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Note: When you are reading the following paragraphs please remember the following statement. 08/02/2002 Greetings,

On a fluke I did a search on my name and found your site with a very old
reference to a situation that happened in the early 1990's. A member of a
group which goes by the initials ADF visited a lecture that I was
participating in. Following the lecture, this person and her group,
through mis-information and the skillful use of the internet, tried very
hard to distroy the organization I represent. While the first few years
were quite painful, we did survive and flourish. The Divine Circle of the
Sacred Grove currently maintains active groves throughour the US, as well
as a Sanctuary in northern Arizona.
The reason I am writing is that the reference to this matter appears in
several places on the internet. All are the same or similar document,
which appears to have been submitted to as many places as possible. If you
would be kind enough to either note the article or have it removed I would
sincerely appreciate it. The originator of the troubles no longer is a
part of ADF, and the accusations were and are groundless.
If you would like to follow up on this with me, please don't hesitate to
contact me.

Thanks for your help,

Kal M.
Executive Director


                  Susan Gale, a Philadelphia  wife and mother and self-described
          "radical  feminist witch  not  yet out  of  the broom  closet" in  her
          neighborhood:  "There's a  pain that's  in young  women even  a decade
          after feminism. I was  raised in a tough poor  working-class neighbor-
          hood.  My mother was a German Protestant,  my father an Italian Catho-
          lic. I  was raised  as a  very religious  Presbyterian, but  it didn't
          matter that I was the most brilliant student in my religion class -
          there wasn't  a place for me as a minister. Deacons and ministers were
          men.  And a  lot of it  rubbed me  the wrong  way: the anti-sexuality,
          anti-sensuality, the  guilt and  sin and  punishment rather  than joy.
          From the time I was a little kid, I couldn't accept redemptive suffer-
          ing. Why is the central metaphor of  most religions the bloody violent
          death of a male? Why is it not birth?"

            Invoking the Spirit

                    Starhawk signs her books"Blessed be." It is alsoher greeting
          and her Amen.
                In alarge room set up withflowers, crystals, trinkets and copies
          of her books, she presided recently at a women's ritual at the Univer-
          sity of Pennsylvania's Christian Association.
                  "Where would you likethe altar?" asked a participantbefore the
          candles encased in glass were  set on a brightly colored cloth  in the
          center of the room.
                  Two hundred womenof similarmind-sets - butvarying ages,religi-
          ons, occupations and sexual orientations - were ready to join Starhawk
          at the three-hour, $40  event. Another couple of hundred men and women
          arrived later that evening for Starhawk's lecture.
                  People like GeelaRazael Raphael,a rabbinical studentwho wasone
          of  the event's organizers. "Starhawk is a spiritual leader, a women's
          spirituality leader," says Raphael.  "As a potential rabbi wanting  to
          be a spiritual leader, I want to see as many role models as I can. Her
          form  of  non-hierarchical religion  can be  used in  more traditional
                  In person, the 40ishpriestess looks not unlike theonetime tall
          Jewish girl  from Los  Angeles she used  to be.  But her  soft-voiced,
          authoritative presence and staccato  chanting and drumming command her
          sessions with surprising power.
              Women wear comfortable clothing: jeans, skirts, sweaters, tie-dye
          revisited.  A majority  tend to  be of  a certain  size -  the goddess
          religion  rejoices in the female  body. There are  many embraces. Net-
          working materials are exchanged. Before casting the formal circle that
          so many  women's  rituals  start  out with,  Starhawk  encourages  the
          youngest and strongest in the group to form an inner circle around the
              Starhawk warms up the group with physical and vocal stretches. As
          participants form a larger ring around the inner one, she "casts"  the
          ritual circle,  theoretically making  the  space within  it a  special
          place. Candles representing the four directions and the Earth's center
          are lit. Earth, air, fire and water are invoked.
                  Women stand and sway as  she drums, urging them to find  their
          centers, their connectedness, often against the background of a simple
            "Rising, rising, the earth is rising.
            Turning turning, the tide is turning.
            Changing changing, she changes everything she touches.
            Changing, changing, and everything she touches changes."


                  Like many women's ritualleaders, Starhawk uses such chantsas a
          kind of surrogate liturgy. Presented  at different moments that  morn-
          ing, the lilting  song she teaches  is used as  a blessing, a  uniting
          force, a backdrop to movement and dance.
                Starhawk leads the groupthrough a series ofactivities - somethat
          draw upon the circle as a whole, some small group discussions, guided
          visualizations. "What kind  of a body are you in?"  she asks. "Look at
          your body.  How does it feel?"
                  Some  people writhe. Others beat time to the drums. Some stand
          awkwardly (earlier she  assured them not to worry if  they feel ill at
          ease). Some look dubious.
                  Tofocus the visualization evenmore, Starhawk takesthe group to
          an  imaginary  crossroads in  the sky.  "Close  your eyes,"  she says.
          "Reach out and feel and touch and smell these roads until you find one
          that feels  like a road in the future. Go  down the road. Know you can
          come back to this place of power because it is you. And remember there
          are  many roads to  the future.  The road you  chose is only  one pos-
                  The session endswith a grandfinale "spiral dance"- clockwiseto
          invoke,  then counterclockwise to  release. "Anything  you want  to do
          involves both," she says.
                  A giftedspeaker with an easysense of humor, Starhawkis equally
          at home beating time in the center of a ritual or working the crowd at
          the podium of a lecture hall. She is also at home with what  she calls
          the "W" word ("witch").  "Unless we understand it, we don't know why a
          powerful woman is so threatening and so frightening," she says. "There
          was a 400-year reign of terror particularly directed against women who
          were then  burned alive," she  says, likening  the witch hunts  to the
          African slave trade, the Holocaust.
                  Starhawk became interested in witchcraft in her late teenswhen
          she and a friend did a student seminar on the subject at UCLA. Now she
          is  at the forefront  of a movement  to reclaim the  word for positive
          use. (Male witches also use the  word rather than warlock, which means
                  For mostpeople, of course,the word "witch" conjuresup an image
          of a  crinkled old woman you  wouldn't want your children  to talk to.
          But  the  picture of  the craft  that  emerges within  today's women's
          spirituality movement (and that  is reinforced by Starhawk's Philadel-
          phia  ritual) is  a combination of  group therapy,  positive thinking,
          stretching exercises,  guided visualization, song and dance - and even
          pot luck.
                  Its goddess- and nature-orientedprecepts are similar tothe Old
          Religion  of prehistoric times and  societies that fell  victim to the
          witch hunts and persecutions of medieval and renaissance Europe. It is
          earth-centered, individualistic and peace-loving.
                  Starhawk  spends about a third of her time teaching ritual and
          spreading the
          faith at  college campuses and other forums around the country, and in
          Canada.   She feels  that people  crave it. "Even  people who  live in
          cities  - like  most of  us -  are still  connected to  the  cycles of
          nature," she says. "Doing ritual  that helps you affirm that helps  us
          not to  feel cut off from  the larger life around us,  the actual life
          support systems that sustain our lives."


             Women's Rites

                    Spring,with itsvivid reminders ofthe cycle ofbirth and death
          andrebirth, is a fertile time for the rituals of women's spirituality.
          Look at some recent manifestations in the Washington area:

              Last  month, attracted by a  flier heralding a  celebration of the
          goddess  ("dancing, singing,  drumming, healing,  creativity, inspira-
          tion, discovery, nurturing and goddess games"), 21 women gathered in a
          conference center in Potomac in honor  of the spring equinox. "The day
          was designed for  women who  wanted to  bring out  the goddess  within
          them," says organizer Nancy Smith, a seminar leader who specializes in
          stress management and massage therapy.  
               120 men, women and children  turned up last month for  a feminist
          Seder (for  Holy Thursday as  well as Passover)  put on by  the Silver
          Spring-based WATER. Now a  place where Christian and Jewish  women can
          come  together for  a  feminist interpretation  of religious  rituals,
          WATER was created by Diann Neu and Mary Hunt, two Catholic theologian-
          s,  in 1983. They send  out 10,000 newsletters,  stage workshops, con-
          ferences and lectures, hold ecumenical monthly breakfasts for women in
          ministry, publish books and act as an all-purpose feminist resource.
              On April 14, the new moon heralded  the Jewish celebration of Rosh
          Hodosh.  A group  of women  interested in  finding or  creating ritual
          specifically  for Jewish  women gathered  in a  Silver Spring  home in
          honor of the  occasion. Instead  of going ahead  with their  scheduled
          topic - the  redefinition of  God in non-masculine  terms - the  group
          (representing a 30-year age  span) shared its feelings and  prayed (to
          the  feminine aspect of  god) about the recent  death of a 42-year-old
              Atthe All Souls Church in the District a smaller group of women is
          currently investigating  women's religious history  each Sunday after-
          noon through "Cakes for the Queen of Heaven," a 10-part correspondence
          course available through the Unitarian Universalist Church. Bev Tubby,
          who took the course last year, is one  of the conveners this year. "In
          spite of  everything  that's  been written  about  feminism  and  role
          differences, women really do  bring a wonderfully strong view  to this
          world," she says. "We do have a different perspective - it has to do
          with  the  human context  and human  relationships.  If women  are not
          cognizant of their spiritual history,  they are missing out on a  more
          complete identity that can help form our ideas of who we are  and what
          we want to do in this world and how we're going to do it."
              And June 6,  "Kestryl & Company," the  first of six  biweekly talk
          shows about  contemporary witchcraft  will air on  Arlington Community
          Cable, Channel 33.  Produced by Cheryl  Ann Costa, a computer program-
          mer  and third-degree  Wicca high  priestess, and  moderated by  Erica
          Angell (known as Kestryl), a  housewife and second-degree high  pries-
          tess, the show will  feature high priests, magical tool  makers, tarot
          experts and  pagan bards. "Many people  are looking for a  way to plug
          into The Craft," says Costa. This is an easy way to do it.
                    Havingcast their lotwith an enlargedview ofthe sacred, these
          women, like  many others  all  over the  country, are  looking to  the
          spiritual as a hope for the future.
                  "It's life-giving for me to be a part of it, and tocreate it,"
          says WATER's Neu.
                  "What I keep coming back  to is that there is a  growing power
          within  women.   We  are breaking  all kinds  of silences.  Things are
          happening  because there  are more  and more  groups where  women feel
          safe. My  hope is  that we'll  keep creating these  safe spaces  where
          being together as men and women is possible."


                                The 12 steps and Shamanism 
          by Matrika co-sysop of PAN - the Psychic Awareness Network at
          1-703-362-1139  copyright  by PAN and Harvest (  a pagan newsletter at
          box 228 S. Framinham MA 01701 - $13. per year)

          Author's note - this article was first published by me  under the name
          JUKNO in Harvest's Yule edition, 1989.

          Recently  a local charecter in  Alcoholics Anonymous here  in the Wor-
          cester MA. area  died.  His name was "John  the Indian" (he identified
          himself this way) and he  was well-known as an AA speaker all over the
          world, although he lived  near central Massechusetts.  John  had about
          thirty years  of sobriety  and was  a great power  of example  to many
          people including  Betty Ford who told him she had listened to tapes of
          his talks while she was in detox.

          John's story intrigued  many people.  An Indian who  had been orphaned
          on the reservation  when Tuberculosis  wiped out his  familly, he  had
          ended up on  skid row after serving in the  Canadian army during World
          War II as  a dishwasher.   He came to AA  in his mid-twenties,  an il-
          literate  wine.  ( my note - this is NOT to imply that most alcoholics
          are on skid row.  In fact most of them are people with nice famillies,
          a place to live, a car or  even two, a job, etc. etc. etc.   Less that
          2%  of the alcoholics in  this country are  on skid row)   He ended up
          owning  his own construction business  after learning to  read (from a
          elderly woman in AA who was a  school teacher)  and marrying a lady in
          AA with whom he raised a lovely familly.

          Because John had inspired me and so affected my life with his gift of
          simplicity, I was inspired to do a shamanic-style rite in  his memory.
          I  had always  felt sorry  for  John because,  in the  process of  his
          recovery, he seemed to have lost touch with the beauty of this herita-
          ge.  Then it hit me;  John WAS a shaman and anyone who truly worked  a
          12-step program was one too.

          In BIRTH OF A MODERN SHAMAN by Cynthia Bend and Tayja Wiger (Llewelyn
          Publication box 64383, St. Paul MN. 1988 ) it states
              " A shaman is hard to define.  There are no two alike..... what
              happens, a shaman goes through a catastrophe or a string of
              catastrophes that enhance certain abilities within him ( or her! )
                  .....Most often theShaman has togo through a severetrauma, a  
          severe  illness or a severe psychosis and recover from it before he   
          learns the recovery process that he can use."

          The  authors are  quoting Tsonkawa,  Tayja's teacher  on the  Shamanic
          path.  (a Native American Medicine person)

          Many other  authors on Shamanism;  Sunbear, Lynn Andrews,  Amber Wolfe
          and Micheal Harner, to  name a few:  echo this truth.   A shaman is  a
          person  who goes through  great suffering,  usually in  the form  of a
          mental or physical  illness, and then goes on to  heal himself or her-
          self.  They are then able to use that same process to heal others.

          This is what happens in a twelve-step fellowship.  Through the process
          of healing ourselves, we come to the point where we can help others hy
          "carrying the message" after having had a "spiritual awakening" as the
          result of taking the first eleven steps.


          Here are some books that can help any Pagan, Shaman, Druid, Witch,
          Practitioner of  Feminist Spirituality, or other Magickal folk as they
          walk the steps in the process of recovering, while retaining their own
          unique spiritual path.

          TRUTH OR DARE by Starhawk (San Francisco, Harper and Row, 1987)  This
          contains many references to  the 12-step programs, especially Alcohol-
          ics Anonymous and Adult Children of  Alcoholics, in a work on Wicca by
          a well-known priestess of the Craft who is also a psychotherapist.

          CRYSTAL CLEAR by Connie Church (Bew York, Willard books 1987)  It
          contains  a good  section on  how to  use quartz  crystals to  help in
          relieving yourself of bad habits, compulsions, and obsessions, specif-
          ically for use with the various twelve-step programs. (note - amethyst
          is traditionally said to help in all these areas)

          BIRTH OF A MODERN SHAMAN, mentioned above, tells the story of a blind
          Native American woman who was a survivor of Child abuse and had been
          Psycotic  as well  as Alcoholic.   This is  the story  of her complete
          recovery,  including her  eyesight,  (documented by  doctors) and  the
          discovery of her  Psychic gifts with  her Native  roots.  Her  healing
          occured through a process that began for her in Alcoholics Anonymous.

          THE  TWELVE STEPS FOR EVERYONE published by Compcare (Minneapolis MN.)
          this is a non-sexist book on the steps by a grateful recovering member
          of Emotional  Health Anonymous  written in  non-sexist language.   The
          author draws heavily on the Eastern traditions of spirituality as well
          as the traditional Western monotheistic ones.

          EVERYDAY A NEW  BEGINNING Published  by Hazelden corp.  (Also in  Min-
          neapolis, MN. I believe)  This is a daily meditation guide BY women in
          Anonymous fellowships  and FOR women  in these same  self-help groups.
          Unlike the TWENTY-FOUR HOURS A DAY book (published by the same company
          and widely used in AA)  it doesn't use quotes from the Bible.  Instead
          it uses  quotes from various  women authors.   Many men also  claim to
          have benefitted from it due to it's non-religious approach.

          PAGANS IN RECOVERY a networking newsletter for Magickal folk, Shamans,
          Druids,  Feminist Priestesses,  Witches, Pagans, Pantheists,  etc. who
          are in  recovery via a 12-step  fellowship of any  type.  It  has con-
          tacts, reviews, articles, recovery techniques and more.  It is a great
          source of support and inspiration to any Pagan in any of the Anonymous
          support  groups.  It is  $8.00 a year  and the address is  P.I.R.  c/o
          Bekki  6500 S.R. 356 New Marshfield, OHIO  45766



          REFLECTIONS  IN THE  LIGHT by  Shakti Gawain,  published by  New World
          Library, San Rafael, California  1978.  While not ONLY for the 12-step
          programs this book does go into the problems of addictions in light of
          the  New-Age, Psychic Awareness  as well as  many other  subjects.  It
          provides  a inspirational  message  and/or  a  creative  visualization
          exercise with a non-sectarian  affirmation for each day.   The book is
          neither sexist nor  sectarian and is truly  a beautiful aid  to anyone
          seeking to work  the program of recovery.   It is also a great  way to
          share what you are doing with friends  who share your spirituality but
          not your  program, as it  makes no  direct references  to the  12-step
          groups at all.   It is very useful to  those of us who prefer  a daily
          meditation to the  "prayer" people  in the  monotheistic Churches  and
          Synagogues tend to use  in their application of  the program to  their


                        Divine Circle of The Sacred Grove ***SCAM**
                            Office of the Preceptor
                P.O. Box 66311, Seattle, WA, U.S.A. 98166


          To the Pagan Community:
                In July of 1991, ADF sent out a Druid Alert about an
          organization called the Divine Circle of the Sacred Grove. ADF
          began investigating this group because they were using ADF
          letterhead, membership forms, advertising copy, and other
          materials with their names substituted for ours. Prior to raising
          any public issues, ADF's Preceptor, Domi O'Brien called the group
          and talked to their Scribe, Kal Mannis. Mr. Mannis told her that
          if she had questions, she could come to a public meeting on July
          2nd, 1991, in Seattle, and ask them there.
                Domi, Bwca, Erynn and members of 4 other Traditions and
          organizations attended their talk. We noted with increasing
          amazement their claims and their views of the interrelationship
          of Druidism and Wicca, and after they mentioned Isaac Bonewits,
          Domi challenged some of their staements, as the ADF Preceptor.
          The DCSG literature going back to 1988 was examined, along with
          other staements which have been made to us or others. Janette
          Laverna Garcia a/k/a Gordon a/k/a Copeland, born 2/9/1942,
          Houston TX,; Richard Norman Ian Garcia a/k/a Gordon a/k/a
          Copeland, born 8/12/1940, Prescott, AZ; Jerry Eugene Everett
          Wayne Reamer a/k/a Prophet, born 8/12/1948, Pottstown, PA; Kalman
          Mannis, Nancy Brown, Brenda Matarazzo, David Trippey, Donovan
          Cotton; Dr. Jay Tibbles, Mary Ernst, and others affiliated with
          their group were examined for legitamate mundane and magickal
          credentials. The only person whose credentials we were able to
          verify was Dr. Jay Tibbles.
                Janette's claims, as given in her various peices of
          literature, and as made to us, or to persons whose credentials we
          were able to verify, include: Hereditary Witch and Druid; Pipe
          Carrier for the Lumbee, the Sioux, the Cherokee, and the Chumash;
          member of the MotherGrove and Board of Directors of the ADF, as
          well as group marriage to the entire ADF Board of Directors;
          membership and 3rd Circle status in the British Circle of the
          Universal Bond; training by Ross Nichols, 3rd Degree Celtic and
          Egyptian Priestess; 3rd Degree Alexandrian Priestess, New York,
          1973; 3rd Degree Gardinarian Priestess, New York, 1965;
          incorporation of her organization in 14 states; training by
          Rhuddlwm Gawr, and training by Grandmaster Eli (Barney Taylor, of
          the Druidic Craft of the Wise), marriage to Eli, as well as being
          both Eli's daughter and graddaughter. She has also claimed to be
          a registereed nurse, a cosmetologist; a paralegal; a professional
          writer of romance novels, and a Vietnam Veteran. Ms. Copeland (?)
          claims that she has 10,000 people on her mailing list, groves all
          over the United States, and that she was born in London during
          the Blitz, although she has alos claimed that she was born in
          Houston TX. Ms Garcia (?) claims that her father, a U.S. Army
          Major on Eisenhower's staff during WW II (not, by the way,
          Grandmaster Eli), and her mother, a nurse now resident in
          Atlanta, were both members of the Circle of the Universal Bond.
          She claims that she was raised by a Cherokee grandfather. She
          claims to have been teaching Wicca, which she says is a
          simplified version of Druidism for the masses, since 1954, when
          she was 12 years old.


                Ms Gordon(?) took Lady Sabrin's course from Our Lady of
          Enchanment in 1987 and 1988, giving totally different information
          about herself then she gives now. According to Lady Sabrina,
          Janette has been selling Sabrina's courses as her own ever since.
          We have examined lessons from Janette's and Sabrina's courses,
          and they are indeed substantially identical, except that Sabrina
          can spell.
                Janette joined ADF in 1987, giving yet another set of data
          about herself, claiming no leadership positions, newsletters, or
          other affiliations. A check of the material on her application
          shows it to be substantially false.
                In checking Janette's claims, we contacted the Secretary of
          state, and Board of Nursing Registrations in the 14 states in
          which she claimed incorporation. Her organization is incorporated
          only in Washington and California. She is not listed as a
          registered nurse anywhere we checked. She and her group were
          offering BA's, MA's, and PhD's in Washington State until directed
          to cease and desist by the Higher Education Coordinating Board.
          They later obtained a religious exemption by saying that they
          were offering degrees only in Divinity and Theology. Former
          mebers of their organization state that most of their claims in
          their catalog as to available courses and faculty credentials are
                In examining their other claims we contacted over two
          hundred persons and groups in this country and abroad in an
          effort to authenticate their initiations and organizational
                No one we contacted verified any of the DCSG's claims. All
          stated that they had never trained or initiated any known
          officers or members of the DCSG. Most had never even heard of
          them. Furthur, former members of her organization have mentioned
          paying thousands of dollars for courses, and additional thousands
          paid out on "tithes" -- 10% of their annual income to support the
          work of the Order of Melchizadek (demanded in the middle of their
          initiation or elevation rituals). We have also been contacted by
          Social Serrvices, Education, Law Enforcement and other
          authorities for other information about DCSG, and/or its members.
                ADF and some other Pagan groups and organziations are
          cooperating fully with these investigations, and have made it
          clear to the investigators that we do not regard these people as
          legitamate members of the Pagan community, since none of their
          alleged training and initiations can be verified, and may have
          been directly disproven. As Pagans, whatever our path, we can
          ill-afford to remain silent while groups knowingly steal and sell
          courses written by others, claiming training ties to the most
          senior and respected members of our community that they do not
          have, and engage in questionable behaviour presenting themselves
          as our kin, elders, and representatives to the world at large.

          Domi O'Brien            T. Bwca           Erynn Darkstar
          DTG Priestess           Elder, NECTW      Greenleaf Coven
          CWO Priestess                             Inis Glas
          Preceptor/Vice ArchDruid, ADF


          By: Domi O
          To: Lewis Stead
          Re: Details, please.

          Lady Sabrina was initiated by Bob Moshier and Dorothy Trion in
          Tuscon Arizona in 1978, according to what she says. She was in
          Danville, California for a
          while, near San Franscisco; and was in COG (I have not checked
          this); she then studied with Gavin and Yvonne in New Bern for 1 and
          a half years; then moved to Billerica, Mass; then to Hudson, NH;
          then Nashua, NH. I was in Epping, NH when a Gardnerian friend and
          fellow NH College administrator, Gerry Reilly, introduced me to
          Sabrina. Since I am Daughters of the Triple Goddess and Celtic
          Wiccan Order trained, Gerry's brand of witchcraft and Sabrina's
          struck me equally weird.

          I talked to Gavin and Yvonne last week; they feel Sabrina has
          borrowed heavily from them but they don't have an issue with it and
          they don't consider their organisation and hers to be connected.
          In 1987 Geraldine Gumm aka Gerri Garcia aka Queen Druid aka Laura
          Copeland aka Janette Gordon aka Janette Copeland aka Laverna Gordon
          aka Laverna Copeland aka Gerry Garcia aka Gerri Gunn aka Gerri Teah
          Garcia aka Jerry Leah Garcia took Sabrina's course; in winter of
          1989 she began advertising a coorespondence course in Wicca, which
          according to Sabrina is Sabrina's. I've looked at them; they are
          very much alike.  The Frosts and Sabrina both teach non-mainstream
          Wicca and charged for Craft when no one was doing that. I have
          heard far more negative things about some far more mainstream
          figures; both the Frosts and Sabrina are very public and really
          seem to have nothing to hide.  What they teach isn't my Craft, but
          I will defend their right to practice their version and teach it
          as they see fit. Or did you mean something else ?
          Domi of ADF

          By: Domi O
          To: Corwynt
          Re: ADF letter

          Indeed it is from us. Since then, we have gotten "Janette's" arrest
          and conviction records from New Mexico and word from a usually
          reliable source that her real name may be Geraldine Gumm, and real
          date of birth may be 2-9-40. I am also informed by a law
          enforcement source that she has other records in several states.
          These range from child neglect to unlawful touching of dead bodies
          to kidnapping.

          Her group was investigated in 1975 in Arizona for dead bodies and
          missing persons, moved a bit over a hundred miles as the crow
          flies, and she and her husband were arrested in New Mexico in 1978.
          The children involved were returned to their parents, two being
          kept in social service custody while it was determined to whom they
          belonged, and two members of the group were "deprogramed" by Ted
          Patrick. She was calling herself "Queen Druid" then and initiating
          folks as "WI" or "witch one". I have a lovely pile of court papers
          and newspaper clippings I will gladly share with anyone who'd like
          to send me $4 for photocopying and postage...
          Domi O'Brien 
          Box 66311
          Seattle, WA 98166


                                   The Rede of the Wicca 
                      (Being known as the Counsel of the Wise Ones:)

          Bide the Wiccan laws ye must
          in Perfect Love and Perfect Trust

          Live and let live
          Freely take and freely give

          Cast the circle thrice about
          To keep all evil spirits out

          To bind the spell every time
          Let the spell be spake in rhyme

          Soft of eye and light of touch
          Speak little, listen much

          Deosil go by the waxing moon
          Sing and dance the Wiccan rune

          Widdershins go when the moon doth wane
          And the werewolf howls by the dread wolfsbane

          When the Lady's moon is new
          Kiss thy hand to her times two

          When the moon rides at her peak
          Then your heart's desire seek

          Heed the northwind's mighty gale
          Lock the door and drop the sail

          When the wind comes from the south
          Love will kiss thee on the mouth

          When the wind blows from the east
          Expect the new and set the feast

          When the west wind blows o'er thee
          Departed spirits restless be

          Nine woods in the cauldron go
          Burn them fast and burn them slow

          Elder be ye Lady's tree
          Burn it not or cursed ye'll be

          When the wheel begins to turn
          Let the Beltain fires burn

          When the wheel has turned to Yule
          Light the log and let Pan rule

          Heed ye flower, bush and tree
          By the Lady, Blessed be

          Where the rippling waters go
          Cast a stone and truth ye'll know


                                   The Rede of the Wicca 
                      (Being known as the Counsel of the Wise Ones:)
                              (continued from previous page)

          When ye have a need
          Hearken not to others' greed

          With the fool no season spend
          Nor be counted as his friend

          Merry meet and merry part
          Bright the cheeks and warm the heart

          Mind the Threefold Law ye should
          Three times bad and three times good

          When misfortune is enow
          Wear the blue star on thy brow

          True in love ever be
          Unless thy lover's false to thee

          Eight words the Wiccan Rede fulfill
          An' it harm none, do what ye will


                          "Dryghten" Blessing Prayer (Gardnerian) 
          By: David Piper

          The only published copy of  the Blessing Prayer that  I know of is  in
          the  book "Witch  Blood!   The Diary  Of A  Witch High  Priestess!" by
          Patricia Crowther in  chapter four (paperback  edition 1974, House  Of
          Collectibles, Inc.).

                  "In the name of Dryghtyn, the Ancient Providence,
                   Who was from the beginning and is for eternity,
                   Male and Female, the Original Source of all things;
                   all-knowing, all-pervading, all-powerful;
                   changeless, eternal.

                  "In the name of the Lady of the Moon,
                   and the Lord of Death and Resurrection.

                  "In the name of the Mighty Ones of the Four Quarters,
                   the Kings of the Elements.

