same thing as they have seen before. A detailed description of the traditional medieval view of the four elements can be found in "The Magus" [2]. The hierarchy of elemental powers can be found in "777" [4] and in Golden Dawn material [5] - I have summarized a few useful items below: Element Fire Air Water Earth God Name Elohim Jehovah Eheieh Agla Archangel Michael Raphael Gabriel Uriel King Djin Paralda Nichsa Ghob Elemental Salamanders Sylphs Undines Gnomes It amused me to notice that the section on the elemental kingdoms in Farrar's "What Witches Do" [6] had been taken by Alex Saunders lock, stock and barrel from traditional Cabalistic and CM sources. The elements in Malkuth are arranged as follows: South Fire East Zenith Aethyr+ West Air Nadir Aethyr- Water North Earth I have rotated the cardinal points through 180 degrees from their customary directions so that it is easier to see how the elements fit on the lower face of the Tree of Life: Tiphereth Fire Hod Yesod Netzach Air Aethyr Water Malkuth Earth Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 266 It is important to distinguish between the elements in Malkuth, where we are talking about real substance (the water in your body, the breath in your lungs), and the elements on the Tree, where we are using traditional correspondences *associated* with the elements, e.g.: Earth: solid, stable, practical, down-to-earth Water: sensitive, intuitive, emotional, caring, fertile Air: vocal, communicative, intellectual Fire: energetic, daring, impetuous Positive Aethyr: glue, binding, plastic Negative Aethyr: unbinding, dissolution, disintegration Aethyr or Spirit is enigmatic, and I tend to think of it in terms of the forces which bind matter together. It is almost certainly a coincidence (but nevertheless interesting) that there are four fundamental forces - gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear & strong nuclear - known to date, and current belief is that they can be unified into one fundamental force. On a slightly more arcane tack, Barret [2] has this to say about Aethyr: "Now seeing that the soul is the essential form, intelligible and incorruptible, and is the first mover of the body, and is moved itself; but that the body, or matter, is of itself unable and unfit for motion, and does very much degenerate from the soul, it appears that there is a need of a more excellent medium:- now such a medium is conceived to be the spirit of the world, or that which some call a quintessence; because it is not from the four elements, but a certain first thing, having its being above and beside them. There is, therefore, such a kind of medium required to be, by which celestial souls [e.g. forms] may be joined to gross bodies, and bestow upon them wonderful gifts. This spirit is in the same manner, in the body of the world, as our spirit is in our bodies; for as the powers of our soul are communicated to the members of the body by the medium of the spirit, so also the virtue of the soul of the world is diffused, throughout all things, by the medium of the universal spirit; for there is nothing to be found in the whole world that hath not a spark of the virtue thereof." Aethyr underpins the elements like a foundation and its attribution to Yesod should be obvious, particularly as it forms the linking role between the ideoplastic world of "the Astral Light" [8] and the material world. Aethyr is often thought to come in two flavors - positive Aethyr, which binds, and negative Aethyr, which unbinds. Negative Aethyr is a bit like the Universal Solvent, and requires as much care in handling ;-} Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 267 Working with the physical elements in Malkuth is one of the most important areas of applied magic, dealing as it does with the basic constituents of the real world. The physical elements are tangible and can be experience in a very direct way through recreations such as caving, diving, parachuting or firewalking; they bite back in a suitably humbling way, and they provide CMs with an opportunity to join the neo-pagans in the great outdoors. Our bodies themselves are made from physical stuff, and there are many Raja Yoga-like exercises which can be carried out using the elements as a basis for work on the body. If you can stand his manic intensity (Exercise 1: boil an egg by force of will) then Bardon [9] is full of good ideas. Malkuth is often associated with various kinds of intrinsic evil, and to understand this attitude (which I do not share) it is necessary to confront the same question as thirteenth century Kabbalists: can God be evil? The answer to this question was (broadly speaking) "yes", but Kabbalists have gone through many strange gyrations in an attempt to avoid what was for many an unacceptable conclusion. It was difficult to accept that famine, war, disease, prejudice, hate, death could be a part of a perfect being, and there had to be some way to account for evil which did not contaminate divine perfection. One approach was to sweep evil under the carpet, and in this case the carpet was Malkuth. Malkuth became the habitation for evil spirits. If one examines the structure of the Tree without prejudice then it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that evil is quite adequately accounted for, and there is no need to shuffle evil to the periphery of the Tree like a cleaner without a dustpan. The emanation of any sephirah from Chokhmah downwards can manifest as good or evil depending on circumstances and the point of view of those affected by the energy involved. This appears to have been understood even at the time of the writing of the "Zohar", where the mercy of God is constantly contrasted with the severity of God, and the author makes it clear that one has to balance the other - you cannot have the mercy without the severity. On the other hand, the severity of God is persistently identified with the rigors of existence (form, finiteness, limitation), and while it is true that many of the things which have been identified with evil are a consequence of the finiteness of things, of being finite beings in a world of finite resources governed by natural laws with inflexible causality, it not correct to infer (as some have) that form itself is *intrinsically* evil. The notion that form and matter are *intrinsically* evil, or in some way imperfect or not a part of God, may have reached Kabbalah from a number of sources. Scholem comments: "The Kabbalah of the early thirteenth century was the offspring of a union between an older and essentially Gnostic tradition represented by the book "Bahir", and the comparatively modern element of Jewish Neo-Platonism." Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 268 There is the possibility that the Kabbalists of Provence (who wrote or edited the "Sepher Bahir") were influenced by the Cathars, a late form of Manicheanism. Whether the source was Gnosticism, Neo-Platonism, Manicheanism or some combination of all three, Kabbalah has imported a view of matter and form which distorts the view of things portrayed by the Tree of Life, and so Malkuth ends up as a kind of cosmic outer darkness, a bin for all the dirt, detritus, broken sephira and dirty hankies of the creation. Form is evil, the Mother of Form is female, women are definitely and indubitably evil, and Malkuth is the most female of the sephira, therefore Malkuth is most definitely evil...quod erat demonstrandum. By the time we reach the time of S.L. Mathers and the Golden Dawn there is a complete Tree of evil demonic Klippoth *underneath* Malkuth as a reflection of the "good" Tree above it. I believe this may have something to do with the fact that meditations on Malkuth can easily become meditations on Binah, and meditations on Binah have a habit of slipping into the Abyss, and once in the Abyss it is easy to trawl up enough junk to "discover" an averse Tree "underneath" Malkuth. This view of the Klippoth, or Shells, as active, demonic evil has become pervasive, and the more energy people put into the demonic Tree, the less there is for the original. Abolish the Klippoth as demonic forces, and the Tree of Life comes alive with its full power of good *and* evil. The following quotation from Bischoff [10] (speaking of the Sephiroth) provides a more rational view of the Klippoth: Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 269 "Since their energy [of the sephiroth] shows three degrees of strength (highest, middle and lowest degree), their emanations group accordingly in sequence. We usually imagine the image of a descending staircase. The Kabbalist prefers to see this fact as a decreasing alienation of the central primeval energy. Consequently any less perfect emanation is to him the cover or shell (Klippah) of the preceding, and so the last (furthest) emanations being the so-called material things are the shell of the total and are therefore called (in the actual sense) Klippoth." This is my own view; the shell of something is the accretion of form which it accumulates as energy comes down the Lightning Flash. If the shell can be considered by itself then it is a dead husk of something which could be alive - it preserves all the structure but there is no energy in it to bring it alive. With this interpretation the Klippoth are to be found everywhere: in relationships, at work, at play, in ritual, in society. Whenever something dies and people refuse to recognize that it is dead, and cling to the lifeless husk of whatever it was, then you get a Klippah. For this reason one of the vices of Malkuth is Avarice, not only in the sense of trying to acquire material things, but also in the sense of being unwilling to let go of anything, even when it has become dead and worthless. The Klippah of Malkuth is what you would get if the Sun went out: Stasis, life frozen into immobility. The other vice of Malkuth is Inertia, in the sense of "active resistance to motion; sluggish; disinclined to move or act". It is visible in most people at one time or another, and tends to manifest when a task is new, necessary, but not particularly exciting, there is no excitement or "natural energy" to keep one fired up, and one has to keep on pushing right to the finish. For this reason the obligation of Malkuth is (has to be) self-discipline. The virtue of Malkuth is Discrimination, the ability to perceive differences. The ability to perceive differences is a necessity for any living organism, whether a bacteria able to sense the gradient of a nutrient or a kid working out how much money to wheedle out of his parents. As Malkuth is the final realization of form, it is the sphere where our ability to distinguish between differences is most pronounced. The capacity to discriminate is so fundamental to survival that it works overtime and finds boundaries and distinctions everywhere - "you" and "me", "yours" and "mine", distinctions of "property" and "value" and "territory" which are intellectual abstractions on one level (i.e. not real) and fiercely defended realities on another (i.e. very real indeed). I am not going to attempt a definition of real and unreal, but it is the case that much of what we think of as real is unreal, and much of what we think of as unreal is real, and we need the same discrimination which leads us into the mire to lead us out again. Some people think skin color is a real measure of intelligence; some don't. Some people think gender is a real measure of ability; some don't. Some people judge on appearances; some don't. There is clearly a difference between a bottle of beer and a bottle of piss, but is the color of the *bottle* important? What *is* important? Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 270 What differences are real, what matters? How much energy do we devote to things which are "not real". Am I able to perceive how much I am being manipulated by a fixation on unreality? Are my goals in life "real", or will they look increasingly silly and immature as I grow older? For that matter, is Kabbalah "real"? Does it provide a useful model of reality, or is it the remnant of a world-view which should have been put to rest centuries ago? One of the primary exercises of an initiate into Malkuth is a thorough examination of the question "What is real?". The Spiritual Experience of Malkuth is variously the Knowledge and Conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel (HGA), or the Vision of the HGA (depending on who you believe). I vote for the Vision of the HGA in Malkuth, and the Knowledge and Conversation in Tiphereth. What is the HGA? According to the Gnosticism of Valentinus each person has a guardian angel who accompanies that individual throughout their life and reveals the gnosis; the angel is in a sense the divine Self. This belief is identical to what I was taught by the person who taught me Kabbalah, so some part of Gnosticism lives on. The current tradition concerning the HGA almost certainly entered the Western Esoteric Tradition as a consequence of S.L. Mather's translation [11] of "The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage", which contains full details of a lengthy ritual to attain the Knowledge and Conversation of the HGA. This ritual has had an important influence on twentieth century magicians and it is often attempted and occasionally completed. The powers of Malkuth are invoked by means of the names Adonai ha Aretz and Adonai Melekh, which mean "Lord of the World" and "The Lord who is King" respectively. The power is transmitted through the world of Creation by the archangel Sandalphon, who is sometimes referred to as "the Long Angel", because his feet are in Malkuth and his head in Kether, which gives him an opportunity to chat to Metatron, the Angel of the Presence. The angel order is the Ashim, or Ishim, sometimes translated as the "souls of fire", supposedly the souls of righteous men and women. In concluding this section on Malkuth, it worth emphasizing that I have chosen deliberately not to explore some major topics because there are sufficient threads for anyone with an interest to pick up and follow for themselves. The image of Malkuth as Mother Earth provides a link between Kabbalah and a numinous archetype with a deep significance for some. The image of Malkuth as physical substance provides a link into the sciences, and it is the case that at the limits of theoretical physics one's intuitions seem to be slipping and sliding on the same reality as in Kabbalah. The image of Malkuth as the sphere of the elements is the key to a large body of practical magical technique which varies from yoga-like concentration on the bodily elements, to nature-oriented work in the great outdoors. Lastly, just as the design of a building reveals much about its builders, so Malkuth can reveal a great deal about Kether - the bottom of the Tree and the top have much in common. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 271 References: [1] Westcott, W. Wynn, ed. "Sepher Yetzirah", many editions. [2] Barrett, Francis, "The Magus", Citadel 1967. [3] Scholem, Gershom G., "Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism", Schocken 1974 [4] Crowley, A, "777", an obscure reprint. [5] Regardie, Israel, "The Complete Golden Dawn System of Magic", Falcon, 1984. [6] Farrar, Stewart, "What Witches Do", Peter Davies 1971. [7] Waite, A.E, "The Holy Kabbalah", Citadel. [8] Levi, Eliphas, "Transcendental Magic", Rider, 1969. [9] Bardon, Franz, "Initiation into Hermetics", Dieter Ruggeberg 1971 [10] Bischoff, Dr. Erich, "The Kabbala", Weiser 1985. [11] Mathers, S.L., "The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage", Dover 1975. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 272 Chapter 4: The Sephiroth (continued) ======================== This chapter provides a detailed look at each of the ten sephiroth and draws together material scattered over previous chapters. Yesod ----- Yesod means "foundation", and that is what Yesod is: it is the hidden infrastructure whereby the emanations from the remainder of the Tree are transmitted to the sephira Malkuth. Just as a large building has its air-conditioning ducts, service tunnels, conduits, electrical wiring, hot and cold water pipes, attic spaces, lift shafts, winding rooms, storage tanks, a telephone exchange etc, so does the Creation, and the external, visible world of phenomenal reality rests (metaphorically speaking) upon a hidden foundation of occult machinery. Meditations on the nature of Yesod tend to be full of secret tunnels and concealed mechanisms, as if the Creation was a Gothic mansion with a secret door behind every mirror, a passage in every wall, a pair of hidden eyes behind every portrait, and a subterranean world of forgotten tunnels leading who knows where. For this reason the Spiritual Experience of Yesod is aptly named "The Vision of the Machinery of the Universe". Many Yesod correspondences reinforce this notion of a foundation, of something which lies behind, supports and gives shape to phenomenal reality. The magical image of Yesod is of "a beautiful naked man, very strong". The image which springs to mind is that of a man with the world resting on his shoulders, like one of the misrepresentations of the Titan Atlas (who actually held up the heavens, not the world). The angel order of Yesod is the Cherubim, the Strong Ones, the archangel is Gabriel, the Strong or Mighty One of God, and the God-name is Shaddai el Chai, the Almighty Living God. The idea of a foundation suggests that there is a substance which lies behind physical matter and "in-forms it" or "holds it together", something less structured, more plastic, more refined and rarified, and this "fifth element" is often called aethyr. I will not attempt to justify aethyr in terms of current physics (the closest concept I have found is the hypothesized Higgs field); it is a convenient handle on a concept which has enormous intuitive appeal to many magicians, who, when asked how magic works, tend to think in terms of a medium which is directly receptive to the will, something which is plastic and can be shaped through concentration and imagination, and which transmits their artificially created forms into reality. Eliphas Levi called this medium the "Astral Light". It is also natural to imagine that mind, consciousness, and the soul have their habitation in this substance, and there are volumes detailing the properties of the "Etheric Body", the "Astral Body", the "Causal Body" [1,2] and so on. I don't take this stuff too seriously, but I do like to work with the kind of natural intuitions which occur spontaneously and independently in a large number of people - there is power in these intuitions - and it is a mistake to invalidate them because they sound cranky. When I talk about Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 273 aethyr or the Astral Light, I mean there is an ideoplastic substance which is subjectively real to many magicians, and explanations of magic at the level of Yesod revolve around manipulating this substance using desire, imagination and will. The fundamental nature of Yesod is that of *interface*; it interfaces the rest of the Tree of Life to Malkuth. The interface is bi-directional; there are impulses coming down from Kether, and echoes bouncing back from Malkuth. The idea of interface is illustrated in the design of a computer system: a computer with a multitude of worlds hidden within it is a source of heat and repair bills unless it has peripheral interfaces and device drivers to interface the world outside the computer to the world "inside" it; add a keyboard and a mouse and a monitor and a printer and you have opened the door into another reality. Our own senses have the same characteristic of being a bi-directional interface through which we experience the world, and for this reason the senses correspond to Yesod, and not only the five traditional senses - the "sixth sense" and the "second sight" are given equal status, and so Yesod is also the sphere of instinctive psychism, of clairvoyance, precognition, divination and prophecy. It is also clear from accounts of lucid dreaming (and personal experience) that we possess the ability to perceive an inner world as vividly as the outer, and so to Yesod belongs the inner world of dreams, daydreams and vivid imagination, and one of the titles of Yesod is "The Treasure House of Images". Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 274 To Yesod is attributed Levanah, the Moon, and the lunar associations of tides, flux and change, occult influence, and deeply instinctive and sometimes atavistic behavior - possession, mediumship, lycanthropy and the like. Although Yesod is the foundation and it has associations with strength, it is by no means a rigid scaffold supporting a world in stasis. Yesod supports the world just as the sea supports all the life which lives in it and sails upon it, and just as the sea has its irresistible currents and tides, so does Yesod. Yesod is the most "occult" of the sephiroth, and next to Malkuth it is the most magical, but compared with Malkuth its magic is of a more subtle, seductive, glamorous and ensnaring kind. Magicians are drawn to Yesod by the idea that if reality rests on a hidden foundation, then by changing the foundation it is possible to change the reality. The magic of Yesod is the magic of form and appearance, not substance; it is the magic of illusion, glamour, transformation, and shape-changing. The most sophisticated examples of this are to be found in modern marketing, advertising and image consultancies. I do not jest. My tongue is not even slightly in my cheek. The following quote was taken from this morning's paper [3]: Although the changes look cosmetic, those responsible for creating corporate image argue that a redesign of a company's uniform or name is just the visible sign of a much larger transformation. "The majority of people continue to misunderstand and think that it is just a logo, rather than understanding that a corporate identity programme is actually concerned with the very commercial objective of having a strong personality and single-minded, focussed direction for the whole organization, " said Fiona Gilmore, managing director of the design company Lewis Moberly. "It's like planting an acorn and then a tree grows. If you create the right *foundation* (my itals) then you are building a whole culture for the future of an organization." I don't know what Ms. Gilmore studies in her spare time, but the idea that it is possible to manipulate reality by manipulating symbols and appearances is entirely magical. The same article on corporate identity continues as follows: "The scale of the BT relaunch is colossal. The new logo will be painted on more than 72,000 vehicles and trailers, as well as 9,000 properties. The company's 92,000 public payphones will get new decals, and its 90 shops will have to changed, right down to the yellow door handles. More than 50,000 employees are likely to need new uniforms or "image clothing". Note the emphasis on *image*. The company in question (British Telecom) is an ex-public monopoly with an appalling customer relations problem, so it is changing the color of its door handles! This is Yesodic magic on a gigantic scale. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 275 The image manipulators gain most of their power from the mass-media. The mass-media correspond to two sephiroth: as a medium of communication they belong in Hod, but as a foundation for our perception of reality they belong in Yesod. Nowadays most people form their model of what the world (in the large) is like via the media. There are a few individuals who travel the world sufficiently to have a model based on personal experience, but for most people their model of what most of the world is like is formed by newspapers, radio and television; that is, the media have become an extended (if inaccurate) instrument of perception. Like our "normal" means of perception the media are highly selective in the variety and content of information provided, and they can be used by advertising agencies and other manipulative individuals to create foundations for new collective realities. While on the subject of changing perception to assemble new realities, the following quote by "Don Juan" [4] has a definite Cabalistic flavour: "The next truth is that perception takes place," he went on, "because there is in each of us an agent called the assemblage point that selects internal and external emanations for alignment. The particular alignment that we perceive as the world is the product of a specific spot where our assemblage point is located on our cocoon." One of the titles of Yesod is "The Receptacle of the Emanations", and its function is precisely as described above - Yesod is the assemblage point which assembles the emanations of the internal and the external. In addition to the deliberate, magical manipulation of foundations, there are other important areas of magic relevant to Yesod. Raw, innate psychism is an ability which tends to improve as more attention is devoted to creative visualization, focussed meditation (on Tarot cards for example), dreams (e.g. keeping a dream diary), and divination. Divination is an important technique to practice even if you feel you are terrible at it (and especially if you think it is nonsense), because it reinforces the idea that it is permissible to "let go" and intuits meanings into any pattern. Many people have difficulty doing this, feeling perhaps that they will be swamped with unreason (recalling Freud's fear, expressed to Jung, of needing a bulwark against the "black mud of occultism"), when in reality their minds are swamped with reason and could use a holiday. Any divination system can be used, but systems which emphasize pure intuition are best (e.g. Tarot, runes, tea-leaves, flights of birds, patterns on the wallpaper, smoke. I heard of a Kabbalist who threw a cushion into the air and carried out divination on the basis of the number of pieces of foam stuffing which fell out). Because Yesod is a kind of aethyric reflection of the physical world, the image of and precursor to reality, mirrors are an important tool for Yesod magic. Quartz crystals are also used, probably because of the use of crystal balls for divination, but also because quartz crystal and amethyst have a peculiarly Yesodic quality in their own right. The average New Age shop filled with crystals, Tarot cards, silver jewelry (lunar association), perfumes, dreamy music, and all the glitz, glamour Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 276 and glitter of a demonic magpie's nest, is like a temple to Yesod. Mirrors and crystals are used passively as foci for receptivity, but they can also be used actively for certain kinds of aethyric magic - there is an interesting book on making and using magic mirrors which builds on the kind of elemental magical work carried out in Malkuth [5]. Yesod has an important correspondence with the sexual organs. The correspondence occurs in three ways. The first way is that when the Tree of Life is placed over the human body, Yesod is positioned over the genitals. The author of the Zohar is quite explicit about "the remaining members of the Microprosopus", to the extent that the relevant paragraphs in Mather's translation of "The Lesser Holy Assembly" remain in Latin to avoid offending Victorian sensibilities. The second association of Yesod with the genitals arises from the union of the Microprosopus and his Bride. This is another recurring theme in Kabbalah, and the symbolism is complex and refers to several distinct ideas, from the relationship between man and wife to an internal process within the body of God: e.g [6]. "When the Male is joined with the Female, they both constitute one complete body, and all the Universe is in a state of happiness, because all things receive blessing from their perfect body. And this is an Arcanum." or, referring to the Bride: "And she is mitigated, and receiveth blessing in that place which is called the Holy of Holies below." or, referring to the "member": "And that which floweth down into that place where it is congregated, and which is emitted through that most holy Yesod, Foundation, is entirely white, and therefore is it called Chesed. Thence Chesed entereth into the Holy of Holies; as it is written Ps. cxxxiii. 3 'For there Tetragrammaton commanded the blessing, even life for evermore.'" It is not difficult to read a great deal into paragraphs like this, and there are many more in a similar vein. Suffice to say that the Microprosopus is often identified with the sephira Tiphereth, the Bride is the sephira Malkuth, and the point of union between them is obviously Yesod. The third and more abstract association between Yesod and the sexual organs arises because the sexual organs are a mechanism for perpetuating the *form* of a living organism. In order to get close to what is happening in sexual reproduction it is worth asking the question "What is a computer program?". Well, a computer program indisputably begins as an idea; it is not a material thing. It can be written down in various ways; as an abstract specification in set theoretic notation akin to pure mathematics, or as a set of recursive functions in lambda Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 277 calculus; it could be written in several different high level languages - Pascal, C, Prolog, LISP, ADA, ML etc. Are they all they same program? Computer scientists wrestle with this problem: can we show that two different programs written in two different languages are in some sense functionally identical? It isn't trivial to do this because it asks fundamental questions about language (any language) and meaning, but it is possible in limited cases to produce two apparently different programs written in different languages and assert that they are identical. Whatever the program is, it seems to exist independently of any particular language, so what is the program and where is it? Let us ignore that chestnut and go on to the next level. Suppose we write the program down. We could do it with a pencil. We could punch holes in paper. We could plant trees in a pattern in a field. We can line up magnetic domains. We can burn holes in metal foil. I could have it tattooed on my back. We can transform it into radically different forms (that is what compilers and assemblers do). It obviously isn't tied to any physical representation either. What about the computer it runs on? Well, it could be a conventional one made with CMOS chips etc.....but aren't there a lot of different kinds and makes of computer, and they can all run the same program. It is also quite practical to build computers which *don't* use electrons - you could use mechanics or fluids or ball bearings - all you need to do is produce something with the functionality of a Turing machine, and that isn't hard. So not only is the program not tied to any particular physical representation, but the same goes for the computer itself, and what we are left with is two puffs of smoke. On another level this is crazy; computers are real, they do real things in the real world, and the programs which make them work are obviously real too....aren't they? Now apply the same kind of scrutiny to living organisms, and the mechanism of reproduction. Take a good look at nucleic acids, enzymes, proteins etc., and ask the same kind of questions. I am not implying that life is a sort of program, but what I am suggesting is that if you try to get close to what constitutes a living organism you end up with another puff of smoke and a handful of atoms which could just as well be ball-bearings or fluids or....The thing that is being perpetuated through sexual reproduction is something quite abstract and immaterial; it is an abstract form preserved and encoded in a particular pattern of chemicals, and if I was asked which was more real, the transient collection of chemicals used, or the abstract form itself, I would answer "the form". But then, I am a programmer, and I would say that. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 278 I find it astonishing that there are any hard-core materialists left in the world. All the important stuff seems to exist at the level of puffs of smoke, what Kabbalists call form. Roger Penrose, one of the most eminent mathematicians living has this to say [7]: "I have made no secret of the fact that my sympathies lie strongly with the Platonic view that mathematical truth is absolute, external and eternal, and not based on man-made criteria; and that mathematical objects have a timeless existence of their own, not dependent on human society nor on particular physical objects." "Ah Ha!" cry the materialists, "At least the atoms are real." Well, they are until you start pulling them apart with tweezers and end up with a heap of equations which turn out to be the linguistic expression of an idea. As Einstein said, "The most incomprehensible thing about the world is that it is comprehensible", that is, capable of being described in some linguistic form. I am not trying to convince anyone of the "rightness" of the Cabalistic viewpoint. What I am trying to do is show that the process whereby form is impressed on matter (the relationship between Yesod and Malkuth) is not arcane, theosophical mumbo- jumbo; it is an issue which is alive and kicking, and the closer we get to "real things" (and that certainly includes living organisms), the better the Cabalistic model (that form precedes manifestation, that there is a well-defined process of formation with the "real world" as an outcome) looks. The illusion of Yesod is security, the kind of security which forms the foundation of our personal existence in the world. On a superficial level our security is built out of relationships, a source of income, a place to live, a vocation, personal power and influence etc, but at a deeper level the foundation of personal identity is built on a series of accidents, encounters and influences which create the illusion of who we are, what we believe in, and what we stand for. There is a warm, secure feeling of knowing what is right and wrong, of doing the right thing, of living a worthwhile life in the service of worthwhile causes, of having a uniquely privileged vantage point from which to survey the problems of life (with all the intolerance and incomprehension of other people which accompanies this insight), and conversely there are feelings of despair, depression, loss of identity, and existential terror when a crack forms in the illusion, and reality shows through - Castaneda calls it "the crack in the world". The smug, self-perpetuating illusion which masquerades as personal identity at the level of Yesod is the most astoundingly difficult thing to shift or destroy. It fights back with all the resources of the personality, it will enthusiastically embrace any ally which will help to shore up its Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 279 defenses - religious, political or scientific ideology; psychological, sociological, metaphysical and theosophical claptrap (e.g. Kabbalah); the law and popular morality; in fact, any beliefs which give it the power to retain its identity, uniqueness and integrity. Because this parasite of the soul uses religion (and its esoteric offshoots) to sustain itself they have little or no power over it and become a major part of the problem. There are various ways of overcoming this personal demon (Carroll [8], in an essay on the subject, calls it Choronzon), and the two I know best are the cataclysmic and the abrasive. The first method involves a shock so extreme that it is impossible to be the same person again, and if enough preparation has gone before then it is possible to use the shock to rebuild oneself. In some cases this doesn't happen; I have noticed that many people with very rigid religious beliefs talk readily about having suffered traumatic experiences, and the phenomenon of hysterical conversion among soldiers suffering from war neuroses is well known. The other method, the abrasive, is to wear away the demon of self-importance, to grind it into nothing by doing (for example) something for someone else for which one receives no thanks, praise, reward, or recognition. The task has to be big enough and awful enough to become a demon in its own right and induce all the correct feelings of compulsion (I have to do this), helplessness (I'll never make it), indignation (what's the point, it's not my problem anyway), rebellion (I won't, I won't, not anymore), more compulsion (I can't give up), self-pity (how did I get into this?), exhaustion (Oh No! Not again!), despair (I can't go on), and finally a kind of submission when one's demon hasn't the energy to put up a struggle any more and simply gives up. The woman who taught me Kabbalah used both the cataclysmic and the abrasive methods on her students with malicious glee - I will discuss this in more detail in the section on Tiphereth. The virtue of Yesod is independence, the ability to make our own foundations, to continually rebuild ourselves, to reject the security of comfortable illusions and confront reality without blinking. The vice of Yesod is idleness. This can be contrasted with the inertia of Malkuth. A stone is inert because it lacks the capacity to change, but in most circumstances people can change and can't be bothered. At least, not today. Yesod has a dreamy, illusory, comfortable, *seductive* quality, as in the Isle of the Lotus Eaters - how else could we live as if death and personal annihilation only happened to other people? The Klippothic aspect of Yesod occurs when foundations are rotten and disintegrating and only the superficial appearance remains unchanged - Dorian Gray springs to mind, or cases where the brain is damaged and the body remains and carries out basic instinctive functions, but the person is dead as far as other people are concerned. Organizations are just as prone to this as people. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 280 [1] A.E. Powell, "The Etheric Double", Theosophical Publishing House, 1925 [2] A.E. Powell, "The Astral Body", Theosophical Publishing House, 1927 [3] "It's the Image Men We Answer To", The Sunday Times, 6th. Jan 1991 [4] Castenada, Carlos, "The Fire from Within", Black Swan, 1985. [5] N. R. Clough, "How to Make and Use Magic Mirrors", Aquarian 1977 [6] S.L. Mathers, "The Kabbalah Unveiled", Routledge & Kegan Paul 1981 [7] Roger Penrose, "The Emperor's New Mind", Oxford University Press 1989 [8] Peter J. Carroll, "Psychonaut", Samuel Weiser 1987. Copyright Colin Low 1991 Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 281 Footprints in the Chamber - Towards a Quantum Qabbala, by Fra.: +0- The Qabbala has through the ages been used as a directory towards the understanding of the universe and man`s relationship to it. Since former Aeons of magick have had their perceptions rooted in the observance of simple cause and effect relationships, the Qabbala itself, having attained its nascence in the earlier traditions, was unfortunately bogged down by this limited apprehension of the universe. Here mathematics as used in a more or less Pythagorean context provide a sort of key with which to approach the unfathomable nature of human consciousness. To this very day there are groups which still adhere to and openly practice the more traditional ramifications of Qabbalistic principles which are still firmly rooted in the mire of Nineteenth Century Newton-sewed-it-all-up-there-are-no-more-mysteries physics. But of course, owing to the leaps and bounds acquired by a very unpredictable but consistent quantum model of reality as observed in our laboratories, this simplistic view is necessarily obsolete. We no longer live, we have learned (if indeed we ever did) in a simple cause and effect universe where the source can always be gleaned from observable effect. For the same reasons, Newtonian-based magic must give way to a more quantum model. Newton`s apple must now take into consideration Heisenberg`s Uncertainty Principle. The secret wisdom must follow suit towards quantumization. Another unfortunate tendency of some modern practioners of Qabbala is to continue to regard everything from the standpoint of the Demiurge, Yahweh, which of course is the basis of the now obsolete (and dangerous) Judeo-Christian foundation of religious thought which has held western civilization in its thrall for about two thousand years. Personally I find it amazing that modern practioners, who despite no real Semitic disposition still practice an unmistakably orthodox Jewish mysticism. It was Aleister Crowley, that great Qabbalistic agent provocateur, who initiated the process of liberating the Qabbala from its otherwise Judaic orientation. (This is not anti-semitism but a necessary step towards individual development. It must also be stated that a Qabbala had been in use centuries earlier by the Egyptians. The Jews merely adopted it to their own religious precepts. They didn`t invent it. The actual origin most likely predates Egyptian history.) Crowley emphasized that the enlightened magician must, after careful study and application of his knowledge, develop his own Qabbalistic framework. By virtue of this the magician has arrived at a more chaotic paradigm in opposition to a purely empirical view. Crowley, by adapting the Qabbala to a Thelemic context initiated that first leap forward into the quantum age. Thus, the foundation for a more quantum/chaotic system was lain. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 282 I would like now to redefine the secret wisdom in terms of quantumization as follows: "The Qabbala is a table of observed synchronicities wherein multi- dimensional potentia overlap into the field of perception implying a correlation/interaction as perceived on a three-dimensional plane." The sum of the parts of the whole is determined by conceptual visualization and the observer`s ostensible observation thereof. It is therefore merely a perceptual tool for perceiving hidden meaning in the world determined entirely by the perceived-perception of the perciper (in the language of Satre), which will alter its form and content (via expansion and contradiction) according to the percipere`s own innate tendencies. The qabbala is no longer merely a mathematical construct of an ordered universe as conceived by divine will. Instead it becomes a kind of computerized network of extra-sensory information. Even the idea of a prima causa itself may be inadequate as well. This idea is based solely upon a linear time frame and is therefore a corollary of our erroneous perception of time whose actual nature may tend more towards the cyclical. Primitive man, for example was very well aware of this fact, and acted in accordance with it. (This may have to do with primitive people being more in tune with their own circadian rhythms. This expresses a more lunar-intuitive cycle rather than our own solar one.) If perception of time is based upon natural rhythms which effect the body coupled with our observance of nature, then our concept of time is entirely contrary to what nature itself is telling us. We are thus unaligned with a proper time framework. Since a cycle is essentially a circle, no beginning or ending can be found. And, it is already been theorized that there are other dimensions of reality in which time as we know it (in a durational, linear sense of perception) simply cannot exist. The universe has again and again defied our attempts a definable order upon it. Yet, mysteriously it does seem to act intelligently, even though this cannot be grasped by a rigid point A to point B structure. What emerges is a kind of chaotic mandala structure, and it is the task of quantum qabbalism to apprehend, as much as is possible, the interior of this structure. This opens the doors to practical mysticism as opposed to impractical mysticism. The qabbala must then be updated to accommodate this vital realization in regard to its properties of being able to regulate perceptive awareness via interacting forces springing from more or less hidden dimensions whose effect is known but not the cause. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 283 The understanding of the intention of creation is a product of the mind of the qabbalist himself. The fabric of reality is thereby flexible, effected by his own experience of it, and in turn, this experience determines his perception of it, which is altered by the interaction of these elements, more clearly understood as a transaction. In other words, one perceives his environment and that environment by virtue of one`s perception of it begins to act accordingly to the reality model which is believed to be true. This could be described as a kind of Copenhagen Interpretation as applied to qabbalistic principles. The qabbalist then shares a unique position of receiving qabbalistic impressions via observable systematic synchronicities by means of inclination represented in his own psyche. These impressions will translate back as meaningful data insofar as the transaction between observer and the observed becomes enacted. His perception modifies the universe and in turn, the universe modifies his perception. (This can serve as a representation of the union of microprosopus and macroprosopus.) The feedback of this required information will be meaningful to him alone as it is a byproduct of his own psychic field. He becomes a kind of decoder of esoteric information which he has learned to process. From this quantum/chaos framework the qabbala can be regarded as a four (or five) dimensional transaction as revealed in the mundane world, whereby an enriched quality of information provides the key to a higher understanding of the universe and of oneself, provided the person in question is capable of processing this information. From this perspective, ghosts, poltergeists, and other enigmas of paranormal phenomena can be understood as failed communication or remnants of a highly coded system which hasn`t been solved. The problem arises when one dimension fails to adequately "translate" into another. You might term this the Tower of Babel Effect. The information being received is misinterpreted due to inadequate tools of reception and perhaps an inability to use tools properly. There is also a basic misunderstanding of what this information means and to what extent the source can be determined. This is a little like trying to demonstrate fourth dimension physics by a purely three dimensional means. The instances of paranormal phenomena as described above, may be due to a discrepancy of overlapping dimensions which allows for a greater margin of error which impedes effective communication between the dimensions themselves. One is reminded of Plato`s parable of the cave, wherein the shadows of the things observed on the wall of the cave are mistaken for reality itself. Granted, a shadow does resemble the object projecting it, but it is hardly the object itself. It is the task of the quantum qabbalist to make allowances for this margin of interpretive miscalculation by preparing for it in advance and thus integrating this possible glitch into his qabbalistic computer. He makes allowances for this possible occurrence of organizational entropy and thus he is able to use it to his advantage. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 284 The idea of a qabbala based upon an exploration of prima causa is no longer valid in the quantum age. The quantumized qabbalist learns to regard himself in the mirror of chaos. For him, the old Gnostic dictum of "there is no part of me which is not of the gods", is literally true. His "Tree of Life" is based squarely upon the apprehension of his own enigmatic existence. He is more interested in a practical application of his qabbalistic ideas and principles for himself and others, than a cosmological game of hide and seek wherein one searches for a prima causa "God" figure. But even for this, he has an explanation: By careful observation of himself within the mirror of chaos he has learned that the miracle of creation is somehow a byproduct of his own consciousness and that he has played an inexplicable role in the very act itself. ("Did ye not know that ye were gods?") Joyously he has found that the tracks of God etched across the illimitable sands of time in the accelerated particle chambers of his own expanding consciousness. Thus has he learned to adore the divine mystery of existence donning the masks of creation. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 285 The Dark Night of the Soul Fra.: Apfelmann "The Dark Night of the Soul" is the name given to that experience of spiritual desolation that all students of the Occult pass through at one time or another. It is sometimes characterized by feelings that your occult studies or practices are not taken you anywhere, that the initial success that one is sometimes granted after a few months of occult working, has suddenly dried up. There comes a desire to give up on everything, to abandon exercises and meditation, as nothing seems to be working. St.John of the Cross. a christian mystic, said of this experience, that it; "...puts the sensory spiritual appetites to sleep, deadens them, and deprives them of the ability to find pleasure in anything. It binds the imagination, and impedes it from doing any good discursive work. It makes the memory cease, the intellect become dark and unable to understand anything, and hence it causes the will to become arid and constrained, and all the faculties empty and useless. And over this hangs a dense and burdensome cloud, which afflicts the soul, and keeps it withdrawn from the good." Though the beginner may view the onset of such an experience with alarm (I know I did), the "Dark Night" is not something bad or destructive. In one sense it may be seen as a trial, a test by which the Gods examine our resolve to continue with occult work, and if you are not completely whole-hearted about your magical studies, it is during this period (at its beginning) that you will give up. The Dark Night of the Soul should be welcomed, once recognized for what it is (I have always received an innate "warning" just before the onset of such a period), as a person might welcome an operation that will secure health and well-being. St.John of the Cross embraced the soul`s Dark Night as a Divine Appointment, calling it a period of "sheer grace" and adding; "O guiding Night, O Night more lovely than Dawn, O Night that has united the lover with his beloved Transforming the Lover in her Beloved." When entering the Dark Night one is overcome by a sense of spiritual dryness and depression. The notion, in some quarters, that all such experiences should be avoided, for a peaceful existence, shows up the superficiality of so much of contemporary living. The Dark Night is a way of bringing the Soul to stillness, so that deep psychic transformation may take place. All distractions must be set aside, and it is no good attempting to fight or channel the bursts of raw energy that from time to time may course through your being. This inner compulsion to set everything aside results in the outer depression, when nothing seems to excite. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 286 The only thing to do is obey your inner voice and become still, waiting for the inner transformation, (which the "Dark Night" heralds), to take place. You may not be aware for a very long time of the results of that inner change, but when the desire to work comes again and the depression lifts, the Dark Night has (for a moment) passed. No one can help during this time, and in many cases there is hardly anyone to turn for advice. One must disregard the well-meaning advice of family and friends to "snap out of it" this is no ordinary depression, but a deep spiritual experience which only those who have passed through themselves (in other words to a magical retreat) but for many, as the routines of everyday life prohibits this, all you can do is cultivate an inner solitude, a stillness and silence of heart, and wait, (like a chrysalis waits for the inner changes that will result in a butterfly) for the Transformation to work itself out. There are many such "Dark Nights" that the occult seeker must pass through during the mysterious process of mitigation. They are all trials but experience teaches one to cope more efficiently. With fractalic greetings and laughter * Fra.: Apfelmann * Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 287 Weaving Webs Fra.: Apfelmann The Mantra Web is a very simple and effective technique for using sonics in a group. Choose a mantra with a number of syllables corresponding to the numbers of operators, eg. IAO for 3 people. The operators should link hands, left palm up and right palm down, and slowly start to circle clockwise, each vibrating their syllable. As this is done the operators should each project a thread of light from their Solar Plexus (Manipura chakra) to a central focal point. The color(s) of the threads of light should be determined before the operation according to its purpose and the current beliefs of the operators. As the speed and resonance of the mantra is built up over a period of time, so the web is empowered, until a climax is reached and the web energy directed by a pre-specified operator to its purpose. This is just a sketchy outline of the technique, which obviously can be used for much more than this. Some of the more common uses for this technique include healing (with the individual in the center at the focus, crystals would also boost the energy levels); sexual magick (with operator(s) in the center and, if possible, the climax timed accordingly); empowering sigils, and so on. If the operators vibrate their syllable alternately instead of together, the mantra will spin around the circle and have a positively disorienting effect on the operators. It is important that the operators visualize their thread of light continuously, and not just when vibrating their mantra syllable. I particularly recommend this technique for outdoor use, especially at suitably aspected power sites. However, if you are using a stone circle or any other site of magick, please do think about what aspects the site has, and preferably visit beforehand to achieve some rapport with the site. With fractalic greetings and laughter * Fra.: Apfelmann * Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 288 Supradimensionality Part I by Fra. Forovius The Quest for Unknown ENNEAD: Supradimensionality itself cannot be experienced directly; our senses are not equipped for it. We are used to aligning our consciousness with the three space dimensions, and these proceed along the dimension of time. Whereas we can move freely in space, we experience the dimension of time as a continuum that goes inevitably in one direction - from past to future, with no return. People often lay all their hopes and theories on some new, fourth or fifth, or whatever, dimension, when they are confronted with supernatural phenomena and ask themselves where it all came from. At the very least science fiction novels tend to overstress supradimensions; as a source of UFOs, for example, or of inexhaustible energy sources and similar things. In this article I would like to try out a little mind experiment with you to see if we might get a feeling for what it could be like if a gate opens to other dimensions. Let`s take a look: In answering the question about the meaning of the word "dimension", we should leave out all overburdened explanations, be it SciFi or traditional mathematics. Mathematics is a perfect symbolic language(!) for the relationships of numbers and quantities, as it is very accurate and gives exact results where normal language gives up. But not everything is true that can be proven by mathematics, it is just conclusive. Let`s use our imagination first... For the following we begin at the simplest point. Try to experience your surroundings as a one-dimensional being. You can use all your senses as in hot/cold, hard/soft, light/dark, silent/loud. You can move only along one line in one direction - forward. So, now you are sitting in your easy-chair and start to move as a tiny speck of dust. At first the world is soft and comfortable; the room`s center gets a bit more cool, although light; then, at the wall, it is extremely hard, dark and uncomfortable, and so on. For every section of the way you have gone you have a single, irreversible impression. Sounds familiar doesn`t it, like we think of the "eternal flow of time and aeons". But let`s steer clear od speculation that would not be apt for a speck of dust. Resume: when every section of this way has it`s own distinct characteristic (not affectable by time, because time doesn`t exist), it is inconceivable for us that in some places other conditions along the same length in same sector may exist, just to the right or left of the way. Don`t forget - right/left have not been invented yet! Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 289 Were it able to move left or right, if only slightly, it might be able to experience different conditions on the same spot of its one-dimensional axis (on a border, a corner, a different surface). But what lies outside its one-dimensional paradigm is unknowable. The model for this paradigm is, therefore, that along the dimension there can only be one condition at one spot. Let`s shift now to a 2-dimensional paradigm. Now the first dimension and the 2nd can be used, and the room presents itself to us like a section with an even surface. Along the first dimension there are still the same conditions as before, but to the side (left/right) there are some more. The model is changed as follows: along dimension 1 (length) there can be different conditions, but at different levels of dimension 2 (width). This new being acts in a more familiar manner as, like maps for example, it orients itself according to a horizontal and vertical axis. You can guess how the riddle continues. We learn to move or grow up and down. Now different conditions are possible on the same surface coordinates but at different heights and depths. In the new paradigm there is only one condition at one point in space. Finally, we shift to our normal paradigm by adding time. We can now observe different conditions at the same point of space at different times, and can formulate the paradigm as follows: At the same point in space only one object can exist at the same time. This is a long established model of physics, matching perfectly our mechanical world and our senses. In this mental experiment we have learned 2 things: 1, Moving along a dimension, one can recognize differences. This is the characteristic of a dimension, not its definition. 2, After each shift to the next dimension, the model (dogma) of the preceding one is superseded. Generally, the most recent dimension is a continuum, ie., a dimension that goes irreversible in one direction. Our own paradigm model consists of the (old) 3 space dimension plus the (new) time as a continuum. How could a world look like that contains one dimension more, the fifth one, called "E" or Ennead for example? (I think Ennead is an expression from a science fiction novel, but the Ancient Egyptians had a similar expression for the place where all possibilities exist that don`t exist here; or where all the possibilities manifest that are kept by us from manifesting in this world here.) You can construct the new model dogma by yourself: at one and the same point of space and time there CAN be different conditions (objects, colors, temperatures...), but at a different Ennead(!!). Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 290 BUT: at the same point of space at the same time and Ennead, there is again only one condition (object etc.) possible! This game can theoretically be continued forever, but soon gets uninteresting, because everything becomes far-fetched. The step to the next dimension implies several interesting changes because: - first of all it calls for the parallel existence of different things and events, side-by-side and at the same spot of the space/time-paradigm. This sounds very much like the sometimes incomprehensible reports of mystic experiences, whether from contemporary times like the Seth-books, or long ago, like Meister Eckhart, Tauler or Seuse. It is also similar to the picture of the 4 worlds of the Kabbala which exists inside one another, and it makes certain Egyptian mysteries understandable. - it makes a huge number of connections possible that we normally would not think of. Numerous events inexplicable by rational thinking may have their roots here, because causality is only valid in the exact space/time paradigm and loses its ultimate character the moment a new dimension is brought in. - most probably, and here all thinking and imagination stops, it replaces the time continuum with a ubiquitous time dimension (like length, width and height in our paradigm) where we can move freely forwards and backwards - but always at the same Ennead. Again, this dimension shift doesn`t free us completely, it just opens a gate and makes the next border visible. The question about the quality or sense of this new E-dimension remains unanswered. But our familiar dimensions also have no state or sense or quality; they just exist and make us feel that they exist by limitations of our sense of movement etc. Although we live in this system, we cannot give a real definition of it (should we really?), only some more or less mathematical explanations. We just experience that along a dimension something changes. Dimensions let things happen. We feel something has changed along a dimension and we measure it by looking for regular changes. We measure time by observing the regular movements of the sun and the earth, but with no feeling for their pure quality. Also, a new dimension E would not change our world radically; its only effect to our paradigm would be that some additional things happened - miraculously side-by-side in time. But as we have no sensors for this, it would be totally imperceptible. And should a short impression slip through, it would be instantly erased by our mind`s censor. Moreover, if some of us should get to this dimension it would prove nearly impossible to explain it to others; having no common language, comparisons or symbols for it. This mental experiment has done its job, if we have achieved a feeling for what supradimensionality could be. Our paradigm is not the ultimate possibility, others exist - in between! Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 291 Other Forms of Existence: Anyone used to observing nature from the heart, will have seen that it doesn`t like to have jumps in it; especially when it is only to be fitted into an artificial theoretical system of the human brain`s. Therefore, it is not consequent to assume that our paradigm of a space+time-continuum is the only valid system. The motto cannot be: "either you are with us in our system, or you are non-existent!" - a logical chain that we tend to follow all too often. If there are more simple dimensional systems, they will surely have their inhabitants. However, the creative amongst you should refrain from designing flat monsters for a 2-dimensional world now. As explained before, this all exists in our world, one in the other! Again a little mental experiment may show us the way. Let`s imagine the following: 1, We put away all conditions related to the last dimension, the continuum. At the same time the last-but-one dimension becomes the continuum automatically, as explained before, because the last dimension always is a continuum (!!). It is interesting that our time-continuum physically is related only to movement, which means that everything able to move freely can experience time.