                  "Blessed be this place, and this time,
                   and they who are now with us."

          Life, Light, Love!
          Blessed Be!
          Dianis Lucien

          (120)   Tue 17 Nov 92 21:12
          By: Airmid
          To: David Piper
          Re: Monism/monotheism
          @INTL 93:9500/0 93:9500/0
          DP>          When you  examine the "Blessing  Prayer" of English  Trad
          Wicca however, the  Dryghtyn is  obviously more than  just a  unifying
          essence  since It  is  called: "the  original  source of  all  things;
          all-knowing,  all-pervading, all-powerful;  changeless, eternal."   It
          describes the Ultimate, the Absolute, the Godhead of which the God and
          the Goddess are at one and the same time, both Its Polarities and also
          Its first Manifestations.

          Dryghtyn is also the name used for JHVH in some old English bibles.  I
          think that was where the term actually originated.  I think I saw a
          passing reference to it  in some boxed comparative translated  text in
          "In Search of the Indo-Europeans."


                                    BASIC MEDITATION TECHNIQUES
                                             Bill Witt

            The  course is devided into  three sections. Section  one deals with
          what meditation is and how it  plays a part in the lives of  those who
          use it.   Section two will go into the techniques and tools of medita-
          tion.  Section three  gives  suggestions on  how  to use  what  you've
          learned, in everyday life. A list of books for further  reading on the
          subject, will be given at the end of section three.

          Webster  defines meditation as "The  act of meditating;  close or con-
          tinued thought; the revolving of a subject in the mind."

                To meditate is to focusmentally on one thought, idea, orconcept.
          It may also mean, to revolve an idea in your mind so as to  change the
          way in which you think  of that idea. Meditation is therefore,  a tool
          with which you may manipulate thought in an organized manner.

                Many people view meditationas a very difficult thing tolearn. In
          reality  though, we  do  it often  without even  knowing it.  When you
          daydream or  find your mind  fixed on one  thought, that is a  form of
          meditation. Have  you ever watched a  bird in flight, or  stared up at
          the clouds in the sky, or maybe even found yourself  watching a stream
          of water flow by? If you have and at that moment the rest of the world
          around you has seemed removed, then you were in a state of meditation.
          The real key to this practice, is to be  able to exercise control over
          your thoughts and awareness of the world around you.

                There are manygroups of people for whom meditationis an everyday
          ritual.  Others use it at  special times as a means of relaxation  and
          "mental  house cleaning." It allows the individual a freedom unlike no
          other freedom. The  freedom to look inside oneself  and learn just who
          you  are. Some use it  as a way  of being closer to  nature or God. No
          matter  how you wish to  use it, you  will find it a  healthy and very
          rewarding experience.

                Most all  religions practice meditation  in one way  or another.
          Eastern philosophies such as  Yoga, and Buddism are not  the only ones
          to view meditation as a  way of looking for  the Truth found in  one's
          own consciousness.  Even  in Christianity meditation finds a  place of
          value. The Bible itself  mentions the value of meditation.  In writing
          to  the Phillippians,  the  Apostle Paul  tells  them this.  "Finally,
          brethren, whatsoever  things are  true, whatsoever things  are honest,
          whatsoever  things are  just, whatsoever  things are  pure, whatsoever
          things  are lovely, whatsoever things are of  good report; if there be
          any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things."
          (Phil. 4.8)

                So you ask,what can it do for me. Well, beyond just being a good
          way to really relax, which we can all use in this hectic world, it can
          be  a doorway to  the Truth inside  yourself. It  is a way  of gaining
          wisdom. Knowledge has  always been fairly easy  to come by. Wisdom  on
          the other hand, is a bit harder to grasp onto.


                In  "The Task" by William  Cowper, the following  line is found.
          "Knowledge dwells in heads replete with thoughts of other men: Wisdom,
          in minds attentive to their own."

                For me, meditaion becomesa way of "grounding" myself,of reaching
          a  place of peace and stability,  where I can find how  I fit into the

                Inmany philosophies, meditaion isviewed as anecessary skill. All
          those who  are students of these  philosophies must learn the  ways of
          meditaion early in  their training. Although  the techniques may  vary
          from one  group to another,  the most basic concepts  remain the same.
          The ability to be able  to focus on one thought and  selectively block
          out all  others is the foundation upon which many more advanced skills
          will be built. These skills may range from telepathy to the ability to
          move objects with only the mind.

                It is well known that Yogi adepts can lower their  breathing and
          heart rates to near death levels. This is something you should not try
          as it takes  years of practice  to learn and  can be quite  dangerous.
          Still, these yogis are proof  of the type of power the  mind can exer-
          cise over the body through meditation.

             In some cultures, the use of drugs to achieve a meditative state is
          encouraged.  The american indians for example, used drugs derived from
          various  plants to put themselves  into an altered  state of concious-
          ness. This  was usually done as  a religious practice and  as an event
          marking the change from one  state of life to another. A  good example
          would be the ceremony marking the coming into manhood of  a young boy.
          Today there are  still many, who advocate the use  of drugs to achieve
          these altered states.  It is my opinion that such measures are neither
          necessary nor good.  You can  reach an altered  state of  conciousness
          without the use of drug induced "highs". It takes practice, but
          it can be done.

                  In New Age philosophy, theart of meditaion is highlyvalued. We
          also find  another  well developed  skill  which is  called  "creative
          visualization". This is  the idea of visualising what you  want to the
          point of  it  becoming reality.  A good  example would  be a  salesman
          visualizing  himself  as successful  and  prosperous.  The concept  is
          simple, if  you can visualize  a personal reality,  you can change  or
          bring that reality into being. "Positive Thinking" is a very
          similar  idea. The  technique  of creative  visualization goes  beyond
          positive  thinking  however. It  deals with  the  premise that  we all
          create our  own reality and  therefore have the  power to  change many
          aspects of that  reality. The idea of "personal  reality" is a lengthy
          one and we do not have enough room to cover it in this course.

                So far we have lookedbriefly at what meditation is and how it is
          used. By no means have we touched on all the aspects of this practice.
          There  are many  books on  the  subject which  cover it  in much  more
          detail. My purpose  is to give you  an overview of the  many facets of
          meditation in the hope that you will wish to learn more.


                                    BASIC MEDITATION TECHNIQUES

                This  is the second part of a  three part online course in Basic
          Meditation Techniques

                Thecourse is devided into three sections. Section one deals with
          what meditation is  and how it plays a part in  the lives of those who
          use it.  Section two  will go into the techniques and tools of medita-
          tion.  Section three  gives  suggestions on  how  to use  what  you've
          learned, in everyday life. A list  of books for further reading on the
          subject, will be given at the end of section three.

                In thissecond section ofthe "Basic MeditationTechniques" course,
          we  will discuss various relaxation  procedures and how  they will aid
          you  in entering a trance or meditative  state. You will also be given
          some ideas about  types of music and other "tools"  which can help you
          achieve these relaxed states of mind. Let's begin.

                First, let's set thestage for our meditation practice.You should
          pick a  place which is  as private  and safe as  possible. An  altered
          state of mind, as in meditation, lessens your awareness of the outside
          world. For this reason, it is not advisable to practice these  techni-
          ques  in  a public  place where  there is  a  chance of  being mugged,
          robbed, or molested. If you are at home, with other  family members or
          friends present,  ask that  you not  be disturbed  and that  all other
          noise in  the house be kept to a minimum.  When you have found a place
          suitable for meditation, you may begin.

                "The seekers of  new mind states-the mind  control devotees, the
          encounter  group  enthusiasts,  the  drug takers,  the  psychics,  the
          meditators - all are on a journey into the interior universe trying to
          burst  the limits of the socially conditioned mind. Weither acceptable
          or unacceptable, moral or immoral, wise or foolish, the mind of man is
          stirring toward a new evolution."
                     Dr. Barbara Brown (1)

                As Isaid in section one,trance or meditaive states,alter the way
          your mind deals with the realities it accepts as normal.  Things which
          are  experienced in a trance  state are often  not easily expressed in
          everyday language.  You will at  some level,  experience a  heightened
          state of awareness.   Colors,  smells, and sounds  may seem  amplified
          from what they normally are.

                People who can acheivevery deep statesof trance often leavetheir
          bodies in astral projection, or have psychic experiences.

                I highly  recommend, that if  you wish  to enter deep  states of
          meditation, you do so under  the guidance and teaching of someone  who
          is well trained  in the practice of such techniques.  The key thing to
          remember is that it's  not what level your working on  as much as what
          you  are learning. There is alot to  be gained in wisdom and knowledge
          at all levels of trance.

             Now let's learn some simple and usefull relaxation exercises.


                You want to besure that the timeyou pick to practice yourmedita-
          tion is a time when you  are least likely to be disturbed.  You should
          not be  overly tired or  have just  finished eating as  both of  those
          conditions  may cause  you to  fall asleep.  Even though  you wish  to
          acheive  an  altered state  of consciousness,  you  do want  to remain
          conscious to some degree. If you fall asleep when you  are meditating,
          no  harm is  done  and you  will  awaken quite  refreshed  and rested.
          Unfortunately though, you may not be able to recall all the things you
          experienced while in trance.

                If you are  lying down, be sure your back  and neck are properly
          supported so as not  to fatigue the body. If you  are sitting, be sure
          that both feet are flat on the floor and that you are sitting as erect
          as possible without being  too stiff or strained. You should have your
          arms resting comfortably in your lap with palms up.

                In eithercase, it is important thatyour body not become strained
          or fatigued for  at least   thirty minutes. This  is a good length  of
          time  to begin  with as  it should  put neither  a physical  or mental
          strain on your being.

                Next, visualize a yourself in a cocoon of whitelight. You should
          surround  yourself completely. See the  light as bright  and warm. You
          may play with this sphere  of light making it bigger or  smaller until
          it "feels"  right for you.   Say to yourself,  "I am protected  by the
          pure white light of all that is good and truthfull. I am surrounded by
          the pure light which keeps out all unwanted and evil influences."

                Thisis a good ideato do for several reasons.There are those, and
          I am  one of them,  who believe that each  of generates an  aura which
          protects us from  outside influences when we are in  trance. This aura
          may  be strengthened by visualizing  the light as  growing brighter at
          our command. Even if you do not accept this idea, the practice lends a
          feeling of  safety and security to  you.  Nothing which  is outside of
          you may enter or touch you without your permission.

                Learning tocontrol and pay attentionto your breathing isthe next
          step.  You should start by taking  a deep breath in through your nose,
          hold  it for  the mental count  of 4  and then  let it all  out slowly
          through  your mouth.  Repeat this until  you begin to feel at rest and
          relaxed. Allow your breathing  to settle into a steady,  rythmic rate.
          Just this simple technique can relax and refresh you at any time. When
          you  are only doing the breathing exercise,  it is not necessary to go
          through  the  white light  sphere  visualization.  Some people  use  a
          muffled metronome or recording of some other rythmic sound, such as
          ocean waves, to  aid them in  setting the pace  of their breathing.  A
          good source of  recorded sounds which can help you  in meditation is a
          series of records  and tapes which have been produced  under the title

                Now, as you are breathing,see yourself lying in the warmlight of
          the sun.  The  light is warm and pleasant to be  in. Starting with the
          tips of  your toes, feel  the light warming  all of your  body, slowly
          moving up  into your legs,  your trunk,  and then into  your arms  and
          fingers. As you feel this warming become more and  more relaxed, going
          deeper and deeper into a calm and quiet place.  


                Whenyou fell totally relaxed andat peace, bring a single thought
          into your mind. It  should be of a  pleasant experience or of an  idea
          such as love, joy, peace, or compassion. Focus on this one thought and
          if  some other  thought should  try to  intrude, picture  it  as being
          written on  a clear  board between  you and  your focal  thought. Then
          picture it being erased from that board as it might be from a piece of
          paper.  Deal with any thought, other than your focal thought, quickly.
          Try  to maintain concentration on your focal thought for at least five
          minutes. Picture it as being real and experience it as if it were.
          When you are  able to do this  and can exclude  all other thoughts  as
          they attempt to enter your mind, you will have learned the single most
          important technique of meditation.

                It isnow time to begincoming back tonormal consciousness. slowly
          let the thought fade from your mind and again become aware of the warm
          light of the sun. As  you fell the light  bathing you in its'  warmth,
          start  to reconnect  your mind  with the  physical sensations  of your
          body. Become aware of your breathing  and the room around you. Do this
          slowly and calmly. When you are fully aware of your surroundings, open
          your eyes slowly. Enjoy the sense of calm and peace.

                If  you succeeded in doing  this exercise, you  should feel more
          relaxed and calm than normal. It is important to remember that you are
          comparing it to normal for you, not to what you  think others would or
          should feel.

             If you do not feel you succeeded try again in a day or two. Between
          meditaion  sessions, practice  your deep  breathing exercises.  If you
          keep  trying, you will soon reach a  calm and meditative state. Do not
          attempt to meditate when you are ill, tired, or hungry. Those feelings
          only serve to  make your efforts more difficult. A very important part
          to  remember is  that you  can not  force yourself  into a  meditative
          state. You must flow into it and surrender to it calmly.

             Some things which are found to be helpfull in meditation follow.

                Tryconcentrating on theflame of a candlewhen focusing. You could
          also  use a  crystal ball. The  later is  rather exspensive  but small
          crystal  window ornaments  or pyramids  also work  well and  cost much

                Music is also anaid to some. The music shouldbe quiet and rhyth-
          mic. It should bring on feelings  of peace and comfort. Such music may
          range from New Age recordings to classical.

                Anotherusefull device is to focus ona symbol which holds special
          meaning for  you. It may  be an well  known symbol  or one you  design
          yourself. As long as it holds a special meaning or expresses a special
          concept, it is a usefull focusing tool.

                This brings section twoof this course toa close. In the nextpart
          I  will give you  some pratical  ways in  which to  use what  you have


                The mostobvious use ofthe techniques you havelearned, is relaxa-
          tion.  During the course of the day, many of us have moments  when the
          pressure becomes almost  to much.  When this happens,  we often  can't
          deal with other people  or projects the way  we should. The  breathing
          exercises you learned in section two can help at these times.

                It doesn't  require alot of time or  absolute quiet as does your
          meditation  practice. All that is  required is about  five minutes and
          relative privacy. At these times,  begin doing your rhythmic breathing
          and visualize  a place which is  calm and refreshing. This  simple and
          quick  exercise,  can work  wonders to  help you  regain control  in a
          hectic situation.

                Another way in which meditation is used is in the development of
          psychic powers. There are several books  on the subject, listed at the
          end of this section. Most of those who teach about the use and develo-
          pment  of these abilities, agree  that meditation is  necessary to any
          such study. Again the reason for this is that meditation allows you to
          reach an altered  state of  conciousness. In this  altered state  your
          mind  is more  open to  such phenomenon  as telepathy.  If you  should
          decide to persue  studies in this direction,  please seek the help  of
          someone trained in these areas.

                One final use I will suggest is visualization. Meditation can be
          used as  a tool for  problem solving. While  in a meditative  state of
          mind, you have the ability to take any situation and manipulate it. By
          that I mean you can mentally play the out the  situation using several
          different  solutions. Then, you can  pick the one  which seems to best
          solve the  problem. While the use of meditation can help you deal with
          problem solving more effectively, it is  not infallible. All it can do
          is allow you to think more  clearly and concisely about the problem at

                Well  that concludes this study  on meditation. I  hope you have
          gained something usefull from this course. It has been by  no means, a
          full  explanation of the  subject. There  is much  more to  learn than
          could be covered in this short series and It is my  hope that you will
          want to continue your studies into this fascinating and usefull skill.

                More studiesof this type willbe developed in thenear future. The
          New Atlantis BBS  will continue to  post these  studies as an  ongoing
          service to  it's users. Please  feel free to leave  suggestions on the
          BBS about subjects you would like to see covered.



          list of books for further reading will be included.

          (1) Dr. Barbara Brown
              "New Mind, New Body"
               New York, Bantam Books, 1975
               Page 17

          Miriam Simos (Starhawk)
          The Spiral Dance
          New York
          Harper & Row; 1979

          W.E. Butler
          How To Read The Aura, Practice
          Psycometry, Telepathy and
          New York
          Destiny Books; 1978

          Melita Denning & Osborne Phillips
          The Development of Psychic Powers
          St. Paul, MN
          Llewellyn Publications; 1985

                                         NEW ATLANTIS BBS
                                   Member of the ParaNet system 
                                            End Of File
          Changes in format by the magician.  02/26/89 Crystal Cave 719-391-1092


               The following is from Magickal Blend Magazine, a  
          bay-area periodical that publishes four editions a year.   
          The magazine deals with many branches of the magickal world  
          and can be useful to all aspiring magicians.  Subscriptions  
          cost $12 per year.  They can be reached at: 
                               Magickal Blend 
                               P.O. Box 11303 
                               San Francisco, Ca. 94101-7303 
                                  WHEN MAGIC DOESN'T WORK 
                                        by Van Ault
               Every magician has occasions  in which the magic he  is directing
          does not  seem to  work.   The  desired  result, whether  internal  or
          external,  does  not  come  into manifestation.  These  occasions  are
          opportunities for  greater developement  in the magical  arts, and  by
          working through  the disappointment  and discouragement, he  can reach
          greater self-knowledge and technical expertise in the art. 
               I believe  that magic always works.   Magic is a  tool, a reality
          shaper.  Like any tool, however, its ability is limited to the operat-
          or's knowledge  and skill.  For an illustration, let's use the bow and
          arrow.   Your intention is  the arrow and  your magical  technique for
          directing  that intention is  the bow.   You use the  bow/technique to
          poise, balance and guide the intention/arrow with the strength of  
          your arms and hands/ determination and will. 
                    What happens when thisall works together optimally? The will
          firmly grasps the clear intention, balances it upon the technique, you
          gather  your emotional and mental  force, and then  fire the intention
          into the  invisible world to  be made manifest.   In its own  time and
          way, your wish materializes. 
                    Conversely,if you haven't got theskill to bring all of these
          efforts together, things can go askew.  Your arrow can veer and stray,
          or it may travel a few feet before losing  power.  Your bow can break,
          or not be strong  enough to propel the arrow.   Or, you may  find that
          you've got  your bow  and  arrow ready  to use,  but  you haven't  got
          sufficient strength to manipulate it. 
                    I offer thefollowing meditationprocess for thosetimes whenit
          seems that your magic doesn't work.  When you've tried all the techni-
          ques, when you've  gotten no results, when you're wondering  if any of
          this  matters at  all,  the process  in  this meditation  can  produce
          miracles and  create a sense of  completion.  You can  read the script
          into a tape, or have a friend lead you through it. 


                                 RIVER OF LIFE MEDITATION 
                    Find a comfortable placewhere you can relax andbe completely
          quiet...relax...allow your thought snow to just come and go...come and
          go...and take a deep  breath in and hold it...(pause)  gather up
          the tension in your body, and release it as you  exhale...take another
          deep breath, and  as you exhale,  let go of  anybody else's energy  or
          thoughts you may be carrying....and breathe in new energy...breathe in
          new possibilities...and allow your  body to fill with lightness...feel
          it  becoming lighter and lighter as you relax more and more...relaxing
          deeply...going  deeper...feeling very  light light  you could
          almost float away.......... 
                    And asyou relax,imagine abeautiful coloredmist is swirlingup
          around you,  billowing up around you  into a cushiony, soft,  cloud of
          energy...and you are  resting completely upon this cloud...and you are
  you breathe  in and out,  let your  thoughts just  come and
          go...relaxing more and more...and the cloud of energy now lifts you up
          into the air and carries your down into your own inner world...down  
          between  the boundaries  of time  and  a place  of timeless
          beauty and infinite possibilites...floating down now, going deeper and
          deeper,leaving the outer  world and  its concerns far  behind, as  you
          drift and float on this beautiful cloud....going further  and further-
          ...down below you is a  rock, a giant rock...and the cloud  gently and
          effortlessly lands upon  the rock and  you step off  it, as the  cloud
          swirls back into a mist and disappears for now... 
                    Stand upon thisrock now, andfeel the strengthof it underyour
          feet...and  as you turn around, you look out upon a great river...flo-
          wing  as far  as you  can  see...seeming to  come  from some  infinite
          place...and  disappearing into  an infinite  place,,,a flowing,endless
          river of energy...this is  the river of all life waters...all  of life
          draws upon the  lifeforce that moves through its  steaming currents...
          look closely at the water...what color is it? it may  look like liquid
          light to you...look  deeply into it, and sense the  power and depth of
          the river...what sound does  it make as it  courses through its  chan-
          nels?  you stand  securely upon your  rock, notice  and fragrance
          ...and  bend down and  cup your hands  in the  living water,and splash
          some of it on your  face...feel the life giving force on  your skin...
          take a sip of the water...allow the river of life to nourish you.... 
                    Now relaxa moment upon therock...and bring into yourmind the
          magical intention  that never  seemed to  go anywhere...what were  you
          trying to  accomplish?...what was the basic  intention you had?...what
          was  the  emotion  behind  the intention?...feel  the  energy  of that
          emotion moving onto the palms of your hands now...feel the energy  
          glowing...pulsating...breathe  and allow  your  intention that  you're
          still clinging  to externalize...the energy  of it is  now shimmering,
          glowing...swirling into a  sphere...allow all of  your desire to  flow
          into this  sphere...and allow this sphere to  appear to you however it
          appears...and  just observe  what you  may see  pictures or
          symbols emerging within the sphere...whatever you see is fine... 


                    When  your sphere is completely filled with the last of your
          desire,emotion,and intention, hold it aloft...feel the power of it  in
          you  hands,a globe  of power that  you can now  release...and look out
          into the river of as its currents of possibility flow for
          ever and ever,as far  as you can see...and whenever  you're ready,with
          as much  and as little force  as you need, throw  the pulsating sphere
          into the river...and give this intention to the life force of this  
          great  as the  sphere touches the  water...and gradually
          disappears into the current... 
                    Take a deepbreath... as the spheredisappears the last ofyour
          intention  and emotion and desire merges  with the source of all life,
          from which it orriginally came...and leaves you... 
                    Nowcomplete any business herethat you needto finish...take a
          few  moments to  enjoy the  flowing river  of life,and  know that  the
          possibilities it nourishes can bring miracles into you life too... 
                    Takeanother deep breath, and notice tha colored mist is once
          again swirling  around you...billowing  up  underneath you  to form  a
          beautiful cloud of  cushiony energy, which is lifted up  into the air,
          with you upon it...relaxing  into the cloud you are returning  the way
          you came...lifting up up through time and space, coming  back from the
          inner world...coming up... further and further...floating and drifting
          back...coming back...bringing you all the way back into your body now,
          into this room...brining your attention completely back into this time
          and place...take a deep breath and  begin to re-orient yourself to the
          outer world...and when  you're ready,  count to three...,  and on  the
          count  of three open your eyes,and return feeling relaxed,alert and at
                               * * * 
             As always, change any of the wording or images in this  
             meditation if it suits your purpose better.  The  
             important part is just to finally and completely let go  
             of your intention, so that the energy can be recycled in  
             whatever form the creative force and your own  
             consciousness will allow.  Out of this release, new  
             lives, new opportunities, and new magical opportunities  
             are born! 

                            MONISM, One Wiccan Perspective 
                                  Copyright 11/24/92
                                   Durwydd MacTara

     "Henotheism n. Belief in one god without denying the existence of  others."
     (American Heritage Second College Dictionary)

     "Monism n. philos. A metaphysical system in which reality is conceived as a
     unified whole." (American Heritage Second College Dictionary)

     "Monotheism  n. The belief or doctrine that  there is only one God." (Amer-
     ican Heritage Second College Dictionary)

     "Pantheism n. 1. The doctrine identifying the Deity with the various forces
     and workings  of nature. 2. Belief  in and worship of  all gods." (American
     Heritage Second College Dictionary)

     "Polytheism n.  The worship of or  belief in more than  one god." (American
     Heritage Second College Dictionary)

          "To witches, deities  manifest in different ways  and can be
          worshipped and contacted through  any form suitable to local
          conditions and  personal needs.  Wicca does  not believe, as
          do  the  patriarchal monotheisms,  that  there  is only  one
          correct  version of  God and  that all  other God  forms are
          false:   the Gods of Wicca are  not jealous Gods.  We there-
          fore  worship the  personification  of the  male and  female
          principles, the  God and the Goddess,  recognizing that Gods
          are aspects of the  One God and all Goddesses  are different
          aspects of  the one Goddess,  and that ultimately  these two
          are reconciled in the one divine essence."
          (Vivianne Crowley, WICCA: The Old Religion in The New  Age,-
          pp. 11-12)

     Vivianne  Crowley,  a very  capable  spokesperson  for British  Traditional
     Wicca, identifies the core belief of Wicca (at  least BTW) as Monism in the
     piece quoted above.  However, she also opens the door to defining Wicca  as
     duotheistic  in principle with the  subdivision of the  monist reality into
     the praxis of worshiping both Lord and Lady.

     However, there is  yet a THIRD level  of obscurity in Wiccan  Praxis!  Most
     Wiccans worship a threefold Goddess (Maid, Mother, and Crone) and many also
     worship at least a  twofold God.  So,  are the Wicca REALLY polytheists  or
     perhaps pantheists or  even modified Henotheists as some have claimed?  Or,
     perhaps,  a  new category  altogether needs  to  be invented  to accurately
     describe Wiccan belief and practice.


          One suggestion has  been made to add  a word to our  Thea/Theo-logical
     lexicon, perhaps  "Cthonotheism"  (provided we  MUST  have a  "Theism")  to
     describe "Theistic Wicca".   One advantage is that  it makes the assumption
     of worshipping that which was there to be found and worshipped, NOT a Deity
     or deities invented in 1939! (More on this later.)

     The  following  is the  only published  copy  of the  (Gardnerian) Blessing
     Prayer that I know of.

             "In the name of Dryghtyn, the Ancient Providence,
              Who was from the beginning and is for eternity,
              Male and Female, the Original Source of all things;
              all-knowing, all-pervading, all-powerful;
              changeless, eternal.

             "In the name of the Lady of the Moon,
              and the Lord of Death and Resurrection.

             "In the name of the Mighty Ones of the Four Quarters,
              the Kings of the Elements.

             "Blessed be this place, and this time,
              and they who are now with us."
                    ("Witch  Blood!   The Diary  Of A  Witch High
                    Priestess!" by Patricia  Crowther in  chapter
                    four  (paperback edition 1974,  House Of Col-
                    lectibles, Inc.).) Courtesy of David Piper

     Airmid (aka Erynn  Darkstar), a contemporary  craft scholar and  researcher
     says of this new (to most of us) name of Ultimate Deity:
               "Dryghtyn  is also the name  used for JHVH  in some old
               English  bibles.  I think  that was where  the term ac-
               tually  originated.  I think I  saw a passing reference
               to  it in some boxed comparative translated text in "In
               Search of the Indo-Europeans."

     Grendel,  an  Asatruar  from Seattle  suggests  the  "Dryghtyn"  may be  an
     alternative  spelling  of the Teutonic "Drighten" meaning "Lord".   I admit
     this is interesting, to me, as the closeness of the linguistic link between
     the Old English and Old German languages has been a scholarly "fact" widely
     known for many years.

     As  a side issue,  this might  be some evidence  that runs  contrary to the
     thesis put forth by Aidan Kelly that Gerald Gardner "manufactured" Wicca in
     1939.   From personal experience, I  have found that one unique distinction
     of  the non  BTW strains  of  Witchcraft (some  times called  "FamTrads" of
     Family  Traditions) is  the incorporation of  old Christian  Imagery, often
     including  ArchAngels for  the four  directions or  elements.   Though this
     instance does not  include Archangels,  it DOES include  archaic (and  rel-
     atively  unknown) Christian terminology.  If Gardner did discover a remnant
     of the  Old Religion upon which he  based his modern reconstruction effort,
     it  is  this  sort of  linguistic  "artifact"  which  would have  survived.
     Perhaps a more scholarly investigation than mr. Kelly's will "turn up" more


     Jim Taylor, an  Eastern Orthodox  Theologian, also  makes two  (to me)  il-
     luminating statements, concerning "The Dryghtyn Prayer":
     1.       "'In the name of Dryghtyn, the Ancient Providence,
              Who was from the beginning and is for eternity,
              Male and Female, the Original Source of all things;
              all-knowing, all-pervading, all-powerful;
              changeless, eternal.'
     This would be, entirely, an acceptable way of describing God, both for most
     Jews and for most Christians."
     2.       "'In the name of the Lady of the Moon,
              and the Lord of Death and Resurrection.'
     The Lord of Death and Resurrection would seem, to any Christian to refer to
     Jesus Christ."

     This  evidence  of a  possible mixing  of  an older  (unrecorded) Christian
     Prayer may  lend further  credence to  Gardners' claims  of building  on an
     older, hidden, traditional remnant.

     I, personally,  also agree with  Mr. Taylors' statement  that "the idea  of
     Wicca being 'manufactured' in 1939 is far too pat, and ignores a great deal
     which ought not  to be ignored.  At the very  least, some degree  of recog-
     nition should be  accorded to the obvious  fact that most Wiccan  practices
     and attitudes predate Wicca by considerable  periods of time--possibly even

     The existence of  Monism, Duotheism, and  Polytheism simultaneously in  the
     belief structure of Wicca is one good example of one of the  Five Mysteries
     of Wicca,  that of Union.   Wicca  is a mystery  religion, a  PARTICIPATORY
     religion, and much  of its symbology  must be lived  and practiced to  have
     meaning because much of  the real (some say hidden meaning is  based on the
     knowledge  of experience and not  the intellectual knowledge  of mere logic
     and conscious thought processes.

     I am an  eclectic Wiccan  with strong ties  in my beliefs  and practice  to
     British Traditional  Wicca.  I  am a Monist,  yet I have  had strong direct
     experience with Brigid, Danu, and the  Morrigan as well as the Earth Mother
     and the Horned Lord of the Forests.  So my personal answer to  the question
     of "What kind of Theism  fits Theistic Wicca?" is "several, or none;  it is
     not  really a  valid question  in those  limited terms"!   But  perhaps the
     concept of  "Chthonotheism" would give a better  label to this concept when
     attempting to discuss the idea of the peculiar theism unique to Wicca?
                              Blessed Be,
                                   Durwydd MacTara


                                     Wedding Ceremony 
                                         The Bard 

          The Altar shall be dressed with a white cloth, with a  Cup, and an un-
          sheathed  Sword. A small lectern  should be provided  to the Minister,
          that he may  hold the Sword and read the ceremony. One candle shall be
          unlit upon the altar, and two lit candles shall be provided, to either
          Smaller candles shall be  provided to at least the wedding  party, and
          to the whole congregation, if possible. 
          %         Ministers take Altar 
          %         Groom and attendants take altar 
          %         Processional music starts 
          %         Bridesmaids process 
          %         Bride and father process 
          %         Bride and father take altar 
          MINISTER:  Dearly beloved,  today you  are surrounded by  your family,
          your friends, and your loved ones, all of whom have gathered     here
          today in the sight of the ONE to share your joy and         witness
          your marriage. 
                    Who gives this woman to be wed? 
          FATHER:   I do. 
          %            (the Bride's  father shall give  the Bride's hand  to the
          Groom, and then take his seat) 
          MINISTER 2: This most sacred of bonds is not to be entered into 
          lightly, but soberly and advisedly, with openness and       honesty. I
          require and charge you both now, upon your        honors,  to disclose
          any reason or impediment why you may not          be  lawfully  joined
          this day. 
          BRIDE/GROOM: By our honors, there are none. 
          %         (The Minister shall turn to the congregation and say:) 
          MINISTER: Likewise, I charge all of you now, upon your honors, that if
          any            know a reason that these two may not be lawfully joined
          this day,           to speak now or forever hold your peace. 
          %         (There shall be a short pause for any response) 
          MINISTER: (N)  and (N), life has no singular  meaning so much as it is
          made up of many meaningful events, some of which may be 
          specified and planned for. One of these is Marriage. As you      know,
          no minister, no priest, no rabbi, no public official        can  marry
          you; you can only marry yourselves. By a mutual        commitment   to
          love each other     and to create an atmosphere of          considera-
          tion and respect, you can make your marriage come           to life. 


          MINISTER 2:  On this, the  day of  your marriage,  you stand  somewhat
          apart from all other human beings. You stand within the 
          charmed Circle of your love, and this is as it should be,        b u t
          love is not meant to be the possession of two people        alone.
          Rather it should serve as a source of common energy,        a  form in
          which you can find the strength to live your lives          w  i  t  h
          courage. From this day onward, you must come closer         together
          than ever before, yet your love should give you the         strength
          to stand apart; to seek out your own unique des        tinies,  and to
          make your own special contribution to that        which  is  always  a
          part of us, and more than us. 
          MINISTER:  A marriage that lasts  is one which  is continually develop
          ing, in which each person is continually developing while 
          growing in understanding of the other. Deep knowledge of 
          another is not something that can be achieved in a short         time.
          Real understanding can only develop fully with years        of     in-
          timacy. This wonderful knowledge of another grows out       of  really
          caring for the other so much, that one wants to        understand   as
          completely as possible the intricacies of the          other. 
          MINISTER 2:  May you be blessed with this deep knowledge of each other
                    through all the days of your lives. 
                    Would you now give your vows? 
          BRIDE/GROOM: We will. 
          MINISTER: What tokens do you give that you will keep these vows? 
          BRIDE/GROOM: We give these rings. 
          %          (The rings shall be  given to the Minister, who shall  take
          them in hand.) 
          MINISTER 2:  The ring is used  in this ceremony because  the Circle is
          our symbol for Spirit; that which was in the Beginning, is       now,
          and ever shall Be, Love, without end. In this ceremony,          it is
          that love which is deathless and eternal. 
          %           (Both  Ministers shall join hands,  holding the Rings, and
          shall say:) 
          MINISTER: We  ask now the Blessing  of the One upon  these rings. They
          are bands of silver with the Tree of Life cast in relief         upon
          their surfaces.  Let the bands represent eternity, love 
          without end, and let the trees represent the nurturement you     will
          share in that Love, now and always. 
          BOTH:     And so it is. 
          %         (The Rings shall be taken by the second Minister.) 
          %          (And if it is a Swordfasting, then the Minister  shall take
          up the Sword, and flourish it aloft, and then place it 
          point-down in front of him.) 


          %         (The Bride and Groom shall face  each other, and place their
          %         hands upon the Sword's pommel, with both Ministers placing %
               their hands over the Bride and Groom's.) 
          %         (the Minister #2 shall turn to the Groom, and say:) 
          MINISTER 2: (N), repeat after me: 
                      (N), I take you as my wife. 
                      I pledge to share my life openly with you 
                      To speak the truth to you in love 
                      And to honor and cherish you all the days of our lives. 
                      I promise to love and tenderly care for you 
                      For better and for worse 
                      For richer and for poorer 
                      In sickness and in health 
                      In all storms and fair days we may weather together 
                      For as long as we both shall live. 
                      I promise to respect your needs, 
                      To support you in your endeavors 
                      And encourage you as an individual 
                      Through all the changes of our lives. 
                      With these words, I pledge my love. 
          %         (The Groom shall take the Ring) 
                      And with this ring I seal my vows 
                      Now and forever. 
          %         (The Groom shall place the Ring upon the Bride's finger.) 
          %         (The Minister shall then turn to the Bride, and say:) 
          MINISTER: (N), repeat after me: 
                    (N), I take you as my husband. 
                    I pledge to share my life openly with you 
                    To speak the truth to you in love 
                    And to honor and cherish you all the days of our lives. 
                    I promise to love and tenderly care for you 
                    For better and for worse 
                    For richer and for poorer 
                    In sickness and in health 
                    In all storms and fair days we may weather together 
                    For as long as we both shall live. 
                    I promise to respect your needs, 
                    To support you in your endeavors 
                    And encourage you as an individual 
                    Through all the changes of our lives. 
                    With these words, I pledge my love. 
          %         (The Bride shall take the Ring) 
                    And with this ring I seal my vows 
                    Now and forever. 
          %         (The Bride shall place the Ring upon the Groom's finger.) 


          %         (Both Ministers shall then say:) 
          MINISTER: May you never hunger. 
          MINISTER #2: May you never thirst. 
          %         (Here there may be an interlude of music) 
          MINISTER 2: At this time, I would like to speak of some of  the things
                    that many of us wish for you. 
                              First,wewish foryou aLove thatmakes youboth better
          people, That continues always to give you joy 
                    And a zest for living, 
                              Andprovidesyouwith theenergytoface theresponsibili
          ties of life. 
                              Wewish foryoua Home,notaplace ofstoneor wood,butan
                   island of serenity and sanity. 
                              Wehopethat thisHome isnot justaplace ofprivate joy
          and retreat, But rather serves as a Castle wherein the 
          values of your life and family are generated and upheld. 

                    We hope your home stands as a symbol of humans living 
          together in Love and peace, Seeking Truth and nurturement 
          through each other. 
                    We hope that it has within it the elements of Simplicity, 
          the Rhythms of Life. 

                              We wishforyou aHomewith Books,Poetryand Music,Fora
          home with all the things that represent the highest striv        ings
          Of men and women. 
                    Finally, we wish that your lives be blessed with Spiritual 
                    Abundance, and that your spiritual involvement be enhanced 
                    through This marriage. 
          %           (The  Minister shall turn to  the congregation, and  shall
          MINISTER: Let us all  stand together for the closing  benediction, and
          the passing of the Light. 
          %          (The congregation shall stand. The Bride and Groom shall go
          %         to the Altar and light the single candle from their candles,
          %         and then shall light their attendant's candles, and shall  %
          light the candles of the first person in each row of the %
          congregation. They shall then return to the altar, and %
          extinguish their candles, placing them on the altar, and %
          return to their place before the Ministers.) 
          MINISTER  2: May  we all recognize  that the  Presence of  the One has
          already blessed you with the presence of each other. Keep in     your
          rememberance the sacredness of this trust and the love           that
          knows no end. May that Peace, which passes all human 
          understanding abide with you now, and for always. 
          BOTH:     And so it is. 


          MINISTER  2: And forasmuch as (N)  and (N) have expressed their desire
          to be husband and wife, showing their love and affection by 
          joining hands, and have made promises of faith and devotion,     each
          to the other, and have sealed these promises by giving           a n d
          receiving of rings: 
          MINISTER: In  the presence of this company  of witnesses, by virtue of
          my sacred stewardship and the power vested in me by the          State
          of Arizona, I now pronounce you Husband and Wife. 
                    You may kiss the Bride. 
          %          (The  Bride and Groom shall  then recess from the altar,  %
          followed by their attendants. The congregation shall be %
          released by rows.) 
          %         (Here ends the Order Of Solemnization Of Marriage (General) 


                                Weasel Wicca:  a Toon Trad 
                by fara Shimbo, Diane Darling and the European Land Otters
                          (Green Egg, Issue 95, Yule '91, p. 21.)

                      The Great Mothers of this tradition are Galanthus, who was
          turned into a  weasel for lying  to Juno; and  Eris, both Goddess  and
          Ferret incarnate, who are IN CHARGE.

                 This is the Holy Sacred Oath of the Weasel Tradition:
                        "I don'tbelieve anythingunless Iwant to.Mymind issubject
          to change within reason and without notification at any time. We will
          always have Paris. (But not paris of sox.) I can  do without my socks.
          Other than that there are absolutely no absolutes."

                Sacred Objects of the Weasel tradition include:
                  * A Floppy Witch Hat (double sided, single density)
                  * The nearest operational refrigirator
                  * Dirty Socks
                  * Tubes made of cardboard or plastic
                  * Rubber erasers and squeaky toys
                  * Loud plastic bag and ping pong balls
                  * The Golden Apple of Eris
                  * Silk Top hat.

                    In order tobe initiated into the WeaselTradition, a new ber-
          serker must:
                  * Co-habit with a Ferret; at least one.
          ous manner- stopping short of Genuine Theft. Use your imagination.
                          *Sacrifice aSock toGalanthus. Itmust bea goodSock, one
          you wouldn't otherwise throw away, and you must have the other one in
          your possession.
                          * Bake some holyFhood, with Weasel Help,which includes
          raisins and chocolate chips.
                          *Write aritual containingat leastthree thingswhich are
          obviously or  blatantly lifted,  word for  word, from somewhere  else.
          Anywhere else.
                  * Let a weasel lick your lips while you sing:

                        The Weasel Help Song:
                            Everyone needs Weasel help,
                              Weasel Help, Weasel Help
                            Everyone needs Weasel help,
                              to get them through the day!
                            I don't need no Weasel Help,
                              Weasel Help, Weasel Help,
                            I don't need no Weasel Help,
                              no matter what you say!

                    The Sacred Holidays of the Weasel tradition are any holidays
          which have even the slightest thing to do with Fhood.


                                  A Weasel Wiccan Witual 

                    Participants infloppy witch hatsenter, bearing theHoly Fhood
          and Drinkh.  Arrange tastefuly around altar area.  Prominent should be
          the Golden Apple of Eris, which is set upon the altar by itself.

               Call Watchtowers, lighting quarter candles at each. Suggestion
                    EAST,being Air,signifies mediaand masscommunications. Invite
          the Marx brothers, Firesign Theatre,  Douglas Adams, and Robert  Anton
          Wilson, and,  of course, the Illuminati, as  representatives of Chaos.
          (Squeeze squeaky toys)
                    SOUTH, for Fire, signifies fidelityto ideals. I suggest John
          Lennon and our witch ancestors, whose bravery in defense of the Sacred
          Right To Be Strange led to the ultimate sacrifice. May we be as brave,
          but luckier. (Hide the Matches.)
                    WEST,for Water, signifies herethe Waters ofLife, ie: Bhooze.
          Invite  W.C. Fields along with Dionysius and Osiris (inventors of wine
          and beer, respectively.) (Slug some eggnog.)
                    NORTH, for Earth, signifies  the Ultimate Mystery: Life, the
          Universe and Everything.  Toast the  Mystery itself and  invite it  to
          relax, take off its cloak and join us for awhile. (Hide a cookie.)

                    And to provide a fifth point: SKY, for Eris, Our Mother,Lady
          Luck Herself, Lady of Chaos and Dealer of the Inside Straight. Hold up
          the  Golden Apple,  hail Her  enthusiastically and  invite Her  to the

                    Close theCircle, whichis,of course,semi-permiable toweasel--

                    Lightaltarcandle; assume*ahem* seriousdemeanor. Whoeveris to
          read, don silk hat and drape a sock for a priest's vestement. Proceed:
               "For unto us is born a Saviour, who is Coyote, Pan, loki, Raven,
          Dionysius,  and Robin Hood; to save us  all from Santa's power when we
          have come to play, o  tiding of chocolate and toys. And Io, neither is
          his Mother  a Virgin, for  She believeth in  a good time. And  when He
          came forth, She wrapped him in a National Enquirer and  cradled him in
          her top  hat, which holdeth  all the stars of  all the skies  plus 500
          foolproof card tricks; and the Wise came to Marvel (and to DC) because
          indeed and forsooth, they knew trouble when they beheld it."

                And Eris, the Great and Terrible, said to her son:
                "Kid, this is a special occasion; how should we celebrate?"

                      And the TinyOne spoke, surprising all butthe Mother of the
                      "let's have lots of Fhood, and create the most chaotic and
          demented animal  of all to play with. And  since I have a feeling that
          this party will be repeated many, many times, let's make  that a rule:
          anyone celebrating My birthday should do the same. For I am the Glitch
          and  the Song and the Gambler's Luck, and I love Surprises--which will
          never be lacking with Them around. Let them do this in honor of Me."


                And Eris was pleased and created The Weasel (hold one up).
                      "This is the SacredWeasel, beloved little monster, honored
          pest, dearest of Holy Terrors and Agent of Entropy Everywhere. May  it
          always remind us that Eris and the Kid love Surprises."

                      (Holdup plateof cookies:)"This isthe HolyFhood; weshare it
          in  Their names, and with the wish that  we should always keep Life as
          interesting and strange as possible."

                      (Hold upHoly Bhooze:)"This isthe HolySpikedEggnog; weshare
          in with the  understanding that reality can always use  a little bend-
                      Share all,generalhailing,toasts,silliness,woozlesnoozling,
          tricks and demonstration of weasel  arranging. Guard honored guests of
          all species from  overindulging in  and/or diving  into eggnog.  Songs
          excellent idea.
               Open circle whenever you feel like it.
          Fara Shimbo, an  ethologist living outside Boulder,  Colorado with her
          husband  Robert, ferret,  Ruby,  Siamese cat,  mong, and  Thoroughbred
          Hunter, Oficial Dude (AKA Chewie). She is main honcho of _Ferret unity
          and Registration Organization (FURO)_, a weasle warrior of reknown and
          author of "The Ferret Book" (see review GE83) and, with Bill Phillips,
          of  _Ferrets  and the  New Inquisition_,  published by  the California
          Domestic Ferret  Association (Box 1861,  healdsburg, CA 95448.  She is
          editor-in-chief of _The Weasle Help Monthly_, (wonderful!) newsmagazi-
          ne of FURO, available  by joining FURO, PO  Box 18193, greensboro,  NC


           This is the story of Rabbit.

          A long time ago- No one knows how long ago it was-- rabbit was a brave
          and  fearless warrior. Rabbit was  befriended by Eye  Walker, a witch.
          The witch and Rabbit spent much time together sharing and talking. 

                        One day EyeWalker and rabbitwere walking alongand thesat
          down on  the trail  to rest.  Rabbit  said "I'm  thirsty." Eye  Walker
          picked up a leaf and blew on it... it turned into a gourd  of water...
          he  handed it to  Rabbit. Rabbit drank  the water and  didn't say any-
          thing. Than he said "I am hungry"

                        Eyewalker pickedup astone andblew onit... itturned intoa
          turnip.  She  gave the turnip to Rappit...  He tasted it and  than ate
          the turnip with relish... but didn't say anything.

                        Thetwo continued along thetrail, which ledinto the moun-
          tains. Near the top, rabbit tripped  and fell and rolled almost to the
          bottom. Rabbit was in very  sad condition when Eye Walker got  to him.
          She  used a magick salve on Rabbit to heal his great pain and mend his
          broken bones. Rabbit didn't say anything.

                        Several days laterEye Walkerwent searchingfor herfriend.
          She searched high and love but Rabbit was nowhere to be found.

                        Finally Eye Walkergave up.She met Rabbitquite byaccident
          one day.   "Rabbit,  why are  you hiding and  avoiding me?"  the witch

                        "becauseI amafriad ofyou. I amafraid ofmagick," Answered
          Rabbit, cowering in fear. "Leave me alone!" 

                        "I see." SaidEye Walker. "I haveused my magical powerson
          your behalf and now you turn on me and refuse my friendship."

                        "I wantnothing more to dowith you oryour powers," Rabbit
          countered.  He did not even see  the tears his words were bringing  to
          Eye Walkers  eye's. "I hope  we never  meet and that  I never  see you
          again." Rabbit continued. 

                        "Rabbit" Eye walker said. "We oncewere great friends and
          companions, but  no more. It  is within my  power to destroy  you, but
          because of the past and  the medicines we have shared together  I will
          not do this. But from this day on I lay a curse on you and your tribe.
          From now on, you will call fears  and your fears will come to you.  Be
          on your way, for the sweet medicines that bound us together as friends
          are now broken."


                     Modern Wiccan Concepts based in Literary Satanism 

          By: Diane Vera

          As I pointed out to Warren Grant in the PAGAN echo recently, Charles
          G. Leland mentions Michelet in the Appendix to _Aradia:_
          _Gospel_of_the_Witches_: "Now be it observed, that every leading
          point which forms the plot or centre of this _Vangel_  [...]  had
          been told or written out for me in fragments by Maddalena (not to
          mention other authorities), even as it had been chronicled by Horst
          or Michelet" (pp.101-102, 1974 Weiser paperback edition).
          In _A_History_of_Witchcraft_, Jeffrey B. Russell writes:
          "Michelet's argument that witchcraft was a form of social protest
          was adapted later by Marxists; his argument that it was based on a
          fertility cult was adopted by anthropologists at the turn of the
          century, influenig Sir James Frazer's _Golden_Bough_, Jessie
          Weston's _From_Ritual_to_Romance_, Magaret Murray's _Witch-
          Cult_in_Western_Europe_, and indirectly T.S. Eliot's
          _The_Waste_Land_" (_A_History_of_Witchcraft_, p.133).
          Russell states further: "Neopagan witchcraft has roots in the
          tradition of Michelet, who argued that European witchcraft was the
          survival of an ancient religion.  This idea influenced Sir James
          Frazer and a number of other anthropologists and writers in the late
          nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.  The publication of
          Charles Leland's _Aradia_ in 1899 was an important step in the
          evolution of the new religion of witchcraft.   [...]   The doctrines
          and practices of the witches as reported by Leland are a melange of
          sorcery, medieval heresy, witch-craze concepts, and political
          radicalism, and Leland reports ingenuously that this is just what he
          expected, since it fitted with what he had read in Michelet"
          (Russell, p.148).
          As far as I know, it's possible that Michelet's influence on Gardner
          was only indirect, via the other above-named writers.  This would
          not invalidate my point, which is that Michelet played a key role in
          the development of the ideas in question.
          Michelet has had a more direct influence on feminist Goddess
          religion than on Wicca proper.  Michelet's _La_Sorciere_
          (_Satanism_and_Witchcraft_) is listed in the bibliography of
          _Woman,_Church,_and_State_ by Matilda Gage (19th-century Women's
          Suffrage leader and the founder of pre-Wiccan feminist Goddess
          religion) and, more recently, in _Witches,_Midwives,_and_Nurses:_
          _A_History_of_Women_Healers_ by Barbara Ehrenreich and Dierdre
          English (1973).
          In my opinion, Michelet's most important contribution to both Wicca
          and feminist Goddess religion was that, as far as I know, he was the
          first well-known writer (in recent centuries, anyway) to use the
          word "Witch" (capital W) with its present-day positive connotations
          of healing and opposition to tyranny.


                                     Intro to Satanism 

          By: Diane Vera

          As promised in the PAGAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES echo, here's my brief
          introductory essay on Satanism (though Corwynt won't be seeing it,
          alas).  I'll confine myself to discussing _serious_occultists_ who
          identify as Satanists. I have no interest in the teen-age glue-
          sniffing "Satin rulz" crowd, who are into "Satanism" as a way to
          shock the grown-ups, and who usually (as far as I know) outgrow it.
          Nor am I interested in criminals who say the Devil made them do it
          (often, I suspect, as a way to get themselves declared insane).
          Since I don't know how much you don't know, perhaps I should start
          with the usual elementary disclaimers:
          (a) Most Satanists do not think of themselves as "worshipping evil".
          Satan is associated with a variety of human traits and magic(k)al
          energies which Christianity traditionally considers "evil", but
          which the Satanists themselves do not consider "evil" -- though some
          Satanists may describe themselves as "evil" in an ironic sense.
          (b) In what there is of a Satanist subculture (for serious
          occultists), nobody advocates sacrificing animals or babies,
          sexually abusing children, or other horrific activities described in
          fundamentalist propaganda.  As Anton LaVey explains in
          _The_Satanic_Bible_, such activities serve no useful magic(k)al
          (c) Although Satan is, obviously, a figure from Christian mythology
          (derived from Judaism and Zoroastrianism), Satanism is not just
          "reverse Christianity".  I have yet to meet even one Satanist who
          believed in Christian theology, or a simple reversal thereof.  (I've
          heard that such Satanists do exist, but they don't seem to be part
          of the organized Satanist scene.)  All Satanists I've ever
          encountered have some alternative explanation of who/what Satan is.
          There are many alternative explanations and, correspondingly, many
          different kinds of Satanism.  Following is a list of _some_ of the
          many different possible interpretations of who/what Satan is:
          (1) Satan is the Christian-era guise of some pre-Christian deity,
          e.g. Set or Pan.
          (2) Satan is not a real entity at all, but just a symbol of human
          individuality, pride, thinking for oneself, sensuality, etc.
          (3) Satan is an actual discarnate intelligence, and is the bringer
          of wisdom in a form of Gnosticism with the Christian "God" cast as
          the Demiurge.  This idea is based on a form of Gnosticism that
          actually existed in the early centuries C.E., which venerated the
          serpent of the Garden of Eden myth.
          (4) Satan is not an actual discarnate, sentient being, but is more
          than just a symbol.  Satan is, at the very least, today's most
          powerful magic(k)al egregore.  "Satan" is present-day society's
          number-one magic(k)al Name of Power.


          (5) Satan is an impersonal "Dark Force in Nature".
          (6) Satan is one of many gods, all of whom are in some sense real.
          There is no one all-powerful "God" like the Christian idea of "God".
          There are many gods who are powerful, but not all-powerful.
          Of the above possiblities, my own personal beliefs lean toward a
          combination of interpretations #4, 5, and 6.  The Church of Satan,
          founded in 1966 C.E. by Anton LaVey, usually espouses interpretation
          #2 and sometimes #5.  The Temple of Set is into _something_like_
          (but not quite) a combination of #1 and #3.

           La> If you haven't been around other satanists, how do you know
           La> what is being practiced, is what you would do?  I could call
           La> myself a Dianic Wiccan, but what I might practice is not what
           La> is generally practiced...and there is no way for me to really
           La> learn "right way" from "wrong way".
          It doesn't matter.  Satanism isn't really just one religion, but a
          category of religions, some of which are radically different from
          each other.  (See my message to Deborah Kest on "Satanism 101".)
          Since most forms of Satanism do celebrate individuality, the lack of
          standardization is just fine, in my opinion.  The only "right way"
          or "wrong way" has to do with _what_works_, and this will vary from
          one individual to another.
           La> The reason you are being "punished" I think ostracized is
           La> a better word, is that most Satanists, and people who follow
           La> left-handed Magick/spirituality (folks I know it is not a fair
           La> term, but it works for this arguement) are considered by many
           La> of us the true enemies of Spiritualism that we would practice.
          The term "Left-Hand Path" is OK.  We use it too.  You and I would
          probably define it very differently, however.  What's your
           La> Even more than Christaniaty folks who follow your system of
           La> believes are very differnt than we.  Pagan and Christanity,
           La> have very similar ideas and ethics, and while not at all
           La> tolerant of each other (generally) can live and let live.
           La> Satanists et.all on the other hand, have such a different view
           La> of life, love and the pursuit of the Divine, it is hard for us
           La> to accept you into our midsts.
          Could you please be more specific?  _What_ do you see as the
          similarities between neo-Paganism and Christianity?
          I too see some profound differences between Satanism and neo-
          Paganism.  And I too see enough similarities between neo-Paganism
          and Christianity that one can meaningfully use a term like "Right-
          Hand Path", which includes both Christianity and neo-Paganism but
          not Satanism.


          But I _also_ see some profound similarities between Satanism and
          neo-Paganism (especially Wicca) as well, which set them both apart
          from Christianity.  For example, Satanism and Wicca-based Paganism
          are both much more tolerant toward sexual variety than Christianity
          traditionally is.  (To be more exact, Wicca is _now_ tolerant toward
          sexual variety, though there was a time when it was quite
          homophobic.)  And in general, Satanism and Wicca-based Paganism both
          emphasize individuality in ways that Christianity doesn't.
          Also, as I've discussed at length both here and in the PAGAN and
          PAGAN RELIGIOUS STUDIES echoes, Satanism and most forms of neo-
          Paganism (especially Wicca) are both part of the family of modern
          Western magic(k)al religions, with many common roots and many basic
          magic(k)al concepts in common.  We have natural reasons to be part
          of the same magic(k)al community (e.g. occult bookstores and this
          computer network).  It would be much more pleasant for everyone
          concerned if neo-Pagans could get used to Satanists, because you are
          going to keep running into more and more of us whether you like it
          or not.