(As stated here, the gift that our space+time paradigm gives to us is motion. Now, in Ancient Egypt, a very important symbol was the Ankh, meanings originally a sandal`s belt (scientists say). So, the meaning of the respective hieroglyph means "TO WALK". On Egyptian pictures, when a GOD gives life to a HUMAN he hands an ANKH to him, i.e. giving him LIFE = TO WALK = MOVEMENT.) So we ignore everything that has to do with motion. And the space becomes continuum. 2, We look for forms of existing lacking exactly that last paradigm element, ie., (in our case) time and movement. That means we are looking for something that fulfills the picture of this reduced paradigm. In our previous example: something that doesn`t move, but spreads in space continuously and irreversibly. Just let the picture grow before thinking further; that`s it - GROWING! Anything that grows steadily and cannot shrink deliberately. We may think of plants growing, clouds rising, micro-organism, fungi etc. For example, a tree starts from an exact point in space (the seed) and spreads evenly according to a distinct blueprint. Its size, especially the section rings of its stem, correlate exactly with its age; that means spatial growing and age match exactly. It cannot shrink definitely; it is able to drop leaves or branches, but they soon grow back to make it fill the same space occupied before. The process of spatial growth is irreversible. A harrowing thought - most probably we "grow" through time in the same manner! Maybe, even like some herbs or grass that die off in Autumn and grow again in the Spring - a picturesque allegory of death and rebirth! For our next example we again take one dimension less. Now there is no free (active) motion and no growth in space. The continuum is the surface. A much more tricky paradigm. Something existing here must have the tendency to spread in surface as much as possible and never contract again deliberately. Hmmm.. what`s the biggest surface on earth? Of course, water! Water, as a liquid, can be formed freely, as it has no fixed form and will mould itself to fit any surface. But it Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 292 cannot be compressed, and has the tendency to fill a space from beneath with the maximum of even surface at the same time. The gain with this form of existence is in the changeability of form - its flexibility and adaptability. The picture for this is the ocean, the river, or organisms like lichens which exist in clumps or patches. Our next move is one more step towards reduction of existence. Now there is no area and no spreading over a surface. The continuum is dimension 1, the line, and everything else is fixed. In this paradigm all solid objects exist. Changes, if any, are only allowed along one line and are irreversible as in falling towards a center of gravity for example, or rolling down a slope. This dimension 1 does not have to be a straight line, but is the most efficient and best way of coming nearer to the center of attraction. Irreversible. It`s interesting to see that we humans still align our orientation in space according to these same systems as described. The vertical line is a solid object hanging down, the plumb-rule; the horizontal surface, the level, is adjusted by hydrostatic balance (with water!). And the only independent (ie., not geodetic) system for measuring height is an instrument derived from a barometer (the altigraph), which works on the basis of the expansion and reduction of a specific gas volume in a sealed shell. These thoughts are certainly a little bit hard to chew on, but I`m sure they give enough themes for meditation. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 293 Here`s an example for a simple meditation; freestyle of course. Get yourself into a trance-journey somehow. You may use a shamanic technique or jump through a Tattwa sign or whatever you prefer and are best used to. Let`s take the water element for example. According to classical technique, you imagine the horizontal syrinx sign and go through it (but in silver and not in green as usual when you want to explore the water world) and become the water yourself. Try to let the feeling flow freely. Flow down, spread, split into drops while breaking on a stone that lies in the water way; flow down as a torrent etc.; trickle to the ground; evaporate to the sky; experience total passivity in the respect of controlled growth or active motion. Be totally passive! It is important to collect oneself after this meditation and perform a thorough earthing. This exercise is comparatively easy with the water element. It is also possible with a 3-dimensional system (plant or cloud), but more complicated, or with 1-dimensional system (solid object), but the latter takes a long time in my experience. The purpose of this exercise is to get a feeling for the structure and physical reality of other dimensional existence and their relation with other systems, and to comprehend that these need not be projected to distant universes, but really exist in our world and that we meet them every day. For people dealing with magic it is of immense value to get the right feeling of the existence of one universe in the other, and to be able to shift from a low dimensional system to a supradimensional system and vice versa. This is because we face many phenomena reaching into our paradigm from other systems. For example, severe distortions of reality go hand-in-hand with deep trance, (lucid) dreams and precognition. These all make our reality and our normal environment appear more or less different from normal experience: for example, when we experience our home in dream reality or on a mental journey, the table in the room isn`t where it normally used to be or maybe the window is on another wall and looks into a different landscape etc.. All this is due to distortions along the 5th dimension (the Ennead as I named it provisionally). Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 294 Let`s continue our little mental experiment, but this time in the forward direction. At first we see no differences, when we go from our paradigm to a 4+1 dimensional system. Obviously we have no sense and no feeling for what`s happening when we go beyond our 3+1 (space+time) system. So the new mental experiment leads nowhere. It`s worth it to demonstrate that no practical model comes from mental speculations in this direction. But we can derive a description from our "experiences" with low-dimensional systems. Keeping the last paradigms in mind and adding a new dimension, the Ennead, we can formulate the new paradigm by same method as follows: "At the same place in space at the same time there ARE different conditions possible at different E-dimensions." Exactly like the addition of a "new" time-dimension to the old 2+1 (area+space) paradigm makes free movement possible for the first time, so also the addition of a new dimension E to our 3+1 paradigm makes it possible (at least theoretically) for the following to exist: - the one-inside-the-other-existence of different entities and conditions - parallel worlds - events occurring simultaneously in time - time travel (forward and backwards). The key to all this seems to be the existence of "parallel worlds", and I want to take a little look into how our ability to distinguish objects function. If different things exist on the same spot at the same time this implies that the same things exist in different worlds (systems, universes etc., it`s all the same!). The explanation for this you will find in the section Other Forms of Existence. Things are distinguishable for us by their presence (POSITION in space+time) and their QUALITY (that we check by our senses). They are different if they have different position and/or quality. Example: sheep A is as dull as sheep B, looks the same, sounds the same, smells the same. I know they are different as one stands beside the other (ie. at different positions at the same time). If there are enough sheep that are so similar and they run among each other, I can distinguish nothing. That is unless I mark them to make them look different; or one has changed its appearance, by having been sheared, for instance. Then it looks different at a different time, but still is essentially the same. In all these cases we orient according to differences and coherence of existence, and not very reliably at that. I want to show with this shaggy sheep tale that the question of continuous existence throughout different positions and qualities is not easily resolved, and therefore we should be carefully before we discount all talk of "double existence, parallel worlds etc.". Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 295 Existence is hard to imagine and contradicts with experience and commonsense unless we postulate the existence of parallel worlds in which all possibilities at least potential exist. But only one possibility becomes reality. By taking this thought further, we see that all these parallel worlds contain the possibilities of life, and we move through all this, making reality out of one of them - by DECISION or free will, call it as you like. A picture that we also find in some of Castaneda`s books. Outlook: The question remains unanswered is: What makes these parallel worlds manifest (ie. how often do "I" exist) or just remain hypothetical assumptions. But this is without importance for us at the moment. In a simple and subjective way, only that which we experience actually manifests. For me it appears dimly that out of Ennead only the parallel worlds through which we pass by our subjective experience, our acting and our reality become reality and sharply outlined. All else remains dim and unreal but may be experienced by others - who knows? This is similar to a widespread network of rails in a railway shunting station, with numerous railtracks linked by switches, but only ONE track being used by a train. The switches stand for important decisions which open this or that way. According to our decisions we pass a track leading more "up" or "down", more "ahead" or "back" (all seen from Ennead), or we just shuttle back and forth in the middle. To help to understand this we can look at certain games, like chess, that show how the chain of events is predetermined by decisions that lie far back in the past. By playing chess you can get an idea of the reality of fate, and that some errors taken in the past can hardly be set right whilst some may easily be. These causal chains may be very long in any case. The previously described Ennead system could work in a similar fashion to this: exactly like our space+time paradigm enables us to move, so the jump into the space/time+ennead paradigm opens the gates to potentiality and its network of connections. Although we cannot take part in this because of our limited senses, and we cannot jump into the next dimension and its adherent paradigm, we can take a peek behind the curtain and at least get a feeling for the kind of interference therein. It may open a new view on things hitherto believed to be inevitable: the passing of time, all our actions and interactions, and on fate itself. Are we just "programmed" towards another target or direction, that can only be seen from above, from Ennead, from the next dimension? Do we "move" in Ennead with our decisions (and this implies things like character, mental attitudes, views and opinions, by which we decide on this or that way)? Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 296 However, for a being fixed and rooted in his/its paradigm, there is not much difference how it decides. A root or a branch can grow in this or that way, and reacts to certain stimuli like light or water, but remains fixed and not suited for free movement. The more simple an animal is organized, the more unidirectional its reactions are: "lurk - snap - gorge" and suchlike. The (occasionally) more complex motivations of men lead me conclude that we may be on the threshold before the door to the next paradigm. (Similar to plant-like organisms, corals for example, that are fixed to the ground but can push out and pull in their tentacles... Hagazussa already?). We can "move" in this way - and this is certainly the most noble expression of "do what thou wilt" and Thelema - by influencing our position in Ennead consciously and constantly, and without mercy giving our decisions a certain orientation and thereby "moving" with this through Ennead and the parallel worlds. (If our personal "thelema" was not a nonsense ie. Choronzon.) I`m sure many of you have experienced that after somebody changed their attitude and opinions, sometimes their environment also begins to change, but without any causal reasons! Just the right people appear; some lucky (or unlucky) opportunities open up; old friends seem to withdraw and appear more and more strange... Maybe a new parallel world has opened, and you move in? But besides these speculations and as a last consequence this means we bring all that we face by our own decisions, and we blame nobody else but our own good selves for "all the bad luck and hard days we suffer from". On the other hand we are not responsible to anything/anybody/anygod for all the shit we are in... its our own hard way! All that has to do with character building starts here. Here and now and in our own earthbound and mortal life and in our own paradigm, we have the chance to move in a certain direction, perhaps "up" or "down" or maybe recognized only from aside/above/from Ennead. Even from the next paradigm maybe. But we have the chance NOW. Possibilities are numerous. Let`s use them for maximum experience. Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 297 CELTIC CRAFT READING LIST - 6 JULY 1991 Rowan Moonstone *** Marks especially good books. Read these FIRST!! Keep in mind, this is simply a listing of the books that I have found useful. Question everything. A.E.(GEORGE RUSSELL); "The Candle of Vision", Quest Books, Theosophical Pub. 1975 ALFORD, VIOLET; "The Hobbyhorse & Other Animal Masks", Merlin Press 1978 AMERICAN CONFERENCE FOR IRISH STUDIES; "Guide to Irish Studies in the U.S.A." 1987 ANWYL, EDWARD; "Celtic Religion in Pre-christian Times", Archibald Constable & Co. 1906 *** ARTOS, ALLEN; "Arthur, The King of Light", Lorien House 1986 ASHE, GEOFFREY; "The Ancient Wisdom", London 1977 BAIN, GEORGE; "Celtic Art: The Methods of Construction", Dover Pub. 1973 BARBER, CHRIS; "Mysterious Wales", Paladin Press 1983 BOASE, WENDY; "Folklore of Hampshire & the Isle of Wight", Rowman & Littlefield 1976 BONWICK, JAMES; "Irish Druids and Old Irish Religion", Arno Press 1976 BORD, JANET & COLIN; "The Secret Country", Grenada 1978 *** BORD, JANET & COLIN; "Mysterious Britain", Grenada 1974 *** BORD, JANET & COLIN; "Earth Rites", Grenada 1983 *** BORD, JANET & COLIN; "Sacred Waters", Paladin Books 1986 *** BREFFNY, BRIAN DE, ed.; "Ireland, A Cultural Encyclopedia", Thames & Hudson 1983 BREFFNY, BRIAN DE; " The Irish World", Thames & Hudson 1986 BRIGGS, KATHERINE; "Abbey Lubbers, Banshees, & Boggarts", Pantheon 1979 BRIGGS, KATHERINE; "Nine Lives; Cats in Folklore", Rudledge & Kegen Paul 1980 BROWN, PETER, ed. & selected by; "Book of Kells", Alfred A. Knopf 1980 CAMPBELL, J.F. & GEORGE HENDERSON; "The Celtic Dragon Myth", Newcastle Pub. 1981 Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 298 CARMICHAEL, ALEXANDER; "Celtic Invocations", Vineyard 1972 CASTLEDEN, RODNEY; "The Wilmington Giant", Turnstone 1983 CHADWICK, NORA; "The Celts", Pelician 1970 CHANT,JOY; "The High Kings", Bantam 1983 CHMELOVA, ELENA; "Celtic Tales", Exeter Books 1982 CLARE, T.; "Archelogical Sites of Devon & Cornwall", Moorland Pub. 1982 COGHLAN, RONAN; "Dictionary of Irish Myth and Legend", Donard Press 1979 COHANE, JOHN PHILLIP; "The Key", Crown Pub. 1969 COLLUM, PADRAIG; "Treasury of Irish Folklore", Crown Pub. 1967 COLLUM, PADRAIC; "Treasury of Irish Folklore", rev. ed. Killenny Press 1967 COLLUM, PADRAIC; "The King of Ireland's Son", McMillian & sons 1933 CONWAY, D.J.; "Celtic Magic", Llewellyn Pub. 1990 COOKE, GRACE & IVAN; "The Light in Britain", White Eagle Pub. Trust 1983 COSMAN, MADELEINE, PELNER; "Medieval Holidays and Festivals", Charles Scribmer & Sons 1981 CROSSLEY-HOLLAND, KEVIN, ed.; "Mabon of the Mabinogion", Thorsen Pub. 1984 CUNLIFFE, BARRY; "The Celtic World", McGraw Hill MCMLXXIX *** CURTAIN, JEREMIAH; "Myths and Folk Tales of Ireland", Dover Books 1975 DAMES, MICHAEL; "The Avebury Cycle", Thames & Hudson 1977 *** DANAHER, KEVIN; "The Year in Ireland", (Leinster Leader, Ltd. 1972) Mercier Press 1972 *** DANIEL, GLYN & PAUL BAHN; "Ancient Places - The Prehistoric & Celtic Sites of Britian", Constable 1987 DAVIDSON, THOMAS; "Rowan Tree and Red Thread", Edinburgh 1949 DAVIES, EDWARD; "The Mythology and Rites of the British Druids", J. Booth 1809 DELANEY, FRANK; "The Celts", Little Brown & Co. 1986 DILLON, MYLES; "Early Irish Literature", University of Chicago Press 1948 Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 299 DINNENN, REV. PATRICK S.; "Irish- English Dictionary", Irish Textes Society 1927 DUGGAN, COLM; "Treasures of Irish Folklore", Mercantile Marketing Consultants, Ltd. 1983 DYER, JAMES; "The Penguin Guide To Prehistoric England & Wales", Penguin Books EVANS-WENTZ, W. Y.; "The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries", Universtiy Books 1966 *** FELL, BARRY; "America, B.C.", Wallaby Books 1976 FITZPATRICK, JIM; "The Silver Arm", Paper Tiger Press 1981 FITZPATRICK, JIM; "The Book of Conquests", E.P. Dutton 1978 FLOWER, ROBIN; "The Irish Tradition", Clarendon Press 1947/1978 FORDE, JOHNSTON J.; "Prehistoric Britian & Ireland", W.W. Norton & Co. 1976 FRAZIER, SIR JAMES GORDON; "The Golden Bough", (The Macmillan Company, 1951) Avenel 1981 FRENCH, J.M.F.; "Prehistoric Faith and Worship", London 1912 FROUD, BRIAN & ALAN LEE; "Faeries", Harry M. Abrams 1978 GANTZ, JEFFERY; "Early Irish Myths & Sagas", Penquin 1982 GERALD OF WALES; "The History & Topography of Ireland", Penquin 1982 GLASSIE, HENRY; "Irish Folk History", University of Pennsylvannia Press 1982 GREGORY, LADY AUGUSTA; "Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland", Colin Smythe 1920/1979 GREGORY, LADY AUGUSTA; "Gods and Fighting Men of the Celts", John Murray 1913 *** GUARD, DAVID, "Dierdre: A Celtic Legend", Celestial Arts 1977 HERM, GERHARD; "The Celts", St. Martin's Press 1975 HIGGINS, GODFREY; "Celtic Druids", Philosohpical Research Society 1977 HOPE, MURRY; "Practical Celtic Magic", Aquarian Press 1987 IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; "Poems of Egan O'Rahilly", Rev. P.S. Dinnenn & T.O. Donough 1966 Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD 300 IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; "Duanaine Finn", Vol VII, part 1, ed. & trans. Eoin MacNeil IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; Keating, "History of Ireland, Vol 1-4, 1902/1987 IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; "Adventures of Suibhne Geilt", ed. & trans. J.G. O'Keefe 1913 IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; "Poems on the Marcher Lords", ed. Anne O'Sullivan & Padrain O'Riain 1987 IRISH TEXTES SOCIECTY; "Labor Gabala Erenn", parts 1-4, Trans. R.A.S. MacAlister 1941 *** JACKSON, KENNETH HURLSTONE; "A Celtic Miscellany", Penguin 1980 JACKSON, KENNETH HURLESTONE; "The Oldest Irish Tradition; A Window on the Iron Age", Cambridge 1964 JACOBS, JOSEPH; "Celtic Fairy Tales", Dover 1963 JONES, GWYN & THOMAS; "The Mabinogion", Dragon's Dream 1982 *** JOYCE, P.W.; "Social History of Ancient Ireland", Vol 1 & 2 Benjamin Blum Pub. 1968 *** KERR, MILDRED L., HARNES, ELIZABETH & ROSS, FRANCES; "Giants & Faires", Charles E. Merrill Co. 1946 KINSELLA, THOMAS; "The Tain", Oxford Univ. Press 1969 *** KNEIGHTLY, THOMAS; "The World Guide to Gnomes, Fairies, Elves, and Other Little People", Avenel Press 1978 KNIGHT, GARETH; "The Secret Tradition in Arthurian Legend", Aquarian Press 1983 KRUTA, VENCESLAS & VERNER FORMAN; "The Celts of the West", Orbis 1985 LEAMY, EDMUND; "Golden Spears", Desmond Fitzgerald 1911 LEHMANN, RUTH P.M.; "Early Irish Verse", University of Texas Press 1982 LOGAN, PATRICK; "The Old Gods", Apple Tree Press 1981 LONSDALE, STEVEN; "Animals & the Origin of the Dance", Thames & Hudson 1982 LUCY, SEAN; "Love Poems of the Irish", Mercier Press 1977 MACALISTER, R.A.S.; "Tara; A Pagan Sanctuary of Ancient Ireland", Charles Schribner & Sons 1931 *** MACCANA, PROINSIAS; "Celtic Mythology", Hamlyn Pub. 1970 Last amended June 11, 1989 -- Page NEXTRECORD