                              Satanism, A Personal Definition 
                                        By Delphine

          Please keep in mind that Satanism is a *very* individualistic
          religion,  and if  you  asked 50  Satanists  what Satanism  is,  you'd
          probably get 60  different responses.  As a  solitaire Satanist,  I'll
          have a go at this..  but I'm pretty bad at trying to  summarize what I
          believe, so please feel free to ask me questions.

          For me, these are the most important things I believe as a Satanist:
          *I believe in Satan as a literal entity. Many other Satanists do not,
          esp. those from the LaVey school of thought.

          *Satan is NOT a fallen angel, or a lesser created being, but instead a
          deity with as much power  (for lack of a better word) as any other. He
          is  the Shadow, a Destroying Deity.. and by such destruction,he purif-
          ies, for death of anything leads  the way for rebirth. He is  a symbol
          of rebellion, of pride, and of righteous anger.  He brings freedom, in
          many different ways.

          * My first care  is to myself, for if  I am unable to serve  myself, I
          have no basis by which to judge the actions of others. I strive for
          excellence, in a sense, very close to what Setians call "Xeper".

          *I believe in  free will,  with the understanding  that "with  freedom
          comes  responsibility".  I do  not accept  the  threefold law,  or any
          specific prohibitions like "harm  none". In relating to others,  I use
          the rule "do  unto others  AS they  do unto you".  If I  am harmed  or
          treated with  dishonor, I will not continue to treat such persons in a
          way that is more than they deserve. Revenge, at the proper time and in
          a fitting manner, is acceptable behavior. If there are consequences to
          such revenge, I will accept them responsibly.

          *I will  endeavor to  be honorable  about my own  actions, and  I will
          expect the same behavior from others.

          *I see Satan in Nature, in the floods, hurricanes, volcanoes, and
          tidal waves. I see fundamental laws in Nature, that death is as
          necessary as life. I am humbled and empowered by this, for though it
          blindly destroys, it is yet a part of me, as deity is immanent and
          transcendant to me. Satan the transcendant is that excellence that I
          strive for, Satan the immanent is the spark in me that strives.

          * I am polytheistic. The divine, to me, is like a jewel with many
          facets, each a part of us, each with something to teach us. No such
          lesson, to me , is greater or lesser than any other; but are instead
          more or less appropriate for a person at a given time.

          There is  a great deal  more I could  say, and in  greater detail, but
          this covers  a large part of Satanism to  me. Of course, I'm sure that
          Diane Vera, Sheryl, Balanone,  and others will have  different beliefs
          than I do.  It seems that individualism and personal  pride seem to be
          the link between most serious Satanists.



                                   The Wiccan Rede (WCC) 

          Bide ye Wiccan laws ye must, 
          in perfect love and perfect trust
               Live ye must and let to live, 
               fairly take and fairly give
          Form the circle thrice about, 
          to keep unwelcome spirits out
               To bind the spell well every time, 
               let the spell be spake in rhyme
          Soft of eye and light of touch, 
          speak ye little, listen much
               Deosil go by the waxing moon, 
               sing and dance the Wiccan rune
          Widdershins go by the waning moon, 
          chanting out the baleful tune
               When the Lady's moon is new, 
               kiss the hand to her times two
          When the moon rides at Her peak, 
          then the heart's desire seek
               Heed the north wind's mighty gale, 
               lock the door and trim the sail
          When the wind comes from the south, 
          love will kiss kiss thee on the mouth
               When the wind blows from the west, 
               departed souls will have no rest
          When the wind blows from the east, 
          expect the new and set the feast
               Nine woods in the cauldron go, 
               burn them quick and burn them slow
          Elder be the Lady's tree, 
          burn it not or cursed you'll be
               When the wheel begins to turn, 
               soon the Beltain fires will burn
          When the wheel has turned to Yule, 
          light the log the Horned One rules
               Heed ye flower, bush and tree, 
               by the Lady blessed be
          Where the rippling waters flow, 
          cast a stone and the truth you'll know
               When you have and hold a need, 
               hearken not to others' greed
          With a fool no season spend, 
          nor be counted as his friend
               Merry meet and merry part, 
               bright the cheeks and warm the heart
          Mind the threefold law ye should, 
          three times bad and three times good
               When misfortune is anow, 
               wear the star upon thy brow
          True in love you must ever be, 
          lest thy love be false to thee
               These eight words the Wiccan Rede fulfill, 
               An Ye Harm None, Do What Ye   Will


                            Orphic invocations of Goddess & God 

          Bright Blessings to all... 
          Here are invocations to the Goddess and God that I have used 
          quite successfully in ritual. They are from the Orphic Hymns, 
          for those who like historical accuracy, but have been updated just  
          a tad, for those who like ritual with modern applications. 
          Hope you enjoy them. 
          Invocation to the Goddess 
          Divine are Your honors, Oh Mother of the Gods and Nurturer of All. 
          Yoke your swift chariot drawn by bull-slaying lions and, 
          O Mighty Goddess who brings things to pass, join our prayers. 
          Many named and reverend, You are the Queen of the Sky. 
          In the cosmos, Your throne is above all others, for You are

          Queen of the Earth, and You give gentle nourishment to mortals. 
          Goddesses, Gods, and mortals were born of You, 
          And You hold sway over the rivers and all of the sea. 
          Hestia,  Gaia,  Demeter, Inanna,  Isis,  Astarte,  Ishtar, Persephone,
          Giver of prosperity who bestows upon mortals all manner of gifts, 
          Come to this Rite, Queen whom the drum delights. 
          Honored and loving Nurturer of Life, 
          Joyfully and graciously visit our deeds of piety. 
          Blessed Be. 
          Invocation to the God 
          Hear Our Prayer, O best and Many-Named God. 
          Fine-haired, solitary, and full of lovely song; 
          Many shaped and noble nurturer of all, 
          Maiden and yout in one, unwithering bloom, O Adonis 
          You vanish and grow again in the fair seasons' turn. 
          Kurnunnos, Pan, Myrddhn, two horned Spirit of growth and blooming; 
          Much loved and wept for are you,  
                  O Fair and Youthful Hunter of the luxuriant mane. 
          Desire is in Your mind and You come to the Goddess 
                  in reverence and respect, 
                  in sensuous joy is your desire fulfilled 
          You are the seed planted in the depths of the Underworld 
          That springs forth, the Green God, that we may sustain our lives. 
          You sacrifice Yourself in gentleness when you are grown. 
          Come Kind-Hearted One, Come Blesseed God,  
                  and bring much joy to all. 
          Blessed Be. 
          Hope you find these beneficial... 
          Briget Bless...Phaedra. 


          Facing East:

               Guardians of the watchtower  of the east, we do summon, stir, and
          call thee up  to protect us in  our rite. Come to  us now on the  cool
          breath of Autumn's sigh which 
          heralds the advent of Winter  and the close of harvest time.   Breathe
          into us the spirit of the pure joy of life.  So mote it be! 
          Responsorial:  So mote it be! 

                     AIR (invocation) 
          (Celebrant with the incense burner symbolizing the element of air) :

               "I am  everywhere.  I  fill the fleshy  pouches of your  lungs, I
          stir all  things from the smallest blade of grass to the tallest tree.
          I cool you with my breezes and 
          destroy you with my storms.  
          Without me you would die.  Am I not holy and worthy of praise? "

          Facing East:  

               "Guardians of the watchtower of the east, return now to the brisk
          Autumn  breezes which are brimming  with the excitement  of the year's
          climax.  Take with you our 
          blessings and thanks. Hail and 
          Responsorial:  Hail and farewell! 


                SOUTH (invocation)
          Facing South:
               Guardians of the watchtower of the south, we do summon, stir, and
          call  thee up  to protect us  in our rite.   Come forth  from the cook
          fires and smokehouses where  food is being made  ready for the  coming
          cold  months.  Kindle within us the  flame of spiritual awakening.  So
          mote it be! 

          Responsorial:  So Mote it Be!

                FIRE (invocation) 
          (Celebrant with the candle symbolizing the element of fire):  
               "I  live in the guarded embers  of campfires and the pilot lights
          of stoves, I  spring from the lightning  and the hands of  men, I warm
          you and I destroy you. Without me you would die.  Am I not holy and 
          worthy of praise? "

                SOUTH (banishing) 
          Facing South:  

               "Guardians of the watchtower of the south, return now to the 
          dying fires of Autumn's heat soon  to give way to Winter's chill. Take
          with you our blessings and thanks.  Hail and farewell! 
          Responsorial:  Hail and farewell 


                     WEST (invoking) 
               Facing West:

               Guardians of  the watchtower of the west, we do summon, stir, and
          call thee up to  protect us in our rite.  Come  forth from the rainbow
          hued  morning dew  that covers the  fields, and  is soon  to be frost.
          Asperge us with  your diadems and water our deepest  roots that we may
          find peace of mind.  So mote it be! 
          Responsorial:  So mote it be!

                     WATER (invocation) 
          (Celebrant with the water vessel symbolizing the element of water):
          "I rise from the moist  crevices of the Earth, I beat on the shores of
          Her body, I fall from the skies in silver sheets. Without me you would
          die.  Am I not  holy and worthy  of praise? "  (Celebrant asperges the
          circle with water) 

                     WEST (banishing)
          Facing West:  

          "Guardians of the watchtower of the west, return now to the 
          Autumn rains which cool the Earth's fevered brow baked in  the heat of
          Summer afternoons. Take  with you our blessings and  thanks.  Hail and
          Responsorial:  Hail and farewell! 


                NORTH (invoking) 
          Facing North:

               Guardians of the watchtower of the north, we do summon, stir, and
          call thee up to  protect us in our rite.  Come  forth from the fertile
          bosom of  our Blessed Mother Earth,  and nourish us so  that our hopes
          may grow to fruition.  So mote it be! 
          Responsorial:  So mote it be! 

                EARTH (invocation) 
          (Celebrant with the salt vessel symbolizing the element of earth): 
               "I am your Mother.  From me  come the fruit and grain and animals
          which feed you.  I am your support, and  my pull on your  bodies keeps
          you held firmly to  me.  Without me you would die.   Am I not holy and
          worthy of praise? "

                NORTH (banishing) 
          Facing North:

               Guardians  of the  watchtowers of  the north,  return now  to the
          Earth where worms  burrow deeper  and seeds nestle  awaiting the  long
          sleep of Winter.  Take with you our 
          blessings and thanks.  Hail and farewell! 
          Responsorial:  Hail and farewell! 


                                      Wiccan History 
               Wicca is a relatively modern attempt (approximately 50 years old)
          at  reviving and  reconstructing  the old  pre-Christian religions  of
          Europe.   In a mythopoetic sense  it is many centuries  old.  However,
          the Witch of 200 years ago would not recognize what  is called "witch-
          craft"  today.  Modern Wicca may have some of its roots in some of the
          local  folk-magic and "family witchcraft" of mid 20th Century England.
          It does  have traceable roots  in the Golden  Dawn magical society  of
          late 19th  century England, some  of Aleister Crowley's  magickal work
          and some  Ceremonial Magic dating  back to  Elizabethan times.   For a
          modern  history of  English  Wicca,  the  reader can  most  profitably
          consult the works of Janet and Stuart Farrar and Doreen Valiente.  

               Up  until recently, the earliest known  remnants of human society
          that give us  any clues to the spiritual dimension  of prehistoric man
          are those  belonging to  the Gravettian-Aurignacian cultures  of 2500-
          1500 B.C.E.  This is called the Upper Paleolithic Period.  Though most
          of  the sites  so far  discovered have  been found  in Europe,  a very
          important site in  Anatolia (modern Turkey) has also been found and is
          the  (so far)  the first  or oldest  City of  Catal Huyuk  (pronounced
          chatal Hoo-Yook),they  form a conjectural foundation  for the religion
          of  the goddess as it  emerged in the later  Neolithic Age of the Near
          East.    There  have been numerous  studies of these  Paleolithic cul-
          tures, including extensive explorations of the sites occupied by these
          peoples,  including the apparent rites  connected with the disposal of
          their dead.

               The earliest remains of ancient civilization indicating some form
          of Goddess  worship were in the  caves in Lascaux, France.   Here, the
          first and earliest non-anthropomorphic divine figures were  symbolized
          by  the horse  for female Divinity  and the  Bison as  the male divine
          influence.   This  portion of  the cave  was painted  in approximately
          17,000  B.C.E. and sealed  approximately 10,000 B.C.E.   The anthropo-
          morphic Goddess figures appear sometime approximately 7,000 B.C.E. The
          earliest remains in  Catal Huyuk  have been reliably  carbon dated  to
          6,500  B.C. and show some interesting parallels  in that the horse was
          replaced with an  anthropomorphic goddess  and the Bison  (an ice  age
          animal)  has been replaced with  the aurochs bull,  ancestor of modern
          cattle.  The anthropomorphic Goddess is an Earth Mother and the nearby
          volcanoes (then active) were considered her breasts.1

                          One major conjecture has been that  the concept of the creator of
          all human life may have been formulated by the clan's  image of women.
          The  reasoning behind this conjecture lies in the observations in this
          century  of the few remaining Paleolithic type cultures.  These Paleo-
          lithic  cultures tend to be woman centered  since it is from the women
          that  babies come  and  the women  are  absolutely essential  for  the
          continuation of the tribe or clan.  Current information also indicates
          that it is also probable that the mother was regarded  as the sole (or
          at least  primary) parent of children in  this culture, and that there
          was a  definite pattern of ancestor worship.  It is also very probable
          that ancestry was matrilineal.


               The most tangible  evidence that these very  ancient cultures and
          their predecessors worshipped a goddess is the  numerous sculptures of
          women  found throughout  most of Europe  and the  Near east.   Some of
          these sculptures  date  as  far back as  25,000 B.C.E.!   Small female
          figurines, made of stone, bone and clay (most seemingly pregnant) have
          been found throughout  the widespread Gravettian-Aurignacian  sites as
          far apart as Spain,  France, Germany, Austria, and Russia  spanning an
          apparent period of  at least 10,000  years.  Erich  Neumnann, in  "The
          Great Mother" (p.95) says-  "Of the Stone Age sculptures  known to us,
          there are fifty-five female figures and  only five male figures.   The
          male figures, of youths, are atypical and poorly executed, hence it is
          certain that they had no significance for the cult.  This fits in with
          the secondary character of  the male godhead, who appeared  only later
          in  the history  of religions  and  derived his  divine rank  from his
          mother, the Goddess."

               Johannes  Maringer, in  his book  the  "Gods of  Prehistoric Man"
          says-  "it appears highly probable then that the female figurines were
          idols of a Great Mother cult, practiced by the non-nomadic Aurignacian
          mammoth hunters  who inhabited  the immense Eurasian  territories that
          extended from Southern   France to  Lake Baikal in  Siberia."  It  was
          from the Lake Baikal area in  Siberia that tribes are believed to have
          migrated across the  Bering land  bridge to North  America about  this
          time period, and formed the  nucleus of what was to become the race of
          North American Indians.  In some primitive societies known to history,
          the male role in procreation was not known.  Intercourse and pregnancy
          both begin with puberty, and there was no evident reason to regard one
          as the  cause of the other.  Women were  believed to conceive from the
          light of the moon or from ancestral spirits.

               Neolithic  cultures have left a  bit more evidence  for study and
          the images are a bit clearer and less speculative.   One good instance
          of this  is the stone age  painting of a priestess  officiating over a
          group of worshippers along with a male wearing a horned headdress.  An
          interesting point here  is that  the priestess pictured  is wearing  a
          garter and wielding a  ceremonial dagger, much  like the ones used  in
          modern witchcraft.  Of course much  has been made of this, including a
          lot of unfounded speculations on  the "ancient connections" of  modern
          witchcraft, but that is a topic beyond the scope of  the present work.
          The beginnings  of Roman religion are  sure to have been  based on the
          Etruscan  culture.  Ancestor worship was the earliest form of religion
          in Rome.   Another interesting  fact relating  to ancient  Matrilineal
          forms influencing  present society is  reflected in the  Jewish custom
          current  today that  membership  comes from  the  mother's side  of  a

               The above mentioned goddess images, some as old as 7000 BC, offer
          silent testimony to the most ancient worship of a great goddess in the
          land that is most  often remembered today as  the homeland of  Judaism
          and  Christianity.  In exploring  the influence and  importance of the
          worship of  the Goddess in Canaan  in biblical times, we  find that as
          Ashtoreth, Asherah  (perhaps  the  origin  of the  tribe  of  Asher?),
          Astarte,  Attoret, Anath,  or simply  as Elat or  Baalat, she  was the
          principal deity of such  great Canaanite cities as Tyre,  Sidon, Asca-
          lon, Beth Anath, Aphaca, Byblos, and Ashtoreth Karnaim.   


               In Egypt, the Hebrews had known the worship of the Goddess as    
            Isis or Hathor. For four generations they had been living  in a land
          where women held a very high status and the matrilineal descent system
          continued to function at most periods.  

               Judging  from the number of Hebrews who emerged from Egypt in    
          the Exodus,  as compared with the  family of the twelve  sons who sup-
          posedly  entered it four generations  earlier, it seems  likely that a
          great  number of those Hebrews  known as Israelites  may actually have
          been Egyptians, Canaanites, Semitic nomads and other Goddess-worshipp-
          ing  peoples who had joined together in Egypt.  Archaeological records
          and artifacts reveal that the religion of the Goddess still flourished
          in many of the cities of Canaan long after the Hebrews invaded.

               What are some of the modern day applications of this long history
          of Goddess worship?  For  an answer to this,  let's look at an  encap-
          sulation of the "herstory" of  the legend of the Universal Goddess  as
          taught to the  new entrants to  the Faerie Tradition  in 20th  Century

               According  to the  legends of  the Faerie, Witchcraft  and magick
          began more than 35 thousand years ago, when the last ice age in europe
          began and small  bands of  nomadic hunters  followed the  free-running
          reindeer and bison herds.  They were armed with but primitive  weapons
          ( Stone Age, remember?), and  had to lure or chase the animals  over a
          cliff or into a  pit to kill and eat them.   As Starhawk says,"...some
          among the clans were gifted, could "call" the herds to a cliff side or
          a pit, where a  few beasts,in willing sacrifice, would  let themselves
          be trapped."

               As  the  last ice  age retreated  the  tribes of  nomadic hunters
          worshipped the Goddess of the Wild Things and Fertility and the God of
          the Hunt.Semipermanent homes  were set up in  caves carved out by  the
          glaciers.  Shamans and  Shamanka conducted rites within hard  to reach
          portions of  the caves,  which  were painted with scenes  of the hunt,
          magical symbols and the tribes totem animals.  

               The   transition  from  Hunter-Gatherers  to  agriculturists  was
          reflected in the change of the "Lady of the Wild Things and Fertility"
          to  the "Barley Mother" and the "God of  the Hunt" to the "Lord of the
          Grain".   The importance  of the phases  of the  moon and the  sun was
          reflected  in the  rituals  that evolved  around sowing,  reaping, and
          letting out to pasture.  

               Villages  grew into  towns and  cities and  society changed  from
          tribal to  communal to  urban.  Paintings  on the  plastered walls  of
          shrines depicted  the Goddess giving birth  to the Divine  Child - Her
          son,  consort and  seed.   The  Divine Child  was expected  to take  a
          special interest in  the city dwellers, just as His  Mother and Father
          had taken  an interest in the  people who lived away  from the cities.
          Mathematics, astronomy, poetry, music, medicine, and the understanding
          of  the workings of  the human mind,  developed side by  side with the
          lore of the deeper mysteries.  


               Far to the east, nomadic tribes devoted themselves to the arts of
          war and conquest.  Wave after wave of invasion swept  over Europe from
          the  Bronze Age  onward.  Warrior  gods drove the  Goddess' people out
          from the fertile  lowlands and  the fine temples,  into the hills  and
          high mountains,  where they became  known as  the Sidhe, the  Picts or
          Pixies, and the  Fair Folk or the Fairies.   The mythological cycle of
          Goddess and Consort, Mother and Child, which had held sway  for 30,000
          years  was changed to conform to the values of the conquering patriar-

               In  Canaan,  Yahweh fought  a bloody  battle  to ensure  that his
          followers had  "no other  gods before  me."  The  Goddess was  given a
          masculine name and assigned  the role of a false god.   Along with the
          suppression  of the  Goddess, women lost  most of the  rights they had
          previously enjoyed.  

               In Greece, the Goddess in Her many aspects,  was "married" to the
          new gods  resulting in  the  Olympic Pantheon.   The  Titans, who  the
          Olympians  displaced were more in touch with the primal aspects of the

               The  victorious Celts in Gaul and the British Isles, adopted many
          features  of the Old Religion  and incorporated them  into the Druidic
          Mysteries.  The Faerie, breeding cattle in the stony hills and  living
          in turf-covered round huts  preserved the Craft.  They  celebrated the
          eight feasts of the Wheel of the Year with wild  processions on horse-
          back,  singing and chanting along the way and lighting ritual bonfires
          on the  mountaintops.  It was  said that the invaders  often joined in
          the revels and  many rural  families, along with  some royalty,  could
          claim  to have Faerie blood.  The College of the Druids and the Poetic
          Colleges of  Ireland and Wales were said to have preserved many of the
          old mysteries. ***

               In  the late 1400's  the Catholic Church  attempted to obliterate
          its competitors, and the followers of the Old Religion were forced  to
          "go underground."   They broke up into small groups called Covens and,
          isolated from  each other,  formed what  would later  be known as  the
          Family  Traditions.  Inevitably, parts  of the Craft were forgotten or
          lost and what survives today is fragmentary.  

               After nearly five centuries  of persecution and terror,  came the
          Age of Disbelief.   Memory of the True Craft  had faded as non-members
          who could     remember how they once had met openly died and those who
          came after  never knew of  them.  All that  was left were  the hideous
          stereotypes  which were     ludicrous, laughable or just plain tragic.
          With  the repeal of  the last Witchcraft  Act in England  in 1954, the
          Craft started  to re-emerge as an  alternative to a  world that viewed
          the planet as a resource to be exploited.   


               Janet and  Stewart  Farrar, in  the introduction  to The  Witches
          Goddess  say of the  modern re-emergence of  the Goddess "  ..may well
          prove to be one of the most significant spiritual, psychic and psycho-
          logical developments of our lifetime".  They have since done a wonder-
          ful job of presenting an overview of the ascendancy and history of the
          expression  of the masculine  principle of deity as  e pressed by Male
          God-forms and  Gods with their  book The  Witches' God.   What do  the
          Farrars consider  this "masculine principle" to  be? " represents
          the linear-logical,analyzing, fertilizing aspect, with its emphasis on
          Ego-consciousness  and  individuality,  while  the  feminine principle
          represents the cyclical-intuitive, synthesizing, formative, nourishing
          aspect,  with  its emphasis  on the  riches  of the  unconscious, both
          Personal and Collective, and on relatedness."

               As mankind  started to develop  his cultures  in directions  that
          were more male  dependent in the nature of the  cultures, the emphasis
          in  religion shifted  to  become more  male  god than  female  goddess
          oriented.   As  this  happened, the  Goddess(es)  lost ground  to  the
          God(s). At first,  the female  aspect merely became  secondary to  the
          male, but  eventually the  male took over  and dominated to  the total
          exclusion of the female, particularly in western society as we know it
          today. "The first major  god-form to claim a monopoly of  divinity was
          the  Hebrew Yahweh, from which in  due course sprang the Christian and
          Moslem forms."   "Dr. Raphael Patai,  in his books Man  and Temple and
          The Hebrew  Goddess  shows that  the  Goddess Asherah  was  worshipped
          alongside Yahweh as his wife and sister in the Temple at Jerusalem for
          240 of  the 360 years  the temple complex  existed, and her  image was
          publicly displayed there."   There  is also evidence  that the  Jewish
          community at  elephantine in egypt acknowledged   two goddess-wives of
          Yahweh, and  also there still remains in Ezekiel (xxiii)a metaphorical
          reference to a  pair of wives, where Yahweh condemns the "whoredom" of
          two sisters who "became mine and bore me sons and daughters".  


                                         MY WICCA 
                                    By Durwydd MacTara

               My RELIGION is Wicca, my LIFE-STYLE is Witchcraft!  I believe in
          a supreme being that is both Immanent and Transcendent, that is
          expressing  itself within AND without.  However, I also believe that
          trying  to define/describe  such  an infinite  Divine Being  in finite
          terms to be a waste of time and energy.  I CAN describe my perceptions
          of the Ultimate  in terms of  the energies that I  work with and  find
          significant in my  daily living.  My style and  methods of relating to
          what I can perceive of these Divine Energies are what I describe as my
          RELIGION. How I  apply these  insights gained via  my religious  prac-
          tices, I term my CRAFT.

               The name for my religion is derived from the Saxon root "wicce"
          (pronounced "witchy") and is loosely translated as "Wise".  The word
          "Wicca" was first used in modern times in England by Gerald B. Gardner
          to describe/define an attempt at restoring "the old wisdom" of pre-
          Christian beliefs and practice into a modern context in the 1940's. 
          Ergo, I could call my religion "wisdom" and my style of application of
          this wisdom "wise-craft" or more simply, "The Craft of the Wise".

               For the sake of convenience and easy understanding, I divide the
          expressions of the Divine Energies into two groups; that of the active
          positive (symbolically "male") energies represented to me by the stag
          horned Lord of the Forest, and those of a more passive, nurturing, or
          "negative" polarity represented to me by the Threefold Goddess. 
          Approaching  my perceptions of the  universe and its  energies in this
          way allows me to break them down into  "bite sized chunks", applicable
          to  my daily life  in a  mundane world,  and what  good is  ANY belief
          system if it is not of immediate and practical use here and now?

               So what are some of the beliefs and practices of this religion
          called Wicca, and how do I apply them to my daily life?  What does it
          all mean?  The following explanation is based on a press statement
          released by the American Council of Witches released in the early
          1970's, with some editing on my part to reflect my own beliefs and


                            BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE CRAFT 
          1. The first principle is that of love, and it is expressed in the
                    "AN IT HARM NONE, DO AS THOU WILL"  

               a) love is not emotional in it's essence, but is an 
               attribute of the individual as expressed in relation 
               to other beings; 
               b) harming others can be by thought, word, or deed.
               Thought is included here, because for the Witch,
               "thoughts are things" and every action, even thoughts,
               can become magical actions, whether consciously intended
               or not;
               c> it is to be understood the "none" includes oneself,
               though it is permissable to harm self in helping others,
               should one so choose;
               d) the harm which is to be regarded as unethical is 
               gratuitous harm; war, in general, is gratuitous harm, 


               although it is ethical to defend oneself and one's 
               liberty when threatened by real and present danger, 
               such as personal defense or defense of another WHEN REQUESTED. 

          2.   The Witch must recognize and harmonize with the forces of the 
          universe, in accord with the Law of Polarity: everything is dual;
          everything  has two  poles;  everything has  it's opposite;  for every
          action there is a reaction; all can be categorized as either active or
          reactive in relation to other things. 
             a) The Infinite and Ultimate Godhead is one unique and
             transcendent wholeness, beyond any limitations or expressions;
             thus, it is beyond our human capacity to understand and identify
             with this principle of Cosmic Oneness, except as It is 
             revealed to us in terms of It's attributes and operation. 

             b) One of the most basic and meaningful attribute of the One
             that we, as humans, can relate to and understand, is 
             that of polarity, of action and reaction; therefore 
             Witches recognize the Oneness of the Divinity, but 
             worship and relate to the Divine as the archetypal 
             polarity of God and Goddess, the All-Father and the 
             Great Mother of the universe.  The Beings are as near as 
             we can approach to the One within our human limitations 
             of understanding and expression, though it is possible to 
             experience the divine Oneness through the practices of the 

             c) Harmony does not consist of the pretty and the nice, 
             but the balanced, dynamic, poised co-operation and 

            3.   The Witch  must recognize, and operate within the  framework of
          the  Law of  Cause and  Effect; every  action has  it's reaction,  and
          every effect has it's cause.   All things occur according to this law;
          nothing in  the universe can occur outside this law, though we may not
          always  appreciate the relation between a given effect and it's cause.
          Subsidiary  to this  is the Law  of Three, which  states that whatever
          goes forth  must return  threefold, whether  of good  or ill; for  our
          actions affect  more than people generally realize,  and the resulting
          reactions are also part of the harvest. 

          4. As Above, So Below.  That which exists in the Macrocosm exists, on
          a smaller scale and to a lesser degree, in the Microcosm.  The powers
          of the  universe exist also in  the human, though in  general instance
          lie dormant.  The powers and abilities can be awakened and used if the
          proper techniques are practiced, and this is why initiates of the
          Mysteries are sworn to guard the secrets from the unworthy: Much harm
          can be done by those who have power without responsibility, both to
          others and to themselves according to the Laws of Cause and Effect and
          of Threefold Return. 

            a) Since our philosophy teaches that the universe is the 
            physical manifestation of the Divine, there can be 
            nothing in the universe which does not partake of the 
            nature of the Divine; hence, the powers and attributes 
            of the Divine exist also in the manifest, though to much 
            smaller degree.


            b) These powers can be awakened through the various
            techniques of the Mysteries, and, although they are only 
            capable of small effects in and of themselves, it is 
            possible to use them in order to draw upon the forces of 
            the universe.  Thus humanity can be the wielders of the 
            power of the Gods, a channel for Godhead to act within 
            It's own manifestation.  This, many feel, is further reason
            for the oath of secrecy. 

            c) Since the universe is the body of the One, possessing 
            many of the same attributes as the One, it's Laws must be the
            principles through and by which the One operates.  By 
            reasoning from the known to the unknown, one can learn 
            of the Divine, and thus of oneself.  By experiencing the Mysteries
            a person can truly LEARN more about the One. Thus the Craft is a
            natural religion as well as a MYSTERY religion, seeing in Nature
            the expression and revelation of Divinity.

          5. We know that everything in the universe is in movement or vibration
          and is a function of that vibration. Everything vibrates; all things
          rise and fall  in a tidal system that reflects  the motion inherent in
          the universe and  also in  the atom.   Matter and  energy are but  two
          poles of  one continuous  phenomenon. Therefore the  Witch celebrates,
          harmonizes with,  and makes use  of the tides  of the universe  and of
          life as expressed through the  cycle of the seasons and the  motion of
          the  solar system.    These ritual  observances  are the  eight  great
          Festivals of the Year, referred to as the Wheel of the Year.  Further,
          the  Witch works with the forces and  tides of the Moon, for this body
          is the mediator of much energy to our planet Earth and thus to oursel-

          6.   Nothing is dead matter in the universe.  All things exist,
          therefore all things live, though perhaps in a different manner from
          that which we are used to calling life.  In view of this, the Witch
          knows that there is no true death, only change from one condition to
          another. The universe is the body of Godhead, and therefore 
          possesses one transcendent consciousness; all things partake of the
          consciousness, in varying levels of trance/awareness. 

            a) Because of this principle, all things are sacred to 
            the Witch, for all partake of the one Life. 

            b) Therefore the Witch is a natural ecologist, for Nature 
            is part of us as we are a part of Nature. 

          7.   Throughout the development of the human race, civilizations have
          seen and worshipped many and various attributes of the Divine.  These
          universal forces have been  clothed in forms which were  expressive to
          the worshipper of the  attribute of the Godhead which  they expressed.
          Use of these symbolic representations of the natural and divine forces
          of the  universe, or god forms, is a  potent method for contacting and
          utilizing  the forces they represent.  Thus the Gods  are both natural
          and  truly divine, and man-made in that  the forms with which they are
          clothed are products of humanity's striving to know the Godhead. 


            a) In keeping with the Law of Polarity, these god-forms 
            are brought into harmony by the one great Law which 
            states:  All Gods are one God.  All Goddesses are one 
            Goddess.  There is one Initiator.  This law is an 
            expression of our understanding that all of the forces of 
            the universe, by whatever ethnic god-form is chosen to 
            clothe and relate to whichever force, can be resolved 
            into the fundamental polarity of the Godhead, the Great 
            Mother and the All-Father. 

            b) It is the use of differing god forms, of differing 
            ethnic sources or periods, which is the basis of many of 
            the differences between the various Traditions of the 
            Craft. Each Tradition uses the forms, and thus the names, 
            which to that Tradition best express and awaken an 
            understanding of the force represented, according to the 
            areas of emphasis of the Tradition. 

            c) Because we know that differing names or 
            representations are but expressions of the same divine 
            principles and forces, we require our  members to swear 
            that they will never mock the names by which another 
            honors the Divine, even though those names be different 
            from and seemingly less expressive than the names and god 
            forms used by our Tradition (for to the members of 
            another Tradition, using it's names, ours may easily seem 
            equally less expressive). 

          8. A Witch refuses to allow her/himself to be corrupted by the great
          guilt neuroses which have been foisted on humanity in the name of the
          Divine, thus freeing the self of the slavery of the mind.   The Witch
          expresses responsibility  for her/his actions, and  accepts the conse-
          quences of them; guilt is rejected as inhibiting to one's self-actual-
          ization, and replaced by the  efforts of the Witch to obey  the teach-
          ings  of harmlessness,  responsibility for  the consequences  of one's
          actions, and the goal of  actualizing the full powers of  the individ-

            a) We refuse to believe that a human being is born 
            innately sinful, and recognize the concepts of sin and 
            guilt are tremendously inhibiting to the human potential; 
            the consequences of the Law of Cause and Effect, called 
            karma by some, are not punishment, but the recurrences of 
            situations and their effects because the individual has 
            not gained the Wisdom needed to handle or avoid such 

            b) There is no heaven except that which we ourselves make 
            of our life on Earth, and likewise there is no hell 
            except the effects of our unwise actions.  Many of us believe
            in a "waiting place" sometimes called Summerland where we rest,
            recuperate and prepare for our next sojurn in the earth.  "Death
            is not followed by punishment or reward, but by life and the
            continuing personal evolution of our human potential. 


            c) One cannot damn the divine in oneself; one can, 
            however, cut oneself off from it through the rejection of 
            wisdom and a refusal to strive for self-realization. 
            This cutting off does not lead to personal suffering in 
            "hell", for there is no Self to suffer if the tie to 
            one's own divinity has been severed; what remains is 
            merely an empty shell, a "personality" or thought-form 
            devoid of it's ensouling Spark of the Divine Fire.

          9.   We  know of  the existence  of the  life-force which  ensouls all
          living things,  that is, all  that exists.   We know  that a spark  of
          this Divine Fire is within each  and every thing that exists, and that
          it does not die; only the form of it's existence changes. We know that
          this  spark of the life-force returns to manifestation again and again
          in  order to  fully  realize and  actualize  it's potential,  evolving
          finally to the peak and essence of existence which  is pure being.  In
          this  process of reincarnation  each form returns in  the same type of
          form,  though it's  ever-increasing actualization  may lead  to higher
          levels of existence of that form.  Man returns as man,  cat as feline,
          mineral  as mineral,  each class  of form  evolving as  the individual
          forms of that class evolve. 

          10.  This process of evolution through successive incarnations in
          manifest form works through the utilizations of wisdom gained, the
          essence of the life-experience. This essence of experience, or Wisdom,
          is an attribute of the spark of life itself, one and inseparable. 

          11.  We must care for the body, for it is the vehicle of the spark of 
          life, the form by which we attain.  Thus we must heal the body of it's
          ills and keep it a tuned and perfected tool; so must we heal others
          (both physically and psychologically) as far as it is within our power
          to do so.  However, we cannot interfere with the life of another, even
          to heal, except  at their  request or with  their express  permission.
          The reasoning behind this  apparent limitation is that we  are endowed
          with  Free Will,  and what  the Gods  themselves hesitate  to infringe
          upon, is best left alone by us "mere" mortals.

          13.  Harmony with, and utilization of, the great natural forces of the
          universe is called magick.  By magick we speak, not of the  super-
          natural, but of the superbly natural, but whose laws and  applications
          are not as yet recognized by the scientific establishment.  The Witch
          must strive to recognize these forces, learn their laws, attune
          her/himself to them,  and make use  of them.   The Witch must  also be
          aware that power corrupts when  used _only_ for the gains of the self,
          and  therefore  must strive  to serve  humanity:   Either  through the
          service in the  Priesthood, or by example and  effects of his/her life
          on others.  The choice must be made in accord with  the true nature of
          the Witch. 


                                MONISM, One Wiccan Perspective  
                                        Durwydd MacTara

          "Henotheism  n. Belief  in one  god without  denying the  existence of
          others." (American Heritage Second College Dictionary)

          "Monism n. philos. A metaphysical system in which reality is conceived
                         as a  unified whole." (American Heritage Second College

          "Monotheism n.  The belief or  doctrine that  there is only  one God."
          (American Heritage Second College Dictionary)

          "Pantheism n. 1. The  doctrine identifying the Deity with  the various
          forces and workings of nature. 2. Belief in and worship          o   f
          all gods." (American Heritage Second College Dic            tionary)

          "Polytheism n. The worship of or belief in more than  one god." (Ameri
          can Heritage Second College Dictionary)

          "To witches, deities manifest in different ways and can be
          worshipped and contacted through any form suitable to local
          conditions and personal needs.  Wicca does not believe, as do
          the patriarchal monotheisms, that there is only one correct
          version of God and that all other God forms are false:  the
          Gods of Wicca are not jealous Gods.  We therefore worship the
          personification of the male and female principles, the God and
          the Goddess, recognizing that Gods are aspects of the One God
          and all Goddesses are different aspects of the one Goddess,
          and that ultimately these two are reconciled in the one divine
          (Vivianne Crowley, WICCA: The Old Religion in The New Age,pp.

          Vivianne Crowley, a very  capable spokesperson for British Traditional
          Wicca, identifies the core belief of Wicca (at least BTW) as Monism in
          the piece  quoted above.  However, she also opens the door to defining
          Wicca as duotheistic in  principle with the subdivision of  the monist
          reality into the praxis of worshiping both Lord and Lady.

          However, there  is yet a  THIRD level of  obscurity in Wiccan  Praxis!
          Most Wiccans worship a threefold Goddess (Maid, Mother, and Crone) and
          many  also worship at least  a twofold God.  So,  are the Wicca REALLY
          polytheists or perhaps pantheists or even modified Henotheists as some
          have claimed?   Or, perhaps,  a new  category altogether  needs to  be
          invented to accurately describe Wiccan belief and practice.

                    One suggestionhas beenmade toadd aword to ourThea/Theo-logi-
          cal lexicon, perhaps "Cthonotheism" (provided we MUST have a "Theism")
          to  describe "Theistic Wicca".   One  advantage is  that it  makes the
          assumption of worshipping  that which was  there to be found  and wor-
          shipped,  NOT a  Deity  or deities  invented  in 1939!  (More  on this


          The  following is the only published copy of the (Gardnerian) Blessing
          Prayer that I know of.

                  "In the name of Dryghtyn, the Ancient Providence,
                   Who was from the beginning and is for eternity,
                   Male and Female, the Original Source of all things;
                   all-knowing, all-pervading, all-powerful;
                   changeless, eternal.

                  "In the name of the Lady of the Moon,
                   and the Lord of Death and Resurrection.

                  "In the name of the Mighty Ones of the Four Quarters,
                   the Kings of the Elements.

                  "Blessed be this place, and this time,
                   and they who are now with us."
          ("Witch Blood!  The Diary Of A Witch High
          Priestess!" by Patricia Crowther in chapter
          four (paperback edition 1974, House Of Collec-
          tibles, Inc.).) Courtesy of David Piper

          The Gawain Poet (the poet who wrote Sir Gawain and the Green
          Knight  in Middle  English) used the  term 'Dryghtyn' to  refer to the
          Lord God.

          At the start of fit IV -

          "Now neghes the Newe Yere and the night passes,
           The day drives to the derk, as Dryghtyn biddes."

          ("Now approaches the New Year and the night passes,
            The daylight comes up on the darkness, as the Lord God bids."

          or from Brian Stowes verse translation (Penguin Classics, 1974) -

           "Now the New Year neared, the night passed,
            Daylight fought darkness as the Deity ordained.")

          Grendel Grettison,  an Asatruar  from Seattle suggests  the "Dryghtyn"
          may be an  alternative   spelling of the  Teutonic "Drighten"  meaning
          "Lord".  I admit  this is interesting, to me, as the  closeness of the
          linguistic link between the  Old English and Old German  languages has
          been a scholarly "fact"  widely known for many years.  Supporting this
          view, the Anglo-Saxon (Old English) word was actually 'dryhtin', meant
          'lord, the Lord'  and is linguistically  related to 'dreogan'  meaning
          'to perform, to serve'.


          As a side issue, this might be some evidence that runs contrary to the
          thesis  put forth  by Aidan Kelly  that Gerald  Gardner "manufactured"
          Wicca in 1939.  From personal experience, I have found that one unique
          distinction  of the non BTW  strains of Witchcraft  (some times called
          "FamTrads" of Family Traditions) is the incorporation of old Christian
          Imagery,  often including ArchAngels for the  four directions or elem-
          ents.    Though this  instance does  not  include Archangels,  it DOES
          include archaic  (and relatively  unknown) Christian terminology.   If
          Gardner did discover a remnant of the Old Religion upon which he based
          his  modern  reconstruction  effort,  it is  this  sort  of linguistic
          "artifact" which would have survived.  Perhaps a more scholarly
          investigation than mr. Kelly's will "turn up" more evidence?

          Jim Taylor, an  Eastern Orthodox  Theologian, also makes  two (to  me)
          illuminating statements, concerning "The Dryghtyn Prayer":
          1.       "'In the name of Dryghtyn, the Ancient Providence,
                   Who was from the beginning and is for eternity,
                   Male and Female, the Original Source of all things;
                   all-knowing, all-pervading, all-powerful;
                   changeless, eternal.'
          This would be, entirely, an acceptable way of describing God, both for
          most Jews and for most Christians."
          2.       "'In the name of the Lady of the Moon,
                   and the Lord of Death and Resurrection.'
          The Lord of  Death and  Resurrection would seem,  to any Christian  to
          refer to Jesus Christ."

          This  evidence of a possible mixing of an older (unrecorded) Christian
          Prayer may lend further credence to Gardners' claims of building on an
          older, hidden, traditional remnant.

          I, personally, also agree  with Mr. Taylors' statement that  "the idea
          of Wicca  being 'manufactured' in 1939  is far too pat,  and ignores a
          great deal  which ought not  to be ignored.   At the  very least, some
          degree   of  recognition should be  accorded to the  obvious fact that
          most  Wiccan practices  and  attitudes predate  Wicca by  considerable
          periods of time--possibly even millennia".

          The existence  of Monism, Duotheism, and  Polytheism simultaneously in
          the  belief structure of Wicca is one  good example of one of the Five
          Mysteries of  Wicca, that of  Union.  Wicca  is a mystery  religion, a
          PARTICIPATORY  religion, and much of  its symbology must  be lived and
          practiced to have  meaning because much of  the real (some say  hidden
          meaning is based on the knowledge of experience and  not the intellec-
          tual knowledge of mere logic and conscious thought processes.

          I am an eclectic Wiccan with strong ties in my beliefs and practice to
          British  Traditional Wicca.   I  am a  Monist, yet  I have  had strong
          direct experience with Brigid, Danu,  and the Morrigan as well as  the
          Earth  Mother and  the Horned  Lord of  the Forests.   So  my personal
          answer to the question  of "What kind of Theism  fits Theistic Wicca?"
          is  "several, or  none; it  is not  really a  valid question  in those
          limited  terms"!  But perhaps the concept of "Cthonotheism" would give
          a better  label to this concept when attempting to discuss the idea of
          the peculiar theism unique to Wicca?
                                   Blessed Be,
                                        Durwydd MacTara


                                    Air Meditation

                    (taken from the WICCA echo on  Sun 24 Jan 93 22:17)

          It is dawn.  I find myself in a forest filled with Aspen trees.
          I raise my eyes and look for the sky, but the boughs looming
          overhead hide it from my view.  As I look up, feel the cool
          breeze of spring brush my face, and hear the sound of the
          rustling leaves.  Blowing, laughing from the east, Eurus brings
          thoughts of renewal and life.  I follow the wind further into the
          soft shadows of the forest, inhaling deeply the strong scent of
          the trees.  I smell, too, the wafting hints of fragrant incense.
          I follow where my senses lead me and come to a small clearing
          circled by burning censers filled with sweet-smelling oils.
          Toward the east end of the circle is a staff.  I walk over to the
          place and sit on the ground before it.  I take the staff into my
          hands and close my eyes.  First come swirling colors of white
          then yellow then fading darker into lavender.  Then, out of the
          swirling fog of colors come dozens of small, lithe figures who
          swirl around as if carried on the wind itself.  They dance around
          my head and body, swirling around as if caught in a dance to
          unheard music.  Then, taking my attention from the spirits of the
          air, I look up to find further figures emerging from the mist.
          First comes a woman with the beauty of the dawn. As she steps
          forward, each of the four winds, in turn, hasten from around here
          and fly, one to each of the four corners of the earth.  As she
          fades, there comes another whose form seems insubstantial, and
          seems to constitute both the image of a woman and a cow at the
          same time.  I look closely the attempt to solidify one form, but
          I cannot.  As this image fades, I am presented with the forms of
          two women who immediately remind me of the nighttime sky.  One
          glows with the pale light of the full moon, and her eyes hold the
          fullness of hidden knowledge.  The other, whom also seems to
          radiate cool starlight, seems to embody the possibilities of many
          lifetimes.  In due course, these figures too fade and I am left
          with only the mist of the elemental world of air.  Suddenly,
          three male figures issue from the mist. They seem to be three
          aspects of one man, but each's attributes differ.  The first
          glows with the light of the moon, seeming to be its protector.
          The second and third appear almost identical, except that one has
          a winged helmet and shoes.  As I sit and study the sameness and
          difference of the three, they begin to fade, as does the fog.
          When the mist clears, I find myself sitting within the circle
          still clutching the staff in my hands.  I place the staff once
          again on the ground and rise.  I thank the element of air, and
          all it is associated with for sharing with me its wisdom, and
          leave the circle.


           * PALLAS ATHENA, Atlanta, Georgia 404-920-1349 (93:9603/0)


          Re: Symbolism

          Classification:     IT.IV.C.2.e
          Title:              Symbolism
          Author:             Grand Master of the Order of Shuti
                              Temple of Set
          Date:               December,  XXIV
          Published:          Dialogues  I.3
                              (The section on "Neters" was published in
                              issue I.4)
          Subject:            Symbolism
          Reading List:       2L, 2V

          [copyright  1989,  Temple of  Set.   Permission for  electronic distr-
          ibution by echo and on PODS has been given by the author.  Do not copy
          or distribute further without  permission of the author or  the Temple
          of Set.]

          The first session of  the year-XXIV Order of Shuti  Workshop discussed

          While the  study of symbolism itself  is not a primary  concern of the
          Order of Shuti, several  of the Order's activities do  involve working
          with forms of symbolism, or are discussed using various symbols.

          The symbols of the twin lion gods, Shu and Tefnut, who together are
          Shuti, are obviously of importance in understanding the activities
          of the Order.  The topic of symbolism was therefore chosen for the
          introductory session of the workshop.


          In discussing this session and what would be discussed, the Grand
          Master stressed that symbolism wasn't to be discussed simply as an
          intellectual exercise, but that all participants should try to
          apply the Setian yardstick of "application" to this discussion.

          Each and every topic of this session (and all sessions in the
          workshop) should be measured by the questions of a) Can it be
          applied? b) Is it useful? c) Does it work?

                                   What is symbolism?

          One answer suggested by workshop participants is that symbolism is
          a language of the unconscious.

          It is a dynamic language in which one image, a single symbol, can
          conjure up archetypical impressions, complex or complete concepts
          and/or meanings, rather than being a structured language in which
          many words and/or several sentences are needed to put together an
          equivalent concept or meaning.

          Another purpose of symbolism offered by the participants is to
          serve as a metalanguage which has two levels or multiple levels of


          Each symbol or set of symbols can have one meaning to the
          initiated, and another meaning to the uninitiated.  That symbol or
          set of symbols could also have /different/ meanings to the
          initiated, depending upon how the symbols are communicated, and how
          they are mixed with other symbols.  A statement in a symbolic
          language could even have multiple meanings communicated at the same
          time to the same person.

          A lot of the symbols Setians use in our writings are like that.
          When we read through the _Scroll of Set_ or the jewelled Tablets,
          those of us who have been using the language of the Temple of Set
          for a while will see certain words, and will know just from the way
          the words are used that the author is writing symbolically as well
          as grammatically, and he therefore means "this type of thing".

          This symbolic use of language lets us add meaning to an article
          without adding substantially to the size of that article.

          Those who haven't been in the Temple of Set long enough to pick up
          on that symbolic use of language will miss almost all of that
          meaning on their first reading.

          This is one of the reasons why we all find it useful to reread past
          issues of the _Scroll_ and to reread Tablet articles.  It enables
          us to read meaning in an article that we may have missed on an
          earlier reading.

          It sometimes happens that "unintended" meaning is found in an
          article during such a rereading.

          Even though the author may not have consciously intended to convey
          a certain meaning, that author's Higher Self may have influenced
          the writing in such a way as to symbolically give a specific
          message in the writing.  These messages remain hidden except for
          those who can perceive and understand them.

          On the other side of the scale, if our writings are read by someone
          totally unfamiliar with occult symbolism, then the message can be
          totally lost, and the reader may never see it.

          Symbolism can be visual (examples are the Pentagram of Set,
          pictures of the Egyptian Neters, etc), and verbal (the closing we
          use on our letters, "Xeper and Remanifest", is a statement and
          reminder of our dedication to this Formula, a way of developing and
          keeping the habit of Xeper and Remanifestation going strong).

          Each Word itself is a symbol (Xeper, Indulgence, Thelema, etc.),
          as is each Neter (Shu, Tefnut, Sekhmet, Bast).  A lot of principles
          can be used as symbols which have more meaning to the initiated
          than they do to those who just read about them in a dictionary.

          Visual and verbal/written symbols involve just one of our senses
          (sight).  If you include verbal/spoken symbols, we then involve a
          second sense (hearing).  We then asked the question, "Are there
          symbols which are perceived and communicated through each of our
          other senses?"


          The first examples offered by workshop participants were incense
          and music: Incense can bring about different emotions and responses
          through the sense of smell.  Music can bring about different
          responses through the sense of hearing, in ways totally different
          than the verbal symbols do (the difference between right brained
          behavior and left brained behavior).

                             Where does symbolism come from?

          When dealing with incense and music, we are leaving the mental
          processes and intellectual reactions that visual symbols will
          evoke, and going instead to the more reactive, bodily, reactions.

          We react to the smell of bodily feces with distaste because of the
          body's reaction to that sort of an input.  We find the fragrance
          of a rose very pleasing.

          One of the reasons we use fragrant incenses during a ritual is to
          bring about bodily reactions which enhance a ceremony because of
          the smells and our reactions to the smells.

          The discussion of one question leads to another.  We learn the
          reactions / interpretations / meanings of visual and verbal symbols
          (at least those discussed above).  Do we also learn reactions to
          incenses and music, or are those reactions more innate?

          The first response was that our reactions and interpretations, even
          our likes and dislikes of music are learned.

          The example given was classical music, which strikes some people
          as very soothing and relaxing, and which is likely to put these
          people to sleep.  But others who are aware of the intelligent
          dynamics and many other ingredients of classical music will find
          the same music very stimulating.

          (We believe that the workshop participant was thinking about the
          lighter classical pieces, such as "Tales from the Vienna Woods,"
          and not the more active pieces such as "Night on Bald Mountain.")

          The second response disagreed with the first, pointing out that
          regardless of whether they are used in classical, modern, or any
          other form of music, harps and strings tend to evoke emotional
          (peaceful) moods, while drums are more primal and physical, evoking
          more active responses.

          The next example we discussed referred to the sense of smell.  To
          a farmer, feces and fertilizer are pleasing and filled with
          promise, a smell of promised growth and life, a totally different
          reaction than most people will have (especially after scraping a
          dog's refuse off the bottom of one's shoe).

          Similarly, an inlander's first pleasant reaction to sea gulls on
          wing, grace in motion, can be compared to the reaction of those who
          live on the beach and have to live with the noise and the mess and
          the droppings left behind by those very same sea gulls.

          These examples tend to support the theory that we learn our
          interpretations of the sounds and smells around us.


          It seems from these examples that our reactions to inputs are
          learned, or at least they arise from our experiences.  The question
          then becomes, can symbols have innate visceral responses, or is the
          response to a symbol necessarily a learned one?

          To look at innate responses, the original responses to stimuli, we
          necessarily looked at children.

          For instance, children generally have no innate response to feces,
          and will often eat them until they learn not to.  They later learn
          to either react with disgust to feces, or to view them as
          fertilizer and the source of life.

          The first example of a possibly innate response brought to the
          discussion was that of the ephemeral beauty of a butterfly on the
          wing.  None of the participants could envision any child's reaction
          other than awe and delight at such beauty (or at least none would
          admit to any other vision).

          This brought forth remarks concerning innate childish "awe", where
          almost everything is new and wonderful.

          Children as they begin to distinguish between the multiple events
          and objects in their world are simply delighted at the beauty and
          diversity they find around them.  There is no "evil" during this
          time -- only the beauty of nature.

          Few of us have any reason to unlearn this initial response to the
          butterfly.  These reactions can therefore be considered innate,
          stemming from the earliest days of our consciousness.  Other
          reactions, unpleasant reactions and also more complex reactions,
          seem to be learned over time.

          Therefore, there's some of both types of reactions.  People will
          have initial reactions to many meaningful symbols and inputs, but
          their reactions can be modified by their experience and training.

          This discussion raised yet more questions, for which no answers
          were attempted during this workshop.  The questions were, how much
          of our symbolism is learned, and how much of our symbolism is
          innate? And if some form of consciousness or memory can survive
          from one life to another, then how much might be remembered from
          past lives?

          Symbols may or may not come to one's attention.  An extremely
          visually-oriented person may not notice or respond to other types
          of symbols, such as a room's smell, or a background level of music,
          while those who are oriented towards those senses will respond to
          those inputs, but perhaps not to others.

          Symbolism may have personal and/or experiential meaning (such as
          the manure used to plant your garden or that you step in), or
          symbolism may be abstract (learned and used in writing, teaching,
          or jewelry, but not something that's impacted upon you in the
          past).  This is the difference between a) the visceral response,
          which may be innate and may also be a learned response, modified
          through experience or training, and b) the mental response which
          must always be learned or developed.


          The Grand Master wishes to note that the discussion at this point
          had unintentionally left the strict topic of symbolism, and was
          dealing instead with experience and reaction to stimuli, on the
          unspoken assumption that these reactions applied to our use of

          We feel this to be a valid assumption, since the pleasant reaction
          we have to a butterfly or to a unicorn extends to and impacts our
          use of those images as symbols.  Those with differing reactions to
          sea gulls as described above would similarly have different
          reactions to Johnathon Livingston Seagull's story.

          Also, by concentrating on experience and reaction rather than
          symbolism, we temporarily lost sight of the most important measure
          of symbolism -- that of meaning.

          Yes, music has impact, but that music is symbol only if its impact
          includes meaning, such as the sense of freedom and power that
          accompanies the visual image of the "Flight of the Valkyries" and
          similar images of meaning those who are familiar with the movie
          will get from various pieces in the sound track from 2001.

          Likewise incense is symbol only if its impact includes meaning.

          That meaning may be supplied by the smell, or that meaning may be
          supplied by knowledge of the ingredients within the incense.
          Meaning may also be supplied by the words used during the censing
          of the chambre.  Without some meaning, incense is not symbol, but
          only smell.

          Closely related to the sense of smell is the sense of taste, and
          it's fairly easy to see that certain tastes can have meaning as

          During Passover Seder, a ritual meal of thanksgiving and freedom
          (celebrating the Exodus), Jews will dip greens into salt water and
          eat the salty greens, to remind them of tears shed by the Jews in
          bondage.  They will eat bitter herbs to remind them of the
          bitterness of slavery.

          Likewise, there can be kinesthetic symbols as well.

          We feel different when we hold a sword in ritual as opposed to when
          we hold a dagger.  We feel different when we are standing up than
          we feel when we are sitting down, and different still when we are
          kneeling or laying down.  We feel different in charged rooms, dry
          rooms, wet rooms, hot rooms, cold rooms, still rooms, breezy rooms.
          Uncontrolled, these latter experiences are just stimuli.
          Controlled and used meaningfully, these latter experiences can be
          symbols, manipulated and understood as such.

                              How should symbolism be used?

          The first obvious use of symbolism is in the communication of
          ideas, whether written, spoken, or communicated through one or more
          other senses.


          Based on the idea that a single symbol can have a whole galaxy of
          meaning, a useful communications skill is the ability to use
          symbols in the proper places, in the proper ways, to communicate
          more meaning in a smaller package (with fewer words).

          Perhaps of greatest importance within the Temple of Set are the
          magical aeonic Words: Xeper, Remanifestation, and Xem, and the
          preceding Words of Indulgence and Thelema.  By using these Words
          in writing or other forms of communication, we communicate the
          meanings associated with those Words.

          If I say the word "Xeper" to an initiate, it means something
          totally different than it would mean to someone off the street, and
          it means something totally different to a Setian than it would mean
          to an Egyptologist who /thinks/ he knows the Egyptian god Xepera.
          Our use of the Word is quite different and the symbol carries so
          much more meaning than just the word "Xeper" would carry in a
          modern Egyptian dictionary.

          This use of symbolism doesn't apply just to magical Words or
          Formulae, but applies to symbols of many different kinds, in many
          different uses.

          You'll sometimes find certain words capitalized in text, as are
          "Words" and "Formulae" above.  When not overly used, this is a
          clear indication that the author wishes you to view these words
          with their symbolic meanings, rather than their normal meanings.

          During group ritual, certain words will be spoken more
          flamboyantly, perhaps louder, perhaps longer, and often with more
          gesturing.  These words are then generally being used symbolically,
          with special meaning at least to the speaker, if not to other

          Symbolism can also be used in Lesser Black Magic, as tools to
          influence certain people (singular or multiple) in certain ways.
          The magician (or politician or religious leader or arts director
          or other manipulator) will use lighting, music, fragrance, and
          other symbols in ways particular to their audience's response to
          the symbols.

          Symbolism can be used upon ourselves in a similar manner, to bring
          out responses from us that we want to bring out, as in ritual or
          as an aid to Xeper.

          Words which have become symbols to us can be used as a means of
          increased concentration, as a visual mantra or as a sensual mantra.
          Such mantras can be used in ritual, in nonritual meditation, or
          whenever we choose to remind ourselves of the principles carried
          within that symbol.

          Over time, some symbols can become richer and can carry more and
          more meaning to those people who work with the symbol.

          These symbols can become "magnetic", in that each use of the symbol
          brings forth yet another repetition of the symbol.  Each reference
          brings forth a constellation of meaning, with one meaning and use
          leading to another.  Each use of the symbol sparks, or attracts,
          another use of the symbol.


          In these cases the symbols will often be repeated over and over
          throughout a conversation or other communication, each time
          exercising one or more of those meanings, and through the course
          of the communication this symbol can almost hold or reflect an
          entire world view.  This is the way the people influenced by the
          symbol see their world.

          At a political rally the symbol might be "America", "Democracy",
          or "the Party" (citizens of other countries may substitute those
          symbols meaningful in your domain).  To some, the symbol might be
          "the Environment".

          The symbol "Xeper" has a similar impact within the Setian culture.

          Group consensus is important for communication through symbols.
          Different groups can have differing uses of symbols, and attempts
          to communicate between these groups using the symbols particular
          to one group (or those symbols which are viewed differently by
          different groups) can result in confusion or worse.

          Because Setians come from such diverse backgrounds, we have various
          communication problems related to these diverse backgrounds.

          Members from the O.T.O. may know all of the Qabalic
          correspondences, while members from the Wiccan background couldn't
          care less about the Qabalic attributions, and have correspondences
          which are totally different.  Numerologists apply different
          meanings to their numbers than do the Qabalists.  And all of these
          symbolic systems work.

          But very, very few of them work for all Setians.

          Qabalists within the Temple of Set who write articles and/or
          letters steeped in Qabalic symbolism find that very few others care
          enough about their symbols to wade through the text.  Those from
          other backgrounds with intensive use of symbols similarly find
          difficulty communicating within the Temple of Set, since our
          symbolic vocabulary is so much less cohesive.

          This lack of similarity in symbolism affects not only written
          communication, but also ritual activity.

          Each pylon seems to develop its own pattern of symbolism, and
          inter-pylon rituals can at times be very difficult.  Fitting many
          diverse magicians with their diverse backgrounds into one
          meaningful ceremony can be a challenge, a challenge faced at each
          Conclave, and at each activity like the Order of Shuti Workshop.


                              Language of the Unconscious?{fn 1}

          The first question asked by the Grand Master was, "What is
          symbolism?" The first answer received was, "A language of the

          Parts of the workshop's discussion might seem to support this
          definition, while others contradict it.  So let the Grand Master

          Symbols have many attributes.  Among the more important of these
          attributes is their ability to cause reaction in their audience,
          visceral if not innate reactions, as discussed above.

          Elizabeth S. Helfman, in her book _Signs and Symbols around the
          World_, defines symbol as being: "anything that stands for
          something else."

          Look in your dictionary.  Mine includes several definitions of
          symbol and symbolism, including:

          >> Symbol: 2: something that stands for or suggests something
          by reason of relationship, association, convention, or accidental
          resemblance. 5: an act, sound, or object having cultural
          significance and the capacity to excite or objectify a response.

          >> Symbolism: 1: the art or practice of using symols esp. by
          investing things with a symbolic meaning or by expressing the
          invisible or intangible by means of visible or sensuous
          representations; as a: the use of conventional or traditional
          in the representation of divine beings and spirits, b: artistic
          imitation or invention that is a method of revealing or
          immaterial, ideal, or otherwise intangible truth or states. 2: a
          system of symbols or representations.

          Symbolism is an art, a practice, something which is done.  It is
          used to communicate meaning.  It is a language.

          Our visceral responses to symbolism may be unconscious, but if
          that's all there is, then have we received and/or responded to

          The transmission and communication of *Meaning* requires some
          of consciousness.

          Let's use the word /Awake/ to mean the highest form of
          consciousness.   Remember -- the capital letter indicates I'm
          a symbol; Setian use of this specific symbol (Awake) most often
          refers to Ouspenski's heightened state of consciousness and
          awareness, a state of being totally awake.


          For simplicity, let's assign a whole range of various levels of
          conscious awareness to the name "conscious".  This name can apply
          to heightened states of consciousness which those we would call
          Awake, those that barely miss being Awake, down to the almost
          somnabulent states in which most of mankind spends their day.

          Finally, I would call the preconscious state one of consciousness
          in this case, a state in which meaning can be received,
          interpreted, and acted upon, without the individual being
          "consiously" aware that this has happened.  But if the
          attention is brought to the subject, then the symbol and its
          meaning can be recalled and the process repeated without any

          If symbols are generated and communicated, if they are
          and received, in one of these three states, then I believe we can
          correctly talk about symbolism, about language.

          However, if the generation and/or reception of the symbol is
          unconscious, and/or totally unintended, then I propose that that
          instance is not an example of symbolism, not language or
          communication, but rather the accidental generation of and/or
          visceral response to sensory input.

          [Now let us return to the discussion as it took place in the

                                Planetary Symbol System?

          We know there are differences in the meanings of many symbols.
          "Patriotism" can be exceedingly important to a Republican and
          to a Libertarian, but the meanings that this symbol will have can
          be quite different in many ways.

          This leads us to ask the question of whether there might perhaps
          be a "planetary symbol system" in which some symbols at least can
          be found commonly used in many or all cultures.

          The cross, square, circle, and most or all simple symbols have
          found in use all over the earth.  We therefore can ask whether
          their meanings are similar, or are the symbols used simply
          they are simple geometric figures, but with meanings arbitrarily
          assigned by the individual cultures?

          One participant brought forth Ouspenski's example that "Table"
          a function, an innate form or essence, which can be perceived
          beyond words, and beyond a learned experience.

          "Table" provokes an image, feeling, or essence that is evoked
          through a willed perception that extends beyond the actual set of
          tables that a person may have ever experienced.


          Ouspenski claims that at a certain state of consciousness the
          individual can see this deeper meaning or essence, and that this
          deeper meaning or essence can be commonly perceived by all who
          reach this level of consciousness.

          Similar ideas were offered by Plato, and the concept of Platonic
          Forms is very prevalent throughout the Setian use of symbolism.
          We often speak of the Egyptian Neters as being Forms, the
          original or specific essence of an Ideal.

          This is certainly an area that needs deeper investigation.  The
          workshop session discussion however left the topic of abstract
          Forms, and instead investigated the historic use of symbols in
          various cultures.

          Looking first at the more complex god forms, it seems each major
          culture has a "trickster" god:  Coyote fills this niche in several
          Amerindian cultures, Loki in the Norse mythos, and Thoth (Hermes
          and Mercury) in the Egyptian (Greek and Roman) mythologies.

          The Trickster is that Spirit who makes you Think.  He is the Spirit
          who is unpredictable in his actions or reactions, who gets himself
          and everyone else into trouble.  In the process of doing so -- most
          often after everyone is already in trouble -- he makes people
          Think, and in the end he generally gets everyone out of trouble by

          To represent the Trickster, each culture used that type of symbol
          or god form which for them was most appropriate for that type of

          The coyote is a fairly independent and hard to track animal in
          America, requiring more than the usual amount of intelligence and
          stealth to catch.  Monkeys similarly were appreciated for their
          seeming intelligence and playfulness, and so Egyptians assigned the
          Trickster attribute and the monkey's form to Thoth.

          The question becomes ... is this type of being, this symbol,
          something which is universal, cross-cultural, or is it something
          which happens in just a few cases, and many other societies never
          had any use for it?

          Jung was exploring this area.  He defined specific symbols which
          he felt were common to many or all cultures.  They were fairly
          common within his culture and Jung did manage to validate them with
          some cross-cultural study.

          We still need to ask how complete his studies were, how extensive
          and wide spread.

          Given people in extremely different environments, such as the
          Eskimo, Hawaiian, Indian, Tibetan, etc., cultures where the people
          have many different experiences, totally different social and
          physical environments, it can be expected that these people would
          have very different reactions to the symbols that Jung thought he
          had commonality on.


          Jung's _Man and his Symbol_ was recommended by one participant as
          containing documentation on his cross-cultural studies in this

          Not having access to any resource materials that would answer our
          questions at the time, the workshop session then proceeded into the
          topic of Egyptian Neters and the use of Neters in symbolism.


          The Workshop discussion of Egyptian Neters started with a brief
          discussion of the Egyptian languages.

          The ancient Egyptians used three different written languages, the
          hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic.

          The demotic language was a mostly alphabetic language used for
          common communications among those who could read and write.  Its
          primary uses were for social and business reasons.

          The hieratic language was a pictographic language related to the
          hieroglyphic, but in which the pictographs were abbreviated and
          simplified to speed writing.  It was used for important state
          documents and many later religious texts.

          The hieroglyphic language was the most ornate of the three
          languages, the most ancient of the three languages, and the most
          symbolic.  It was used for the most important religious and
          philosophical statements, and for the most important state

          Many of the symbols used to form the hieroglyphic language had
          assigned sounds, and many others did not.  In addition to the
          sounds and symbols used to form words, the Egyptians used
          determinatives, signs added to specifically identify each word.
          Through the use of the determinative, it was impossible to mistake
          one written word for another, even if verbal sounds were the same,
          even if the letters used were the same.

          This use of a purely symbolic, picture-oriented language encouraged
          the ability in the learned ancient Egyptians to think with right
          brained methods while doing the left brain activity of reading.

          It also encouraged these educated and intelligent Egyptians to work
          with symbols as they worked with language.  They were able to
          communicate ideas and ideals in a language particularly well suited
          to this purpose.

          Setians use the ancient Egyptian neters as symbols, representing
          aspects of the world, or aspects of the individual.  We feel this
          is very close to the way the higher initiates of the ancient
          Egyptian Temples, the priests of the Temples, and the smarter
          pharaohs used and viewed their neters.  The neters were concepts
          that could be communicated to and shared among the initiated,
          rather than being actual gods and goddesses.


          The common man may very well have believed in the literal existence
          of his many gods and goddesses, but we believe the elite of the
          Egyptian society understood that these neters were purely symbols.
          When the Egyptian elite paid homage to the neters, they paid homage
          to the aspects of the universe or of the self represented by those

          One neter of obvious importance is Set.  In dealing with this
          symbol, we try to identify the original meaning of the symbol, and
          try to eliminate the corruptions of the symbol imposed by the later
          rule of Osirian religion.

          Rather than take space here to discuss the corruptions and
          distortions that were applied to the symbol of the neter Set
          through the Osirian culture, we'll simply refer the interested
          student to appropriate books in the reading list: 2A, 2E, 2G, 2W,
          and 2AA.

          It is rather clear that the use and peripheral meanings of the
          neter Set changed over time.  The study of Set must therefore
          include the careful consideration of the source of whatever
          writings are being studied.  Fortunately most other Egyptian
          symbols/god forms did not change significantly over time, and such
          care need not be used in studying and working with them.

          The neters were used and viewed as symbols.  But the Egyptian
          temples _were_ temples, and were recognized as religions, not
          simply as centers of enlightened philosophy.  This brings up the
          question: Do/did the Egyptian Neters actually exist? Were these
          religions founded to worship or work with beings that actually
          existed? Or were they simply the creations of the ancient Egyptian

          Rather than tackle immediately the question of whether the Neters
          actually existed, workshop participants first chose to examine ...

                                  Egyptian Priesthoods

          The first statement made about these priesthoods was that each
          temple in Egypt taught a different area of philosophy or knowledge.

          Those temples dedicated to a major neter or god taught that their
          primal Form was the First Cause.  These were the major temples of
          the land, and an initiate who studied at temple after temple would
          be presented with the opposing claims that each god was the god,
          The Creator.

          We noted in our discussion that the priesthoods of several of the
          "minor" neters did not make any such claims.  Thoth as a single
          neter never seemed to be treated as the creator god; nor was Geb.
          However, many of the major neters were treated as creator gods, and
          many gods were intentionally combined into units (such as
          Amon-Thoth-Ra) in order to form a god which would be powerful
          enough to qualify as The creator god.


                                    Neters as Symbols

          We returned to discussing the neters as ways of viewing possibility
          and potentiality, and ways of viewing different aspects of the
          universe and of the individual.

          For example, Ra, the sun god, was a most pervasive and powerful
          being, since every single day, there he is in the sky.  Ra was
          consistent, reliable, and therefore powerful.

          Similarly each force in nature was given a personality, because
          each force in nature has a personality (or seems to, to those who
          humanize such things).  This is the basic principle behind most
          spirits of most animistic religions.

          These personalities are generally reliable.  A rain cloud is going
          to rain; it isn't going to add to the day's heat.  The Nile was not
          going to dry up -- it was going to overflow once a year, and
          deposit good, rich, fertile earth upon the ground.  Each force of
          nature, each personality, was given a name, a face, and a story.

          The most powerful stories, faces, and names are those that belong
          to the creator gods.  There are so many creator gods, that it's
          really difficult to pin down an actual order of precedence.

          This brings up the fact that there are many apparently conflicting
          stories within the Egyptian mythology.

          The Grand Master pointed out that in several Egyptian myths, Shu
          and Tefnut are self-created.  In others they were created by tears
          of the master creator god (whoever he happened to be according to
          the story teller).  In yet others they were created by the master
          god's masturbation.

          Shu and Tefnut by definition are the first male and female.  The
          master god's masturbation in these latter stories was always male
          masturbation, but Shu is the first male.  Shu and Tefnut begat Geb
          and Nut, but Nut was the all-pervasive universal sky that preceded
          the first god...

          This confusion is the result of centuries of Egyptian story
          telling, and while some of it appears to be contraditory, most of
          it is useful.  We certainly must hesitate to consider this
          mythology as one consistent symbolism, and must be careful if we
          wish to communicate consistent meanings using these symbols, but
          we have found value in this mythology.

          Each story is a different way of looking at the world, a different
          way of looking at the first cause, and of looking at the symbols.
          By using these symbols, we can then indicate not only a symbol, but
          also which way we are looking at the world.

          Hence, if in ritual or other communication we call upon
          Ptah-Geb-Nu, we are calling upon the creator of the earth and sky,
          the god who created the physical universe.  If instead we call upon
          the Neter Ra-Ptah-ankh, we are calling upon the god who brought
          light and life to this planet.


          Having discussed these differing views of the world as expressed
          by the many symbolic neters, we felt that this was a good point
          from which to launch into a discussion of one of the ways in which
          we look at Neters.

          Set, the prime source of intelligence and the ageless intelligence
          himself, is a wee bit complex for someone a mere 20 or even 200
          years old to understand, regardless of whether we look at Set as
          an actually existing being or instead as a master symbol.

          So rather than try to encompass all of Set, intellectually or
          emotionally, rather than try to understand all of Set, we can work
          with neters which are facets of Set's being, facets of Set's
          symbolism.  Each neter can be thought of as a specific element of

          As examples, Shu is one set of symbolism, one set of ideas, that
          an initiate can work with to "get somewhere" with, to accomplish
          certain initiatory goals.  Tefnut is another set of ideas, as is
          Geb, Isis, etc.

          Rather than trying to encompass and work with the entire universe
          simultaneously, grab whatever you can hold onto, work with that
          handful, study that symbol or symbols, and see what it leads to.

          We had originally intended to discuss whether or not the Neters
          might or might not exist in their own right.  Having discussed the
          above, it seemed somewhat unimportant as to whether the Neters
          actually exist.  That topic will be left for a later discussion.


          While the following books and papers were not necessarily discussed
          nor referenced during the workshop discussion (or in completing
          this article), the initiate interested in studying symbolism as a
          subject on its own would be well advised to begin with this
          bibliography.  Additions to this bibliography are welcome, and
          should be sent to the Grand Master.  (_RT_ entries are from _The
          Ruby Tablet of Set_.)

          Barrett, Ronald K., "Book of Opening the Way (Key #4)".  _RT_

          Barrett, Ronald K., "Stele of Xem".  _RT_ IT.II.A.4.a.(3).

          Cavendish, Richard, _The Black Arts_.  4C (TS-3).

          Crowley, Aleister, _The Book of Thoth_.  9L (TS-4).

          De Lubicz, Isha Schwaller, _Her-Bak_.  2L (TS-1).

          De Lubicz, Isha Schwaller, _Symbol and the Symbolique_.  2V (TS-4).

          Fisher, Leonard Everett, _Symbol Art:  Thirteen Squares, Circles,
          and Triangles from Around the World_.  NY: Four Winds Press,
          MacMillan Publishing Company, 1985.

          Helfman, Elizabeth S., _Signs and Symbols Around the World_.  NY:
          Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., 1967.


          Jung, Carl G., _Man and his Symbols_.  Garden City: Doubleday &
          Co., 1964, 1968.  Also NY: Dell Publishing Co., 1968, and London:
          Aldus Books, 1964.

          Menschel, Robert, "Remanifestation:  A Symbolic Syntheses", _RT_

          Menschel, Robert, "Tarot Primer", _RT_ IT.II.B.3.e.(3).

          Norton, Lynn, "Golden Section Tarot Working", "Atu XV: The Devil",
          and "The Dialogue".  _RT_ IT.II.A.3.k.(1), 4.h.(1), and 4.h.(2).

          Regardie, Israel, _777 and Other Qabalistic Writings of Aleister
          Crowley_.  9M (TS-4).

          Schaefer, Heinrich, _Principles of Egyptian Art_.  2R (TS-4).


          1. The Grand Master wishes to digress temporarily from the
          workshop's discussion, and to comment at this time on one of the
          first statements offered during this discussion.


                                       January 1992
                                    Kenneth V. Lanning
                                 Supervisory Special Agent
                                  Behavioral Science Unit
                     National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime
                              Federal Bureau of Investigation
                                        FBI Academy
                                 Quantico, Virginia 22135
                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS

          1. Introduction.
          2. Historical Overview.
          -- a. "Stranger Danger".
          -- b. Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.
          -- c. Return to "Stranger Danger".
          -- d. The Acquaintance Molester.
          -- e. Satanism: A New Form of "Stranger Danger".
          3. Law Enforcement Training.
          4. Definitions.
          -- a. What is Ritual?
          -- b. What is "Ritual" Child Abuse?
          -- c. What Makes a Crime Satanic, Occult, or Ritualistic?
          5. Multidimensional Child Sex Rings.
          -- a. Dynamics of Cases.
          ---- (1) Multiple Young Victims.
          ---- (2) Multiple Offenders.
          ---- (3) Fear as a Controlling Tactic.
          ---- (4) Bizarre or Ritualistic Activity.
          -- b. Characteristics of Multidimensional Child Sex Rings.
          ---- (1) Female Offenders.
          ---- (2) Situational Molesters.
          ---- (3) Male and Female Victims.
          ---- (4) Multidimensional Motivation.
          ---- (5) Pornography and Paraphernalia.
          ---- (6) Control through Fear.
          -- c. Scenarios.
          ---- (1) Adult Survivors.
          ---- (2) Day Care Cases.
          ---- (3) Family/Isolated Neighborhood Cases.
          ---- (4) Custody/Visitation Disputes.
          -- d. Why Are Victims Alleging Things that Do Not Seem to be True?
          6. Alternative Explanations.
          -- a. Pathological Distortion.
          -- b. Traumatic Memory.
          -- c. Normal Childhood Fears and Fantasy.
          -- d. Misperception, Confusion, and Trickery.
          -- e. Overzealous Intervenors.
          -- f. Urban Legends.
          -- g. Combination.


          7. Do Victims Lie About Sexual Abuse and Exploitation?
          -- a. Personal Knowledge.
          -- b. Other Children or Victims.
          -- c. Media.
          -- d. Suggestions and Leading Questions.
          -- e. Misperception and Confusion.
          -- f. Education and Awareness Programs.
          8. Law Enforcement Perspective.
          9. Investigating Multidimensional Child Sex Rings.
          -- a. Minimize Satanic/Occult Aspect.
          -- b. Keep Investigation and Religious Beliefs Separate.
          -- c. Listen to the Victims.
          -- d. Assess and Evaluate Victim Statements.
          -- e. Evaluate Contagion.
          -- f. Establish Communication with Parents.
          -- g. Develop a Contingency Plan.
          -- h. Multidisciplinary Task Forces.
          -- i. Summary.
          10. Conclusion.
          11. References.
          12. Suggested Reading.

          1. INTRODUCTION

          Since 1981 I have been assigned to the Behavioral Science Unit at 
          the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia, and have specialized in 
          studying all aspects of the sexual victimization of children. The 
          FBI Behavioral Science Unit provides assistance to criminal justice 
          professionals in the United States and foreign countries. It 
          attempts to develop practical applications of the behavioral 
          sciences to the criminal justice system. As a result of training and 
          research conducted by the Unit and its successes in analyzing 
          violent crime, many professionals contact the Behavioral Science 
          Unit for assistance and guidance in dealing with violent crime, 
          especially those cases considered different, unusual, or bizarre. 
          This service is provided at no cost and is not limited to crimes 
          under the investigative jurisdiction of the FBI.

          In 1983 and 1984, when I first began to hear stories of what sounded 
          like satanic or occult activity in connection with allegations of 
          sexual victimization of children (allegations that have come to be 
          referred to most often as "ritual" child abuse), I tended to believe 
          them. I had been dealing with bizarre, deviant behavior for many 
          years and had long since realized that almost anything is possible. 
          Just when you think that you have heard it all, along comes another 
          strange case. The idea that there are a few cunning, secretive 
          individuals in positions of power somewhere in this country 
          regularly killing a few people as part of some satanic ritual or 
          ceremony and getting away with it is certainly within the realm of 
          possibility. But the number of alleged cases began to grow and grow. 
          We now have hundreds of victims alleging that thousands of offenders 
          are abusing and even murdering tens of thousands of people as part 
          of organized satanic cults, and there is little or no corroborative 
          evidence. The very reason many "experts" cite for believing these 
          allegations (i.e. many victims, who never met each other, reporting 
          the same events), is the primary reason I began to question at least 
          some aspects of these allegations. 


          I have devoted more than seven years part-time, and eleven years 
          full-time, of my professional life to researching, training, and 
          consulting in the area of the sexual victimization of children. The 
          issues of child sexual abuse and exploitation are a big part of my 
          professional life's work. I have no reason to deny their existence 
          or nature. In fact I have done everything I can to make people more 
          aware of the problem Some have even blamed me for helping to create 
          the hysteria that has led to these bizarre allegations. I can accept 
          no outside income and am paid the same salary by the FBI whether or 
          not children are abused and exploited - and whether the number is 
          one or one million. As someone deeply concerned about and 
          professionally committed to the issue, I did not lightly question 
          the allegations of hundreds of victims child sexual abuse and 

          In response to accusations by a few that I am a "satanist" who has 
          infiltrated the FBI to facilitate cover-up, how does anyone (or 
          should anyone have to) disprove such allegations? Although reluctant 
          to dignify such absurd accusations with a reply, all I can say to 
          those who have made such allegations that they are wrong and to 
          those who heard such allegations is to carefully consider the 

          The reason I have taken the position I have is not because I support 
          or believe in "satanism", but because I sincerely believe that my 
          approach is the proper and most effective investigative strategy. I 
          believe that my approach is in the best interest of victims of child 
          sexual abuse. It would have been easy to sit back, as many have, and 
          say nothing publicly about this controversy. I have spoken out and 
          published on this issue because I am concerned about the credibility 
          of the child sexual abuse issue and outraged that, in some cases, 
          individuals are getting away with molesting children because we 
          can't prove they are satanic devil worshippers who engage in 
          brainwashing, human sacrifice, and cannibalism as part of a large 

          There are many valid perspectives from which to assess and evaluate 
          victim allegations of sex abuse and exploitation. Parents may choose 
          to believe simply because their children make the claims. The level 
          of proof necessary may be minimal because the consequences of 
          believing are within the family. One parent correctly told me, "I 
          believe what my child needs me to believe."

          Therapists may choose to believe simply because their professional 
          assessment is that their patient believes the victimization and 
          describes it so vividly. The level of proof necessary may be no more 
          than therapeutic evaluation because the consequences are between 
          therapist and patient. No independent corroboration may be required.

          A social worker must have more real, tangible evidence of abuse in 
          order to take protective action and initiate legal proceedings. The 
          level of proof necessary must be higher because the consequences 
          (denial of visitation, foster care) are greater.


          The law enforcement officer deals with the criminal justice system. 
          The levels of proof necessary are reasonable suspicion, probable 
          cause, and beyond a reasonable doubt because the consequences 
          (criminal investigation, search and seizure, arrest, incarceration) 
          are so great. This discussion will focus primarily on the criminal 
          justice system and the law enforcement perspective. The level of 
          proof necessary for taking action on allegations of criminal acts 
          must be more than simply the victim alleged it and it is possible. 
          This in no way denies the validity and importance of the parental, 
          therapeutic, social welfare, or any other perspective of these 

          When, however, therapists and other professionals begin to conduct 
          training, publish articles, and communicate through the media, the 
          consequences become greater, and therefore the level of proof must 
          be greater. The amount of corroboration necessary to act upon 
          allegations of abuse is dependent upon the consequences of such 
          action. We need to be concerned about the distribution and 
          publication of unsubstantiated allegations of bizarre sexual abuse. 
          Information needs to be disseminated to encourage communication and 
          research about the phenomena. The risks, however, of intervenor and 
          victim "contagion" and public hysteria are potential negative 
          aspects of such dissemination. Because of the highly emotional and 
          religious nature of this topic, there is a greater possibility that 
          the spreading of information will result in a kind of self-
          fulfilling prophesy.

          If such extreme allegations are going to be disseminated to the 
          general public, they must be presented in the context of being 
          assessed and evaluated, at least, from the professional perspective 
          of the disseminator and, at best, also from the professional 
          perspective of relevant others. This is what I will attempt to do in 
          this discussion. The assessment and evaluation of such allegations 
          are areas where law enforcement, mental health, and other 
          professionals (anthropologists, folklorists, sociologists, 
          historians, engineers, surgeons, etc.) may be of some assistance to 
          each other in validating these cases individually and in general. 


          In order to attempt to deal with extreme allegations of what 
          constitute child sex rings, it is important to have an historical 
          perspective of society's attitudes about child sexual abuse. I will 
          provide a brief synopsis of recent attitudes in the United States 
          here, but those desiring more detailed information about such 
          societal attitudes, particularly in other cultures and in the more 
          distant past, should refer to Florence Rush's book _The Best Kept 
          Secret: Sexual Abuse of Children_ (1980) and Sander J. Breiner's 
          book _Slaughter of the Innocents_ (1990).

          Society's attitude about child sexual abuse and exploitation can be 
          summed up in one word: *denial*. Most people do not want to hear 
          about it and would prefer to pretend that child sexual victimization 
          just does not occur. Today, however, it is difficult to pretend that 
          it does not happen. Stories and reports about child sexual 
          victimization are daily occurrences.


          It is important for professionals dealing with child sexual abuse to 
          recognize and learn to manage this denial of a serious problem. 
          Professionals must overcome the denial and encourage society to deal 
          with, report, and prevent sexual victimization of children.

          Some professionals, however, in their zeal to make American society 
          more aware of this victimization, tend to exaggerate the problem. 
          Presentations and literature with poorly documented or misleading 
          claims about one in three children being sexually molested, the $5 
          billion child pornography industry, child slavery rings, and 50,000 
          stranger-abducted children are not uncommon. The problem is bad 
          enough; it is not necessary to exaggerate it. Professionals should 
          cite reputable and scientific studies and note the sources of 
          information. If they do not, when the exaggerations and distortions 
          are discovered, their credibility and the credibility of the issue 
          are lost.

          -- a. "STRANGER DANGER".

          During the 1950s and 1960s the primary focus in the literature and 
          discussions on sexual abuse of children was on "stranger danger" - 
          the dirty old man in the wrinkled raincoat. If one could not deny 
          the existence of child sexual abuse, one described victimization in 
          simplistic terms of good and evil. The "stranger danger" approach to 
          preventing child sexual abuse is clear-cut. We immediately know who 
          the good guys and bad guys are and what they look like.

          The FBI distributed a poster that epitomized this attitude. It 
          showed a man, with his hat pulled down, hiding behind a tree with a 
          bag of candy in his hands. He was waiting for a sweet little girl 
          walking home from school alone. At the top it read: "Boys and Girls, 
          color the page, memorize the rules." At the bottom it read: "For 
          your protection, remember to turn down gifts from strangers, and 
          refuse rides offered by strangers." The poster clearly contrasts the 
          evil of the offender with the goodness of the child victim.

          The myth of the child molester as the dirty old man in the wrinkled 
          raincoat is now being reevaluated, based on what we now know about 
          the kinds of people who victimize children. The fact is a child 
          molester can look like anyone else and even be someone we know and 

          There is another myth that is still with us and is far less likely 
          to be discussed. This is the myth of the child victim as a 
          completely innocent little girl walking down the street minding her 
          own business. It may be more important to dispel this myth than the 
          myth of the evil offender, especially when talking about the sexual 
          exploitation of children and child sex rings. Child victims can be 
          boys as well as girls, and not all victims are little "angels".


          Society seems to have a problem dealing with any sexual abuse case 
          in which the offender is not completely "bad" or the victim is not 
          completely "good". Child victims who, for example, simply behave 
          like human beings and respond to the attention and affection of 
          offenders by voluntarily and repeatedly returning to the offender's 
          home are troubling. It confuses us to see the victims in child 
          pornography giggling or laughing. At professional conferences on 
          child sexual abuse, child prostitution is almost never discussed. It 
          is the form of sexual victimization of children most unlike the 
          stereotype of the innocent girl victim. Child prostitutes, by 
          definition, participate in and often initiate their victimization. 
          Furthermore child prostitutes and the participants in child sex 
          rings are frequently boys. One therapist recently told me that a 
          researcher's data on child molestation were misleading because many 
          of the child victims in question were child prostitutes. This 
          implies that child prostitutes are not "real" child victims. In a 
          survey by the _Los Angeles Times_, only 37 percent of those 
          responding thought that child prostitution constituted child sexual 
          abuse (Timnik, 1985). Whether or not it seems fair, when adults and 
          children have sex, the child is always the victim.


          During the 1970s, primarily as a result of the women's movement, 
          society began to learn more about the sexual victimization of 
          children. We began to realize that most children are sexually 
          molested by someone they know who is usually a relative - a father, 
          step-father, uncle, grandfather, older brother, or even a female 
          relative. Some mitigate the difficulty of accepting this by adopting 
          the view that only members of socio-economic groups other than 
          theirs engage in such behavior.

          It quickly became apparent that warnings about not taking gifts from 
          strangers were not good enough to prevent child sexual abuse. 
          Consequently, we began to develop prevention programs based on more 
          complex concepts, such as good touching and bad touching. the 
          "yucky" feeling, and the child's right to say no. These are not the 
          kinds of things you can easily and effectively communicate in fifty 
          minutes to hundreds of kids packed into a school auditorium. These 
          are very difficult issues, and programs must he carefully developed 
          and evaluated.

          In the late 1970s child sexual abuse became almost synonymous with 
          incest, and incest meant father-daughter sexual relations. 
          Therefore, the focus of child sexual abuse intervention became 
          father-daughter incest. Even today, the vast majority of training 
          materials, articles, and books on this topic refer to child sexual 
          abuse only in terms of intrafamilial father-daughter incest.

          Incest is, in fact, sexual relations between individuals of any age 
          too closely related to marry. It need not necessarily involve an 
          adult and a child, and it goes beyond child sexual abuse. But more
          importantly child sexual abuse goes beyond father-daughter incest. 
          Intrafamilial incest between an adult and child may be the most 
          common form of child sexual abuse, but it is not the only form.


          The progress of the 1970s in recognizing that child sexual abuse was 
          not simply a result of "stranger danger" was an important 
          breakthrough in dealing with society's denial. The battle, however, 
          is not over. The persistent voice of society luring us back to the 
          more simple concept of "stranger danger" may never go away. It is 
          the voice of denial.

          -- c. RETURN TO "STRANGER DANGER".

          In the early 1980s the issue of missing children rose to prominence 
          and was focused primarily on the stranger abduction of little 
          children. Runaways, throwaways, noncustodial abductions, nonfamily 
          abductions of teenagers - all major problems within the missing 
          children's issue - were almost forgotten. People no longer wanted to 
          hear about good touching and bad touching and the child's right to 
          say "no". They wanted to be told, in thirty minutes or less, how 
          they could protect their children from abduction by strangers. We 
          were back to the horrible but simple and clear-cut concept of 
          "stranger danger".

          In the emotional zeal over the problem of missing children, isolated 
          horror stories and distorted numbers were sometimes used. The 
          American public was led to believe that most of the missing children 
          had been kidnapped by pedophiles - a new term for child molesters. 
          The media, profiteers, and well-intentioned zealots all played big 
          roles in this hype and hysteria over missing children.


          Only recently has society begun to deal openly with a critical piece 
          in the puzzle of child sexual abuse - acquaintance molestation. This 
          seems to be the most difficult aspect of the problem for us to face. 
          People seem more willing to accept a father or stepfather, 
          particularly one from another socio-economic group, as a child 
          molester than a parish priest, a next-door neighbor, a police 
          officer, a pediatrician, an FBI agent, or a Scout leader. The 
          acquaintance molester, by definition, is one of us. These kinds of 
          molesters have always existed, but our society has not been willing 
          to accept that fact.

          Sadly, one of the main reasons that the criminal justice system and 
          the public were forced to confront the problem of acquaintance 
          molestation was the preponderance of lawsuits arising from the 
          negligence of many institutions.

          One of the unfortunate outcomes of society's preference for the 
          "stranger danger" concept is what I call "say no, yell, and tell" 
          guilt. This is the result of prevention programs that tell potential 
          child victims to avoid sexual abuse by saying no, yelling, and 
          telling. This might work with the stranger hiding behind a tree. 
          Adolescent boys seduced by a Scout leader or children who actively 
          participate in their victimization often feel guilty and blame 
          themselves because they did not do what they were "supposed" to do. 
          They may feel a need to describe their victimization in more 
          socially acceptable but sometimes inaccurate ways that relieve them 
          of this guilt.


          While American society has become increasingly more aware of the 
          problem of the acquaintance molester and related problems such as 
          child pornography, the voice calling us back to "stranger danger" 
          still persists.


          In today's version of "stranger danger", it is the satanic devil 
          worshipers who are snatching and victimizing the children. Many who 
          warned us in the early 1980s about pedophiles snatching fifty 
          thousand kids a year now contend they were wrong only about who was 
          doing the kidnapping, not about the number abducted. This is again 
          the desire for the simple and clear-cut explanation for a complex 

          For those who know anything about criminology, one of the oldest 
          theories of crime is demonology: The devil makes you do it. This 
          makes it even easier to deal with the child molester who is the 
          "pillar of the community". It is not his fault; it is not our fault. 
          There is no way we could have known; the devil made him do it. This 
          explanation has tremendous appeal because, like "stranger danger", 
          it presents the clear-cut, black-and-white struggle between good and 
          evil as the explanation for child abduction, exploitation, and 

          In regard to satanic "ritual" abuse, today we may not be where we 
          were with incest in the 1960s, but where we were with missing 
          children in the early 1980s. The best data now available (the 1990 
          _National Incidence Studies on Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and 
          Thrownaway Children in America_) estimate the number of 
          stereotypical child abductions at between 200 and 300 a year, and 
          the number of stranger abduction homicides of children at between 43 
          and 147 a year. Approximately half of the abducted children are 
          teenagers. Today's facts are significantly different from 
          yesterday's perceptions, and those who exaggerated the problem, 
          however well-intentioned, have lost credibility and damaged the 
          reality of the problem.


          The belief that there is a connection between satanism and crime is 
          certainly not new. As previously stated, one of the oldest theories 
          concerning the causes of crime is demonology. Fear of satanic or 
          occult activity has peaked from time to time throughout history. 
          Concern in the late 1970s focused primarily on "unexplained" deaths 
          and mutilations of animals, and in recent years has focused on child 
          sexual abuse and the alleged human sacrifice of missing children. In 
          1999 it will probably focus on the impending "end of the world".

          Today satanism and a wide variety of other terms are used 
          interchangeably in reference to certain crimes. This discussion will 
          analyze the nature of "satanic, occult, ritualistic" crime primarily 
          as it pertains to the abuse of children and focus on appropriate 
          *law enforcement* responses to it.


          Recently a flood of law enforcement seminars and conferences have 
          dealt with satanic and ritualistic crime. These training conferences 
          have various titles, such as "Occult in Crime", "Satanic Cults", 
          'Ritualistic Crime Seminar", "Satanic Influences in Homicide", 
          "Occult Crimes, Satanism and Teen Suicide", and "Ritualistic Abuse 
          of Children".

          The typical conference runs from one to three days, and many of them 
          include the same presenters and instructors. A wide variety of 
          topics are usually discussed during this training either as 
          individual presentations by different instructors or grouped 
          together by one or more instructors. Typical topics covered include 
          the following:

          -- Historical overview of satanism, witchcraft, and paganism from 
          ancient to modern times.

          -- Nature and influence of fantasy role-playing games, such as 
          "Dungeons and Dragons".

          -- Lyrics, symbolism, and influence of rock and roll, Heavy Metal, 
          and Black Metal music.

          -- Teenage "stoner" gangs, their symbols, and their vandalism.

          -- Teenage suicide by adolescents dabbling in the occult.

          -- Crimes committed by self-styled satanic practitioners, including 
          grave and church desecrations and robberies, animal mutilations, and 
          even murders.

          -- Ritualistic abuse of children as part of bizarre ceremonies and 
          human sacrifices.

          -- Organized, Traditional, or Multigenerational satanic groups 
          involved in organized conspiracies, such as taking over day care 
          centers, infiltrating police departments, and trafficking in human 
          sacrifice victims.

          -- The "Big Conspiracy" theory, which implies that satanists are 
          responsible for such things as Adolph Hitler, World War II, 
          abortion, illegal drugs, pornography, Watergate, and Irangate, and 
          have infiltrated the Department of Justice, the Pentagon, and the 
          White House.

          During the conferences, these nine areas are linked together through 
          the liberal use of the word "satanism" and some common symbolism 
          (pentagrams, 666, demons, etc.). The implication often is that all 
          are part of a continuum of behavior, a single problem or some common 
          conspiracy. The distinctions among the different areas are blurred 
          even if occasionally a presenter tries to make them. The information 
          presented is a mixture of fact, theory, opinion, fantasy, and 
          paranoia, and because some of it can be proven or corroborated 
          (symbols on rock albums, graffiti on walls, desecration of 
          cemeteries, vandalism, etc.), the implication is that it is all true 
          and documented. Material produced by religious organizations, 
          photocopies and slides of newspaper articles, and videotapes of 
          tabloid television programs are used to supplement the training and 
          are presented as "evidence" of the existence and nature of the 


          All of this is complicated by the fact that almost any discussion of 
          satanism and the occult is interpreted in the light of the religious 
          beliefs of those in the audience. Faith, not logic and reason, 
          governs the religious beliefs of most people. As a result, some 
          normally skeptical law enforcement officers accept the information 
          disseminated at these conferences without critically evaluating it 
          or questioning the sources. Officers who do not normally depend on 
          church groups for law enforcement criminal intelligence, who know 
          that media accounts of their own cases are notoriously inaccurate, 
          and who scoff at and joke about tabloid television accounts of 
          bizarre behavior suddenly embrace such material when presented in 
          the context of satanic activity. Individuals not in law enforcement 
          seem even more likely to do so. Other disciplines, especially 
          therapists, have also conducted training conferences on the 
          characteristics and identification of "ritual" child abuse. Nothing 
          said at such conferences will change the religious beliefs of those 
          in attendance. Such conferences illustrate the highly emotional 
          nature of and the ambiguity and wide variety of terms involved in 
          this issue. 

          4. DEFINITIONS

          The words "satanic", "occult", and "ritual" are often used 
          interchangeably. It is difficult to define "satanism" precisely. No 
          attempt will be made to do so here However, it is important to 
          realize that, for some people, any religious belief system other 
          than their own is "satanic". The Ayatollah Khomeini and Saddam 
          Hussein referred to the United States as the "Great Satan". In the 
          British Parliament a Protestant leader called the Pope the 
          Antichrist. In a book titled _Prepare For War_ (1987), Rebecca 
          Brown, M.D. has a chapter entitled "Is Roman Catholicism 
          Witchcraft?" Dr. Brown also lists among the "doorways" to satanic 
          power and/or demon infestation the following: fortune tellers, 
          horoscopes, fraternity oaths, vegetarianism, yoga, self-hypnosis, 
          relaxation tapes, acupuncture, biofeedback, fantasy role-playing 
          games, adultery, homosexuality, pornography, judo, karate, and rock 
          music. Dr. Brown states that rock music "was a carefully 
          masterminded plan by none other than Satan himself" (p. 84). The 
          ideas expressed in this book may seem extreme and even humorous. 
          This book, however, has been recommended as a serious reference in 
          law enforcement training material on this topic.


          In books, lectures, handout material, and conversations, I have 
          heard all of the following referred to as satanism: 
          -- Church of Satan
          -- Ordo Templi Orientis
          -- Temple of Set
          -- Demonology
          -- Witchcraft
          -- Occult
          -- Paganism
          -- Santeria
          -- Voodoo
          -- Rosicrucians
          -- Freemasonry
          -- Knights Templar
          -- Stoner Gangs
          -- Heavy Metal Music
          -- Rock Music
          -- KKK
          -- Nazis
          -- Skinheads
          -- Scientology
          -- Unification Church
          -- The Way
          -- Hare Krishna
          -- Rajneesh
          -- Religious Cults
          -- New Age
          -- Astrology
          -- Channeling
          -- Transcendental Meditation
          -- Holistic Medicine
          -- Buddhism
          -- Hinduism
          -- Mormonism
          -- Islam
          -- Orthodox Church
          -- Roman Catholicism

          At law enforcement training conferences, it is witchcraft, santeria, 
          paganism, and the occult that are most often referred to as forms of 
          satanism. It may be a matter of definition, but these things are not 
          necessarily the same as traditional satanism. The worship of lunar 
          goddesses and nature and the practice of fertility rituals are not 
          satanism. Santeria is a combination of 17th century Roman
          Catholicism and African paganism.

          Occult means simply "hidden". All unreported or unsolved crimes 
          might be regarded as occult, but in this context the term refers to 
          the action or influence of supernatural powers, some secret 
          knowledge of them, or an interest in paranormal phenomena, and does 
          not imply satanism, evil, wrongdoing, or crime. Indeed, 
          historically, the principal crimes deserving of consideration as 
          "occult crimes" are the frauds perpetrated by faith healers, fortune 
          tellers and "psychics" who for a fee claim cures, arrange 
          visitations with dead loved ones, and commit other financial crimes 
          against the gullible.


          Many individuals define satanism from a totally Christian 
          perspective, using this word to describe the power of evil in the 
          world. With this definition, any crimes, especially those which are 
          particularly bizarre, repulsive, or cruel, can be viewed as satanic 
          in nature. Yet it is just as difficult to precisely define satanism 
          as it is to precisely define Christianity or any complex spiritual 
          belief system. 

          -- a. WHAT IS RITUAL?

          The biggest confusion is over the word "ritual". During training 
          conferences on this topic, ritual almost always comes to mean 
          "satanic" or at least "spiritual". "Ritual" can refer to a 
          prescribed religious ceremony, but in its broader meaning refers to 
          any customarily-repeated act or series of acts. The need to repeat 
          these acts can be cultural, sexual, or psychological as well as 

          Cultural rituals could include such things as what a family eats on 
          Thanksgiving Day, or when and how presents are opened at Christmas. 
          The initiation ceremonies of fraternities, sororities, gangs, and 
          other social clubs are other examples of cultural rituals.

          Since 1972 I have lectured about sexual ritual, which is nothing 
          more than repeatedly engaging in an act or series of acts in a 
          certain manner because of a *sexual* need. In order to become 
          aroused and/or gratified, a person must engage in the act in a 
          certain way. This sexual ritual can include such things as the 
          physical characteristics, age, or gender of the victim, the 
          particular sequence of acts, the bringing or taking of specific 
          objects, and the use of certain words or phrases. This is more than 
          the concept of M.O. (Method of Operation) known to most police 
          officers. M.O. is something done by an offender because it works. 
          Sexual ritual is something done by an offender because of a need. 
          Deviant acts, such as urinating on, defecating on, or even 
          eviscerating a victim, are far more likely to be the result of 
          sexual ritual than religious or "satanic" ritual.

          From a criminal investigative perspective, two other forms of 
          ritualism must be recognized. The _Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 
          of Mental Disorders_ (DSM-III-R) (APA, 1987) defines "Obsessive- 
          Compulsive Disorder" as "repetitive, purposeful, and intentional 
          behaviors that are performed in response to an obsession, or 
          according to certain rules or in a stereotyped fashion" (p. 247). 
          Such compulsive behavior frequently involves rituals. Although such 
          behavior usually involves noncriminal activity such as excessive 
          hand washing or checking that doors are locked, occasionally 
          compulsive ritualism can be part of criminal activity. Certain 
          gamblers or firesetters, for example, are thought by some 
          authorities to be motivated in part through such compulsions. Ritual 
          can also stem from psychotic hallucinations and delusions. A crime 
          can be committed in a precise manner because a voice told the 
          offender to do it that way or because a divine mission required it.


          To make this more confusing, cultural, religious, sexual, and 
          psychological ritual can overlap. Some psychotic people are 
          preoccupied with religious delusions and hear the voice of God or 
          Satan telling them to do things of a religious nature. Offenders who 
          feel little, if any, guilt over their crimes may need little 
          justification for their antisocial behavior. As human beings, 
          however, they may have fears, concerns, and anxiety over getting 
          away with their criminal acts. It is difficult to pray to God for 
          success in doing things that are against His Commandments. A 
          negative spiritual belief system may fulfill their human need for 
          assistance from and belief in a greater power or to deal with their 
          superstitions. Compulsive ritualism (e.g., excessive cleanliness or 
          fear of disease) can be introduced into sexual behavior. Even many 
          "normal" people have a need for order and predictability and 
          therefore may engage in family or work rituals. Under stress or in 
          times of change, this need for order and ritual may increase.

          Ritual crime may fulfill the cultural, spiritual, sexual, and 
          psychological needs of an offender. Crimes may be ritualistically 
          motivated or may have ritualistic elements. The ritual behavior may 
          also fulfill basic criminal needs to manipulate victims, get rid of 
          rivals, send a message to enemies, and intimidate co-conspirators. 
          The leaders of a group may want to play upon the beliefs and 
          superstitions of those around them and try to convince accomplices 
          and enemies that they, the leaders, have special or "supernatural" 

          The important point for the criminal investigator is to realize that 
          most ritualistic criminal behavior is not motivated simply by 
          satanic or any religious ceremonies. At some conferences, presenters 
          have attempted to make an issue of distinguishing between "ritual", 
          "ritualized", and "ritualistic" abuse of children. These subtle 
          distinctions, however, seem to be of no significant value to the 
          criminal investigator.

          -- c. WHAT IS "RITUAL" CHILD ABUSE?

          I cannot define "ritual child abuse" precisely and prefer not to use 
          the term. I am frequently forced to use it (as throughout this 
          discussion) so that people will have some idea what I am discussing. 
          Use of the term, however, is confusing, misleading, and 
          counterproductive. The newer term "satanic ritual abuse" 
          (abbreviated "SRA") is even worse. Certain observations, however, 
          are important for investigative understanding.

          Most people today use the term to refer to abuse of children that is 
          part of some evil spiritual belief system, which almost by 
          definition must be satanic.

          Dr. Lawrence Pazder, coauthor of _Michelle Remembers_, defines 
          "ritualized abuse of children" as "repeated physical, emotional, 
          mental, and spiritual assaults combined with a systematic use of 
          symbols and secret ceremonies designed to turn a child against 
          itself, family, society, and God" (presentation, Richmond, Va., May 
          7,1987). He also states that "the sexual assault has ritualistic 
          meaning and is not for sexual gratification".


          This definition may have value for academics, sociologists, and 
          therapists, but it creates potential problems for law enforcement. 
          Certain acts engaged in with children (i.e. kissing, touching, 
          appearing naked, etc.) may be criminal if performed for sexual 
          gratification. If the ritualistic acts were in fact performed for 
          spiritual indoctrination, potential prosecution can be jeopardized, 
          particularly if the acts can be defended as constitutionally 
          protected religious expression. The mutilation of a baby's genitals
          for sadistic sexual pleasure is a crime. The circumcision of a 
          baby's genitals for religious reasons is most likely *not* a crime. 
          The intent of the acts is important for criminal prosecution.

          Not all spiritually motivated ritualistic activity is satanic. 
          Santeria, witchcraft, voodoo, and most religious cults are not 
          satanism. In fact, most spiritually- or religiously-based abuse of 
          children has nothing to do with satanism. Most child abuse that 
          could be termed "ritualistic" by various definitions is more likely 
          to be physical and psychological rather than sexual in nature. If a 
          distinction needs to be made between satanic and nonsatanic child 
          abuse, the indicators for that distinction must be related to 
          specific satanic symbols, artifacts, or doctrine rather than the 
          mere presence of any ritualistic element.

          Not all such ritualistic activity with a child is a crime. Almost 
          all parents with religious beliefs indoctrinate their children into 
          that belief system. Is male circumcision for religious reasons child 
          abuse? Is the religious circumcision of females child abuse? Does 
          having a child kneel on a hard floor reciting the rosary constitute 
          child abuse? Does having a child chant a satanic prayer or attend a 
          black mass constitute child abuse? Does a religious belief in 
          corporal punishment constitute child abuse? Does group care of 
          children in a commune or cult constitute child abuse? Does the fact 
          that any acts in question were performed with parental permission 
          affect the nature of the crime? Many ritualistic acts, whether 
          satanic or not, are simply not crimes. To open the Pandora's box of 
          labeling child abuse as "ritualistic" simply because it involves a 
          spiritual belief system means to apply the definition to all acts by 
          all spiritual belief systems. The day may come when many in the 
          forefront of concern about ritual abuse will regret they opened the 

          When a victim describes and investigation corroborates what sounds 
          like ritualistic activity. several possibilities must be considered. 
          The ritualistic activity may be part of the excessive religiosity of 
          mentally disturbed, even psychotic offenders. It may be a 
          misunderstood part of sexual ritual. The ritualistic activity may be 
          incidental to any real abuse. The offender may be involved in 
          ritualistic activity with a child and also may be abusing a child, 
          but one may have little or nothing to do with the other.

          The offender may be deliberately engaging in ritualistic activity 
          with a child as part of child abuse and exploitation. The 
          motivation, however, may be not to indoctrinate the child into a 
          belief system, but to lower the inhibitions of, control, manipulate, 
          and/or confuse the child. In all the turmoil over this issue, it 
          would be very effective strategy for any child molester deliberately 
          to introduce ritualistic elements into his crime in order to confuse 
          the child and therefore the criminal justice system. This would, 
          however, make the activity M.O. and not ritual.


          The ritualistic activity and the child abuse may be integral parts 
          of some spiritual belief system. In that case the greatest risk is 
          to the children of the practitioners. But this is true of all cults 
          and religions, not just satanic cults. A high potential of abuse 
          exists for any children raised in a group isolated from the 
          mainstream of society, especially if the group has a charismatic 
          leader whose orders are unquestioned and blindly obeyed by the 
          members. Sex, money, and power are often the main motivations of the 
          leaders of such cults.


          Some would answer that it is the offender's spiritual beliefs or 
          membership in a cult or church. If that is the criterion, why not
          label the crimes committed by Protestants, Catholics, and Jews in 
          the same way? Are the atrocities of Jim Jones in Guyana Christian 

          Some would answer that it is the presence of certain symbols in the 
          possession or home of the perpetrator. What does it mean then to 
          find a crucifix, Bible, or rosary in the possession or home of a 
          bank robber, embezzler, child molester, or murderer? If different 
          criminals possess the same symbols, are they necessarily part of one 
          big conspiracy?

          Others would answer that it is the presence of certain symbols such 
          as pentagrams, inverted crosses, and 666 at the crime scene. What 
          does it mean then to find a cross spray painted on a wall or carved 
          into the body of a victim? What does it mean for a perpetrator, as 
          in one recent case profiled by my Unit, to leave a Bible tied to his 
          murder victim? What about the possibility that an offender 
          deliberately left such symbols to make it look like a "satanic" 

          Some would argue that it is the bizarreness or cruelness of the 
          crime: body mutilation, amputation, drinking of blood, eating of 
          flesh, use of urine or feces. Does this mean that all individuals 
          involved in lust murder, sadism, vampirism, cannibalism, urophilia, 
          and coprophilia are satanists or occult practitioners? What does 
          this say about the bizarre crimes of psychotic killers such as Ed 
          Gein or Richard Trenton Chase, both of whom mutilated their victims 
          as part of their psychotic delusions? Can a crime that is not 
          sexually deviant, bizarre, or exceptionally violent be satanic? Can 
          white collar crime be satanic?


          A few might even answer that it is the fact that the crime was 
          committed on a date with satanic or occult significance (Halloween, 
          May Eve, etc.) or the fact that the perpetrator claims that Satan 
          told him to commit the crime. What does this mean for crimes 
          committed on Thanksgiving or Christmas? What does this say about 
          crimes committed by perpetrators who claim that God or Jesus told 
          them to do it? One note of interest is the fact that in handout and 
          reference material I have collected, the number of dates with 
          satanic or occult significance ranges from 8 to 110. This is 
          compounded by the fact that it is sometimes stated that satanists 
          can celebrate these holidays on several days on either side of the 
          official date or that the birthdays of practitioners can also be 
          holidays. The exact names and exact dates of the holidays and the 
          meaning of symbols listed may also vary depending on who prepared 
          the material The handout material is often distributed without 
          identifying the author or documenting the original source of the 
          information. It is then frequently photocopied by attendees and 
          passed on to other police officers with no one really knowing its 
          validity or origin.

          Most, however, would probably answer that what makes a crime 
          satanic, occult, or ritualistic is the motivation for the crime. It 
          is a crime that is spiritually motivated by a religious belief 
          system. How then do we label the following true crimes?

          -- Parents defy a court order and send their children to an 
          unlicensed Christian school.

          -- Parents refuse to send their children to any school because they 
          are waiting for the second coming of Christ.

          -- Parents beat their child to death because he or she will not 
          follow their Christian belief.

          -- Parents violate child labor laws because they believe the Bible
          requires such work.

          -- Individuals bomb an abortion clinic or kidnap the doctor because 
          their religious belief system says abortion is murder.

          -- A child molester reads the Bible to his victims in order to 
          justify his sex acts with them.

          -- Parents refuse life-saving medical treatment for a child because 
          of their religious beliefs.

          -- Parents starve and beat their child to death because their 
          minister said the child was possessed by demonic spirits.

          Some people would argue that the Christians who committed the above 
          crimes misunderstood and distorted their religion while satanists 
          who commit crimes are following theirs. But who decides what 
          constitutes a misinterpretation of a religious belief system? The 
          individuals who committed the above-described crimes, however 
          misguided, believed that they were following their religion as they 
          understood it. Religion was and is used to justify such social 
          behavior as the Crusades, the Inquisition, Apartheid, segregation, 
          and recent violence in Northern Ireland, India, Lebanon and Nigeria.


          Who decides exactly what "satanists" believe? In this country, we 
          cannot even agree on what Christians believe. At many law 
          enforcement conferences The _Satanic Bible_ is used for this, and it 
          is often contrasted or compared with the Judeo-Christian Bible. The 
          _Satanic Bible_ is, in essence, a short paperback book written by 
          one man, Anton LaVey, in 1969. To compare it to a book written by 
          multiple authors over a period of thousands of years is ridiculous, 
          even ignoring the possibility of Divine revelation in the Bible. 
          What satanists believe certainly isn't limited to other people's 
          interpretation of a few books. More importantly it is subject to 
          some degree of interpretation by individual believers just as 
          Christianity is. Many admitted "satanists" claim they do not even 
          believe in God, the devil, or any supreme deity. The criminal 
          behavior of one person claiming belief in a religion does not 
          necessarily imply guilt or blame to others sharing that belief. In 
          addition, simply claiming membership in a religion does not 
          necessarily make you a member.

          The fact is that far more crime and child abuse has been committed 
          by zealots in the name of God, Jesus, Mohammed, and other mainstream 
          religion than has ever been committed in the name of Satan. Many 
          people, including myself, don't like that statement, but the truth 
          of it is undeniable. 

          Although defining a crime as satanic, occult, or ritualistic would 
          probably involve a combination of the criteria set forth above, I 
          have been unable to clearly define such a crime. Each potential 
          definition presents a different set of problems when measured 
          against an objective, rational, and constitutional perspective. In a 
          crime with multiple subjects, each offender may have a different 
          motivation for the same crime. Whose motivation determines the label 
          for the crime? It is difficult to count or track something you 
          cannot even define.

          I have discovered, however, that the facts of so-called "satanic 
          crimes" are often significantly different from what is described st 
          training conferences or in the media. The actual involvement of 
          satanism or the occult in these cases usually turns out to be 
          secondary, insignificant, or nonexistent. Occult or ritual crime 
          surveys done by the states of Michigan (1990) and Virginia (1991) 
          have only confirmed this "discovery". Some law enforcement officers, 
          unable to find serious "satanic" crime in their communities, assume
          they are just lucky or vigilant and the serious problems must be in 
          other jurisdictions. The officers in the other jurisdictions, also 
          unable find it, assume the same. 


          Sometime in early 1983 I was first contacted by a law enforcement 
          agency for guidance in what was then thought to be an unusual case. 
          The exact date of the contact is unknown because its significance 
          was not recognized at the time. In the months and years that 
          followed, I received more and more inquiries about "these kinds of 
          cases". The requests for assistance came (and continue to come) from 
          all over the United States. Many of the aspects of these cases 
          varied, but there were also some commonalties. Early on, however, 
          one particularly difficult and potentially significant issue began 
          to emerge.


          These cases involved and continue to involve unsubstantiated 
          allegations of bizarre activity that are difficult either to prove 
          or disprove. Many of the unsubstantiated allegations, however, do 
          not seem to have occurred or even be possible. These cases seem to 
          call into question the credibility of victims of child sexual abuse 
          and exploitation. These are the most polarizing, frustrating, and 
          baffling cases I have encountered in more than 18 years of studying 
          the criminal aspects of deviant sexual behavior. I privately sought 
          answers, but said nothing publicly about those cases until 1985.

          In October 1984 the problems in investigating and prosecuting one of 
          these cases in Jordan, Minnesota became publicly known. In February 
          1985, at the FBI Academy, the FBI sponsored and I coordinated the 
          first national seminar held to study "these kinds of cases". Later 
          in 1985, similar conferences sponsored by other organizations were 
          held in Washington, D.C.; Sacramento, California; and Chicago, 
          Illinois. These cases have also been discussed at many recent 
          regional and national conferences dealing with the sexual 
          victimization of children and Multiple Personality Disorder. Few 
          answers have come from these conferences. I continue to be contacted 
          on these cases on a regular basis. Inquiries have been received from 
          law enforcement officers, prosecutors, therapists, victims, families 
          of victims, and the media from all over the United States and now 
          foreign countries. I do not claim to understand completely all the 
          dynamics of these cases. I continue to keep an open mind and to 
          search for answers to the questions and solutions to the problems 
          they pose. This discussion is based on my analysis of the several 
          hundred of "these kinds of cases" on which I have consulted since 

          -- a. DYNAMICS OF CASES.

          What are "these kinds of cases"? They were and continue to be 
          difficult to define. They all involve allegations of what sounds 
          like child sexual abuse, but with a combination of some atypical 
          dynamics. These cases seem to have the following four dynamics in 
          common: (1) multiple young victims, (2) multiple offenders, (3) fear 
          as the controlling tactic, and (4) bizarre or ritualistic activity.

          ---- (1) MULTIPLE YOUNG VICTIMS.

          In almost all the cases the sexual abuse was alleged to have taken 
          place or at least begun when the victims were between the ages of 
          birth and six. This very young age may be an important key to 
          understanding these cases. In addition the victims all described 
          multiple children being abused. The numbers ranged from three or 
          four to as many as several hundred victims.

          ---- (2) MULTIPLE OFFENDERS.

          In almost all the cases the victims reported numerous offenders. The 
          numbers ranged from two or three all the way up to dozens of 
          offenders. In one recent case the victims alleged 400-500 offenders 
          were involved. Interestingly many of the offenders (perhaps as many 
          as 40-50 percent) were reported to be females. The multiple 
          offenders were often family members and were described as being part 
          of a cult, occult, or satanic group.


          ---- (3) FEAR AS CONTROLLING TACTIC.

          Child molesters in general are able to maintain control and ensure 
          the secrecy of their victims in a variety of ways. These include 
          attention and affection, coercion, blackmail, embarrassment, 
          threats, and violence. In almost all of these cases I have studied, 
          the victims described being frightened and reported threats against 
          themselves, their families, their friends, and even their pets. They 
          reported witnessing acts of violence perpetrated to reinforce this 
          fear. It is my belief that this fear and the traumatic memory of the 
          events may be another key to understanding many of these cases.


          This is the most difficult dynamic of these cases to describe. 
          "Bizarre" is a relative term. Is the use of urine or feces in sexual 
          activity bizarre, or is it a well-documented aspect of sexual 
          deviancy, or is it part of established satanic rituals? As 
          previously discussed, the ritualistic aspect is even more difficult 
          to define. How do you distinguish acts performed in a precise manner 
          to enhance or allow sexual arousal from those acts that fulfill 
          spiritual needs or comply with "religious" ceremonies? Victims in 
          these cases report ceremonies, chanting, robes and costumes, drugs, 
          use of urine and feces, animal sacrifice, torture, abduction, 
          mutilation, murder, and even cannibalism and vampirism. All things 
          considered, the word "bizarre" is probably preferable to the word 
          "ritual" to describe this activity.

          When I was contacted on these cases, it was very common for a 
          prosecutor or investigator to say that the alleged victims have been 
          evaluated by an "expert" who will stake his or her professional 
          reputation on the fact that the victims are telling the "truth". 
          When asked how many cases this expert had previously evaluated 
          involving these four dynamics, the answer was always the same: none! 
          The experts usually had only dealt with one-on-one intrafamilial 
          sexual abuse cases. Recently an even more disturbing trend has 
          developed. More and more of the victims have been identified or 
          evaluated by experts who have been trained to identify and 
          specialize in satanic ritual abuse.


          As previously stated, a major problem in communicating, training, 
          and researching in this area is the term used to define "these kinds 
          of cases". Many refer to them as "ritual, ritualistic, or ritualized 
          abuse of children cases" or "satanic ritual abuse (SRA) cases". Such 
          words carry specialized meanings for many people and might imply 
          that all these cases are connected to occult or satanic activity. If 
          ritual abuse is not necessarily occult or satanic, but is "merely" 
          severe, repeated, prolonged abuse, why use a term that, in the minds 
          of so many, implies such specific motivation?

          Others refer to these cases as "multioffender/multivictim cases". 
          The problem with this term is that most multiple offender and victim 
          cases do not involve the four dynamics discussed above.


          For want of a better term, I have decided to refer to "these kinds
          of cases" as "multidimensional child sex rings". Right now I seem to 
          be the only one using this term. I am, however, not sure if this is 
          truly a distinct kind of child sex ring case or just a case not 
          properly handled. Following are the general characteristics of these 
          multidimensional child sex ring cases as contrasted with more common 
          historical child sex ring cases [see my monograph _Child Sex Rings: 
          A Behavioral Analysis] (1989) for a discussion of the 
          characteristics of historical child sex ring cases].

          ---- (1) FEMALE OFFENDERS.

          As many as 40-50 percent of the offenders in these cases are 
          reported to be women. This is in marked contrast to historical child 
          sex rings in which almost all the offenders are men.

          ---- (2) SITUATIONAL MOLESTERS.

          The offenders appear to be sexually interacting with the child 
          victims for reasons other than a true sexual preference for 
          children. The children are substitute victims, and the abusive 
          activity may have little to do with pedophilia [see my monograph 
          _Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis_ (1987) for a further 
          explanation about types of molesters].

          ---- (3) MALE AND FEMALE VICTIMS.

          Both boys and girls appear to be targeted, but with an apparent 
          preference for girls. Almost all the adult survivors are female, but 
          day care cases frequently involve male as well as female victims. 
          The most striking characteristic of the victims, however, is their 
          young age (generally birth to six years old when the abuse began).


          Sexual gratification appears to be only part of the motivation for 
          the "sexual" activity. Many people today argue that the motivation 
          is "spiritual" - possibly part of an occult ceremony. It is my 
          opinion that the motivation may have more to do with anger, 
          hostility, rage and resentment carried out against weak and 
          vulnerable victims. Much of the ritualistic abuse of children may 
          not be sexual in nature. Some of the activity may, in fact, be 
          physical abuse directed at sexually-significant body parts (penis, 
          anus, nipples). This may also partially explain the large percentage 
          of female offenders. Physical abuse of children by females is well-


          Although many of the victims of multidimensional child sex rings 
          claim that pictures and videotapes of the activity were made, no 
          such visual record has been found by law enforcement. In recent 
          years, American law enforcement has seized large amounts of child 
          pornography portraying children in a wide variety of sexual activity 
          and perversions. None of it, however, portrays the kind of bizarre 
          and/or ritualistic activity described by these victims. Perhaps 
          these offenders use and store their pornography and paraphernalia in 
          ways different from preferential child molesters (pedophiles). This 
          is an area needing additional research and investigation.


          ---- (6) CONTROL THROUGH FEAR.

          Control through fear may be the overriding characteristic of these 
          cases. Control is maintained by frightening the children. A very 
          young child might not be able to understand the significance of much 
          of the sexual activity but certainly understands fear. The stories 
          that the victims tell may be their perceived versions of severe
          traumatic memories. They may be the victims of a severely 
          traumatized childhood in which being sexually abused was just one of 
          the many negative events affecting their lives.

          -- c. SCENARIOS.

          Multidimensional child sex rings typically emerge from one of four 
          scenarios: (1) adult survivors, (2) day care cases, (3) 
          family/isolated neighborhood cases, and (4) custody/visitation 

          ---- (1) ADULT SURVIVORS.

          In adult survivor cases, adults of almost any age - nearly always 
          women - are suffering the consequences of a variety of personal 
          problems and failures in their lives (e.g., promiscuity, eating 
          disorders, drug and alcohol abuse, failed relationships, self-
          mutilation, unemployment). As a result of some precipitating stress 
          or crisis, they often seek therapy. They are frequently hypnotized, 
          intentionally or unintentionally, as part of the therapy and are 
          often diagnosed as suffering from Multiple Personality Disorder. 
          Gradually, during the therapy, the adults reveal previously 
          unrecalled memories of early childhood victimization that includes 
          multiple victims and offenders, fear as the controlling tactic, and 
          bizarre or ritualistic activity. Adult survivors may also claim that 
          "cues" from certain events in their recent life "triggered" the 
          previously repressed memories.

          The multiple offenders are often described as members of a cult or 
          satanic group. Parents, family members, clergy, civic leaders, 
          police officers (or individuals wearing police uniforms), and other 
          prominent members of society are frequently described as present at 
          and participating in the exploitation. The alleged bizarre activity 
          often includes insertion of foreign objects, witnessing mutilations, 
          and sexual acts and murders being filmed or photographed. The 
          offenders may allegedly still be harassing or threatening the 
          victims. They report being particularly frightened on certain dates 
          and by certain situations. In several of these cases, women (called 
          "breeders") claim to have had babies that were turned over for human 
          sacrifice. This type of case is probably best typified by books like 
          _Michelle Remembers_ (Smith & Pazder, 1980), _Satan's Underground_ 
          (Stratford, 1988), and _Satan's Children_ (Mayer, 1991).


          If and when therapists come to believe the patient or decide the law 
          requires it, the police or FBI are sometimes contacted to conduct an 
          investigation. The therapists may also fear for their safety because 
          they now know the "secret". The therapists will frequently tell law 
          enforcement that they will stake their professional reputation on 
          the fact that their patient is telling the truth. Some adult 
          survivors go directly to law enforcement. They may also go from 
          place to place in an effort to find therapists or investigators who 
          will listen to and believe them. Their ability to provide verifiable 
          details varies and many were raised in apparently religious homes. A 
          few adult survivors are now reporting participation in specific 
          murders or child abductions that are known to have taken place.

          ---- (2) DAY CARE CASES.

          In day care cases children currently or formerly attending a day 
          care center gradually describe their victimization at the center and 
          at other locations to which they were taken by the day care staff. 
          The cases include multiple victims and offenders, fear, and bizarre 
          or ritualistic activity, with a particularly high number of female 
          offenders. Descriptions of strange games, insertion of foreign 
          objects, killing of animals, photographing of activities, and 
          wearing of costumes are common. The accounts of the young children,
          however, do not seem to be quite as "bizarre" as those of the adult 
          survivors, with fewer accounts of human sacrifice.


          In family/isolated neighborhood cases, children describe their 
          victimization within their family or extended family. The group is 
          often defined by geographic boundary, such as a cul-de-sac, 
          apartment building, or isolated rural setting. Such accounts are 
          most common in rural or suburban communities with high 
          concentrations of religiously conservative people. The stories are 
          similar to those told of the day care setting, but with more male 
          offenders. The basic dynamics remain the same, but victims tend to 
          be more than six years of age, and the scenario may also involve a 
          custody or visitation dispute.


          In custody/visitation dispute cases, the allegations emanate from a 
          custody or visitation dispute over at least one child under the age 
          of seven. The four dynamics described above make these cases 
          extremely difficult to handle. When complicated by the strong 
          emotions of this scenario, the cases can be overwhelming. This is 
          especially true if the disclosing child victims have been taken into 
          the "underground" by a parent during the custody or visitation 
          dispute. Some of these parents or relatives may even provide 
          authorities with diaries or tapes of their interviews with the 
          children. An accurate evaluation and assessment of a young child 
          held in isolation in this underground while being "debriefed" by a 
          parent or someone else is almost impossible. However well-
          intentioned, these self-appointed investigators severely damage any 
          chance to validate these cases objectively.



          Some of what the victims in these cases allege is physically 
          impossible (victim cut up and put back together, offender took the 
          building apart and then rebuilt it); some is possible but improbable 
          (human sacrifice, cannibalism, vampirism ); some is possible and 
          probable (child pornography, clever manipulation of victims); and 
          some is corroborated (medical evidence of vaginal or anal trauma, 
          offender confessions).

          The most significant crimes being alleged that do not *seem* to be 
          true are the human sacrifice and cannibalism by organized satanic 
          cults. In none of the multidimensional child sex ring cases of which 
          I am aware have bodies of the murder victims been found - in spite 
          of major excavations where the abuse victims claim the bodies were 
          located. The alleged explanations for this include: the offenders 
          moved the bodies after the children left, the bodies were burned in 
          portable high-temperature ovens, the bodies were put in double-
          decker graves under legitimately buried bodies, a mortician member 
          of the cult disposed of the bodies in a crematorium, the offenders 
          ate the bodies, the offenders used corpses and aborted fetuses, or 
          the power of Satan caused the bodies to disappear. 

          Not only are no bodies found, but also, more importantly, there is 
          no physical evidence that a murder took place. Many of those not in 
          law enforcement do not understand that, while it is possible to get 
          rid of a body, it is even more difficult to get rid of the physical 
          evidence that a murder took place, especially a human sacrifice 
          involving sex, blood, and mutilation. Such activity would leave 
          behind trace evidence that could be found using modern crime scene 
          processing techniques in spite of extraordinary efforts to clean it 

          The victims of these human sacrifices and murders are alleged to be 
          abducted missing children, runaway and throwaway children, 
          derelicts, and the babies of breeder women. It is interesting to 
          note that many of those espousing these theories are using the long-
          since-discredited numbers and rhetoric of the missing children 
          hysteria in the early 1980s. Yet "Stranger-Abduction Homicides of 
          Children", a January 1989 _Juvenile Justice Bulletin_, published by 
          the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the 
          U.S. Department of Justice, reports that researchers now estimate 
          that the number of children kidnapped and murdered by nonfamily 
          members is between 52 and 158 a year and that adolescents 14 to 17 
          years old account for nearly two-thirds of these victims. These 
          figures are also consistent with the 1990 National Incident Studies 
          previously mentioned.

          We live in a very violent society, and yet we have "only" about 
          23,000 murders a year. Those who accept these stories of mass human 
          sacrifice would have us believe that the satanists and other occult 
          practitioners are murdering more than twice as many people every 
          year in this country as all the other murderers combined.


          In addition, in none of the cases of which I am aware has any 
          evidence of a well-organized satanic cult been found. Many of those 
          who accept the stories of organized ritual abuse of children and 
          human sacrifice will tell you that the best evidence they now have 
          is the consistency of stories from all over America. It sounds like 
          a powerful argument. It is interesting to note that, without having 
          met each other, the hundreds of people who claim to have been 
          abducted by aliens from outer space also tell stories and give 
          descriptions of the aliens that are similar to each other. This is 
          not to imply that allegations of child abuse are in the same 
          category as allegations of abduction by aliens from outer space. It 
          is intended only to illustrate that individuals who never met each 
          other can sometimes describe similar events without necessarily 
          having experienced them.

          The large number of people telling the same story is, in fact, the 
          biggest reason to doubt these stories. It is simply too difficult 
          for that many people to commit so many horrendous crimes as part of 
          an organized conspiracy. Two or three people murder a couple of 
          children in a few communities as part of a ritual, and nobody finds 
          out? Possible. Thousands of people do the same thing to tens of 
          thousands of victims over many years? Not likely. Hundreds of 
          communities all over America are run by mayors, police departments, 
          and community leaders who are practicing satanists and who regularly 
          murder and eat people? Not likely. In addition, these community 
          leaders and high-ranking officials also supposedly commit these 
          complex crimes leaving no evidence, and at the same time function as 
          leaders and managers while heavily involved in using illegal drugs. 
          Probably the closest documented example of this type of alleged 
          activity in American history is the Ku Klux Klan, which ironically 
          used Christianity, not satanism, to rationalize its activity but 
          which, as might be expected, was eventually infiltrated by 
          informants and betrayed by its members.

          As stated, initially I was inclined to believe the allegations of 
          the victims. But as the cases poured in and the months and years 
          went by, I became more concerned about the lack of physical evidence 
          and corroboration for many of the more serious allegations. With 
          increasing frequency I began to ask the question: "Why are victims 
          alleging things that do not *seem* to be true?" Many possible 
          answers were considered. 

          The first possible answer is obvious: clever offenders. The 
          allegations may not seem to be true but they are true. The criminal 
          justice system lacks the knowledge, skill, and motivation to get to
          the bottom of this crime conspiracy. The perpetrators of this crime 
          conspiracy are clever, cunning individuals using sophisticated mind 
          control and brainwashing techniques to control their victims. Law 
          enforcement does not know how to investigate these cases.

          It is technically possible that these allegations of an organized 
          conspiracy involving taking over day care centers, abduction, 
          cannibalism, murder, and human sacrifice might be true. But if they 
          are true, they constitute one of the greatest crime conspiracies in 


          Many people do not understand how difficult it is to commit a 
          conspiracy crime involving numerous co-conspirators. One clever and 
          cunning individual has a good chance of getting away with a well- 
          planned interpersonal crime. Bring one partner into the crime and 
          the odds of getting away with it drop considerably. The more people 
          involved in the crime, the harder it is to get away with it. Why? 
          Human nature is the answer. People get angry and jealous. They come 
          to resent the fact that another conspirator is getting "more" than 
          they. They get in trouble and want to make a deal for themselves by 
          informing on others.

          If a group of individuals degenerate to the point of engaging in 
          human sacrifice, murder, and cannibalism, that would most likely be 
          the beginning of the end for such a group. The odds are that someone 
          in the group would have a problem with such acts and be unable to 
          maintain the secret.

          The appeal of the satanic conspiracy theory is twofold:

          ---- (1) First, it is a simple explanation for a complex problem. 
          Nothing is more simple than "the devil made them do it". If we do 
          not understand something, we make it the work of some supernatural 
          force. During the Middle Ages, serial killers were thought to be 
          vampires and werewolves, and child sexual abuse was the work of 
          demons taking the form of parents and clergy. Even today, especially 
          for those raised to religiously believe so, satanism offers an 
          explanation as to why "good" people do bad things. It may also help 
          to "explain" unusual, bizarre, and compulsive sexual urges and 

          ---- (2) Second, the conspiracy theory is a popular one. We find it 
          difficult to believe that one bizarre individual could commit a 
          crime we find so offensive. Conspiracy theories about soldiers 
          missing in action (MlAs), abductions by UFOs, Elvis Presley 
          sightings, and the assassination of prominent public figures are the 
          focus of much attention in this country. These conspiracy theories 
          and allegations of ritual abuse have the following in common: (1) 
          self-proclaimed experts, (2) tabloid media interest, (3) belief the 
          government is involved in a coverup, and (4) emotionally involved 
          direct and indirect victim/witnesses.

          On a recent television program commemorating the one hundredth 
          anniversary of Jack the Ripper, almost fifty percent of the viewing 
          audience who called the polling telephone numbers indicated that 
          they thought the murders were committed as part of a conspiracy 
          involving the British Royal Family. The five experts on the program, 
          however, unanimously agreed the crimes were the work of one 
          disorganized but lucky individual who was diagnosed as a paranoid 
          schizophrenic. In many ways, the murders of Jack the Ripper are 
          similar to those allegedly committed by satanists today.

          If your child's molestation was perpetrated by a sophisticated 
          satanic cult, there is nothing you could have done to prevent it and 
          therefore no reason to feel any guilt. I have been present when 
          parents who believe their children were ritually abused at day care
          centers have told others that the cults had sensors in the road, 
          lookouts in the air, and informers everywhere; therefore, the 
          usually recommended advice of unannounced visits to the day care 
          center would be impossible. 



          Even if only part of an allegation is not true, what then is the 
          answer to the question "Why are victims alleging things that do not 
          *seem* to be true?" After consulting with psychiatrists, 
          psychologists, anthropologists, therapists, social workers, child 
          sexual abuse experts, and law enforcement investigators for more 
          than eight years, I can find no single, simple answer. The answer to 
          the question seems to be a complex set of dynamics that can be 
          different in each case. In spite of the fact that some skeptics keep 
          looking for it, there does not appear to be one answer to the 
          question that fits every case. Each case is different, and each case 
          may involve a different combination of answers.

          I have identified a series of possible alternative answers to this 
          question. The alternative answers also do not preclude the 
          possibility that clever offenders are sometimes involved. I will not 
          attempt to explain completely these alternative answers because I 
          cannot. They are presented simply as areas for consideration and 
          evaluation by child sexual abuse intervenors, for further 
          elaboration by experts in these fields, and for research by 
          objective social scientists. The first step, however, in finding the 
          answers to this question is to admit the possibility that some of 
          what the victims describe may not have happened. Some child 
          advocates seem unwilling to do this.


          The first possible answer to why victims are alleging things that do 
          not *seem* to be true is *pathological distortion*. The allegations 
          may be errors in processing reality influenced by underlying mental 
          disorders such as dissociative disorders, borderline or histrionic 
          personality disorders, or psychosis. These distortions may be 
          manifested in false accounts of victimization in order to gain 
          psychological benefits such as attention and sympathy (factitious 
          disorder). When such individuals repeatedly go from place to place 
          or person to person making these false reports of their own 
          "victimization", it is called Munchausen Syndrome. When the repealed 
          false reports concern the "victimization" of their children or 
          others linked to them, it is called Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy. I 
          am amazed when some therapists state that they believe the 
          allegations because they cannot think of a reason why the "victim", 
          whose failures are now explained and excused or who is now the 
          center of attention at a conference or on a national television 
          program, would lie. If you can be forgiven for mutilating and 
          killing babies, you can be forgiven for anything.

          Many "victims" may develop pseudomemories of their victimization and 
          eventually come to believe the events actually occurred. Noted 
          forensic psychiatrist Park E. Dietz (personal communication, Nov. 
          1991) states: