The Parts of The Soul: A Greek System of Chakras, by John Opsopaus 4

2701

 actions and there are outcomes.  The aim is not to live according
 to  guidelines,  but  to  understand as  fully  as  possible  the
 consequences of the things we do,  and to decide, in the light of
 our understanding (which has hopefully kept pace with our power),
 whether we are prepared to live with the outcomes.
 
 And so to sacrifice.  There is a problem here. The problem arises
 from  the  perception that in magic you don't get  something  for
 nothing,  and if you want to bring about change through magic you
 have to pay for it in some way.  So far so good. The question is:
 what  can you give in return?  There is a widespread belief  that
 you  can sacrifice a living creature,  and while  most  magicians
 (self included) abhor the idea,  the perpetuation of this idea is
 still  being  used  as  a stick to beat  the  magical  and  pagan
 community about the head. The issue is further complicated by the
 fact  that  if  one  looks  at  surviving  shamanistic  practices
 worldwide,  or  looks at the origins of  most  religions,  ritual
 animal sacrifice is endemic.  That doesn't make it right,  and  I
 have  an unshakeable prejudice that it isn't an acceptable  thing
 to  do,  but I am only too aware of my hypocrisy when I  order  a
 chicken curry, so I'm not going to stand on a soapbox and rant on
 about  it.

      What  I  prefer  to  do is to examine  what  the  notion  of
 sacrifice means.  What can one legitimately sacrifice?  You can't
 legitimately sacrifice anything which is not yours to  give,  and
 so the answer to the question "what can I sacrifice" lies in  the
 answer to the question "what am I, and what have I got to give?".
 You  certainly aren't any other living being,  and if  you  don't
 make  the mistake of identifying yourself with  your  possessions
 you  will see that the only sacrifice you can make  is  yourself,
 because  that  is all you have to give.  Every  ritual  intention
 requires  that you sacrifice some part of yourself,  and  if  you
 don't  make the sacrifice willingly then either the  ritual  will
 fail,  or  the  price  will be exacted anyway.  I  don't  have  a
 rational justification for this statement, and it certainly isn't
 based  on  "karma"  or a paranoid feeling  that  accountants  are
 everywhere;  the belief was handed on to me as part of my magical
 training,  and having observed the way in which "magical  energy"
 is utilised to carry out intentions,  it makes sense. Each person
 has  a certain amount of what I will call "life energy" at  their
 disposal  -  some people call it "personal power",  and  you  can
 sacrifice some of that energy to power the ritual. Sacrifice does
 not  mean turning the knife on yourself (and there are plenty  of
 people  who  do that).  What it means in  ordinary  down-to-earth
 terms  is  that you promise to do something in  return  for  your
 intention,  and you link the sacrifice to the intention in such a
 way that the sacrifice focuses energy along the direction of your
 intention. For example, my cat was ill and hadn't eaten for three
 weeks,  so,  as  a last resort,  fearing she was about to die  of
 starvation,  I carried out a ritual to restore her appetite,  and
 as  a  sacrifice I ate nothing for 24 hours.  I  used  my  (real)
 hunger to drive the intention, and she began eating the following
 day.

      Any  personal  sacrifice which hurts enough engages  a  deep
 impulse to make the hurt go away,  and the magician can use  that
 impulse  to bring about magical change by linking the removal  of
2702

 the pain to the accomplishment of the intention. And I don't mean
 magical   masochism.   We   are  (subject  to  all   caveats   on
 generalisations) creatures of habit who find comfort and security
 by  living our lives in a particular way,  and a change  to  that
 habit  and routine causes some discomfort and an opposing  desire
 to return to the original state: that desire can be used. Just as
 a ritual intends to change the world in some way,  so a sacrifice
 forces  us to change ourselves in some way,  and  that  liberates
 magical  energy.  If you want to heal someone,  don't just  do  a
 ritual and leave it at that;  become involved in caring for  them
 in  some way,  and that *active* caring can act as a channel  for
 whatever power you have invoked. If you want to use magic to help
 someone out of a mess, provide them with active, material help as
 well;  conversely,  if you can't be bothered to provide  material
 help,  your  ritual will be infected with that same  inertia  and
 apathy - true will,  will out, and in many cases our true will is
 to  flatter  the ego and do nothing  substantive.  I  speak  from
 experience.

      From a magical perspective each one of us is a magical being
 with  a vast potential of power,  but that is denied to us by  an
 innate,  fanatical,  and unbelievably deep-rooted desire to  keep
 the  world  in  a regular orbit  serving  our  own  needs.  Self-
 sacrifice  disturbs  this equilibrium and lets out some  of  that
 energy, and that is why egoless devotion and self-sacrifice has a
 reputation for working miracles.
 
 4.5 The Main Ritual
 
      After  invoking the Powers and having stated  the  intention
 and  sacrifice,  there would seem to be nothing more to  do,  but
 most people like to prolong the contact with the Powers and carry
 out  some  kind of symbolic ritual for a period of  time  varying
 from  minutes to days.  Ritual as I have described it so far  may
 seem like a cut-and-dried exercise,  but it isn't;  it is more of
 an art than a science,  and once the Circle and Gates are opened,
 and the Powers are "in attendance",  whatever science there is in
 ritual  gives  way to art.  Magicians operate in  a  world  where
 ordinary    things    have   complex   symbolic    meanings    or
 correspondences,   and  they  use  a  selection  of   consecrated
 implements or "power objects" in their work. The magician can use
 this palette of symbols within a ritual to paint of picture which
 signifies an intention in a non-verbal,  non-rational way, and it
 is  this ability to communicate an intention through every  sense
 of the body,  through every level of the mind, which gives ritual
 its power. I can't say any more about this because it is personal
 and unique to every magician, and each one develops a style which
 works best for them.
 
 4.6 Dismissal of Powers
 
      Once  the  ritual  is complete the Powers  are  thanked  and
 dismissed.  This  begins the withdrawal of consciousness back  to
 its pre-ritual state.
 
 4.7 Close Gates/Close Circle
 
      The final steps are closing the Gates (thus sealing off  the
2703

 altered  state  of consciousness) and closing  the  Circle  (thus
 returning to the everyday world). The Circle should not be closed
 if  there is any suspicion that the withdrawal from  the  altered
 state has not been completed fully.  I like to carry out a sanity
 check  between  closing  the Gates and  closing  the  Circle.  It
 sometimes  happens  that although the magician goes  through  the
 steps  of closing down,  the attention is not  engaged,  and  the
 magician remains in the altered state.  This is not a good  idea.
 The  energy  of  that state will continue to  manifest  in  every
 intention  in everyday life,  and all sorts of  unplanned  things
 will  start to happen.  A related problem is that every  magician
 will find sooner or later an altered state which compensates  for
 some of their perceived inadequacies (in the way that many people
 like to get drunk at parties),  and they will not want to let  go
 of  it because it makes them feel good,  so they come out of  the
 ritual in an altered state without realising they have failed  to
 close down correctly.  This is called obsession, and it is one of
 the interesting difficulties of magical work.

      Closing down correctly is important if you don't want to end
 up  like a badly cracked pot.  If you don't feel happy  that  the
 Powers  have  been  completely dismissed  and  the  Gates  closed
 correctly, go back and repeat the steps again.
 
 5. Maps & Correspondences
 
 If  consciousness is imagined as a space we can move  around  in,
 then it is a space of several dimensions.  An indespensible  tool
 for  any magician is a method for describing this space  and  its
 dimensions,   a  method  to  specify  the  "the  coordinates   of
 consciousness",  like giving a map reference.  The magician  uses
 such  a  descriptive method to say "this is where I want  to  get
 to",  and you can imagine a ritual as a vehicle which  transports
 him or her to the destination and back again.

      A descriptive method of this type is one of the most obvious
 and  characteristic features of a particular  magical  technique,
 because  states  of consciousness are usually described  using  a
 dense mesh of symbolism and metaphor,  and if a magical tradition
 has  been around for any length of time it becomes identified  by
 the details of this symbolism.  Given the tendency for maps to be
 confused  with territory,  there is a tendency for  symbolism  to
 take  on  a life of its own and become completely  detached  from
 authentic  magical technique.  People confuse  magical  symbolism
 with magic; its use as a coordinate system is lost, vast tomes of
 drivel are written, and every manner of absurdity follows.

      I am a Kabbalist by training and use a map of  consciousness
 called "The Tree of Life".  This map has been coloured in using a
 thousand  years  of  symbolism,  and the result  is  called  "the
 Correspondences",  and it is a system which allows me to navigate
 around the dimensions of consciousness with some precision. There
 are many other maps,  some well worn by history, some not, and my
 choice  is  a  matter of personal preference.  It  works  for  me
 because  of the kind of person I am,  but it is only a map and  I
 wouldn't  pretend that there was anything  intrinsically  special
 about it.

2704

      Many  magicians operate within a  religious  framework.  The
 Christian Mass is a magical ritual par excellence,  and there are
 several other magical rituals associated with Christianity.  Some
 magicians  work  within  a  pantheon  -  Graeco-Roman,  Egyptian,
 Scandinavian, Aztec or whatever. Some (e.g. Crowley) invent their
 own religion.  A characteristic of all these systems is that they
 provide  a  complex mesh of symbol and metaphor,  a map  for  the
 magician  to  work  within.   For  any  pantheon  it  is  usually
 straightforward (with some bending,  stretching and hitting  with
 a hammer) to identify a personification for the following aspects
 of consciousness:
 
      heaviness, old-age, stagnation, limitation, inertia
 
      creativity, inspiration, vision, leadership
 
      violence, force, destructiveness
 
      harmony, integrity, balance, wholeness
 
      love,  hate,  passion, sensual beauty, aesthetics, emotional
      power, nurture
 
      reason, abstraction, communication, conceptualisation, logic
 
      imagination, instinct, the unconscious
 
      practicality, pragmatism, stolidity, materialism
 
 And  once  we have gods and goddesses (or  saints)  to  personify
 these qualities, a weave of metaphors and associations elaborates
 the picture;  the Moon is instinct,  fire is both destructive and
 energetic,  death is a sythe, air and mercury are "the same", and
 so on.  The meaning of a symbol is personal - white means "death"
 to some and "purity" to others. What matters is that the magician
 should  have  a  clear map,  and with it the  ability  to  invoke
 different  aspects  of consciousness by using  the  symbolism  of
 gods,  goddesses,  archangels,  demons or whatever.  It does  not
 matter  whether the magician believes in the literal  reality  of
 the  territory or not,  as long as he or she treats the map  with
 respect  and does not muddy the water by dabbling with  too  many
 different maps. There are two principal ways in which maps become
 muddled,  and as the main theme of these notes is the precise use
 of limitation in conjuction with magical consciousness,  I  think
 it  is  worth mentioning what I see as  potential  pitfalls.  The
 first pitfall is mixing systems; the second is working with other
 people.

      There is a tendency nowadays to muddle different systems  of
 correspondences together,  to add Egyptian gods to a  Kabbalistic
 ritual, to say that Tanith is really the same as Artemis, or that
 Cybele and Astarte and Demeter are "just" different names for the
 Mother Goddess,  to find parallels between Thor and Mars, between
 Kali and Hecate,  between the Virgin Mary and Isis,  until,  like
 different colours of paint mixed together,  everything ends up in
 shades  of  muddy brown.  This unifying force  is  everywhere  as
 people find universal themes and try to make links between groups
 and systems.
2705

      It is (in my opinion) a bad idea to mix systems together  in
 a  spirit  of  ecumenical  fervour.   Correspondences  are   like
 intentions:  the sharper and more clearly defined they  are,  the
 better they work.  Despite a few similarities, the Virgin Mary is
 nothing  like Isis,  and Demeter has very little in  common  with
 Astarte.   Syncretism   usually  takes  place  slowly  over   the
 centuries,  so  that  for  most people there  is  no  distinction
 between the classical Greek and Roman pantheons and Mercury is  a
 synonym for Hermes, but to do it in real-time in your own head is
 a recipe for muddle-headedness.

      Symbols  can  be  diffused when people work  together  in  a
 group.  It  is  a mistake to believe that "power"  is  raised  in
 direct  proportion  to  the number of people  taking  part  in  a
 ritual. Unless people have been trained together and have similar
 "maps",  then  the  ritual will have a different effect  on  each
 person,  and  although  more  power may be  raised,  it  will  be
 unfocussed  and  will probably earth  itself  through  unexpected
 channels.  When  people  begin working together there will  be  a
 period  of  time when their work together will probably  be  less
 effective  than any one of them working alone,  but after a  time
 their  "maps"  begin  to converge and  things  start  to  improve
 dramatically.  There  is  nothing magical about this -  it  is  a
 phenomenon of teams of people in general. I don't like "spectator
 rituals" for this reason;  you are either in it or your are  out,
 and if you are out, you are out the door.

      Does  it matter what map,  what system of correspendences  a
 person  uses?  Is  there  a "best" set?  This  is  an  impossible
 question to answer.  What can be said is that working within  any
 magical  framework incurs a cost.  The more effective  a  magical
 system is at limiting, engaging and mobilising the creative power
 of  consciousness,   the  more  effective  it  is  at   ensnaring
 consciousness  within its own assumptions and limitations.  If  a
 person works within a belief system where the ultimate nature  of
 God is pure,  unbounded love, joy and bliss, then that closes off
 other possibilities.

      Without sitting in judgement of any set of beliefs,  I would
 say  that  the  best  belief  system  and  the  best  system   of
 correspondences  is one which allows consciousness to  roam  over
 the greatest range of possibilities, and permits it the free-will
 to choose its own limitations. And that is a belief in itself.
 
 6. Conclusion
 
      The  gist of these notes is that ritual is a  technique  for
 focussing magical power through the deliberate use of limitation.
 Limitation comes from the belief system of the magician,  and the
 set  of  correspondences  used to  create  symbolism  within  the
 ritual. Further limitation comes from the structure of the ritual
 itself,  and  ultimately from the statement  of  intention.  With
 practise  these elements add up to a single-mindedness which  can
 shift  consciousness  out  of its normal orbit.
 
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2706

                         Shamanism (Internet) 

Overview-Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Summary: This FAQ contains a general overview on shamanism.
  It should be read by anyone interested in understanding the what
  is meant by shamanism and what differentiates shamanism form
  other forms of ecstatic experience
Keywords:  shaman, anthropology, ethnography, consciousness, spirit,
oobe
Organization: La Casa del Paese Lontano
Date: Wed, 9 Mar 1994 02:37:55 GMT
Lines: 227

Archive-name: shamanism/overview
Last-modified: 8 March 1994
Version: 1.1

NOTE: The following general overview of shamanism is not intended to
be the last word or the definitive work on this subject. Rather it is,
as its title implies, intended to provide the participant or reader with
a set of guidelines that will familiarize them with the general use of
the terms shamanism, shaman and shamanic in the trends, study and
practice of historic, traditional and contemporary shamanic experience.
The word 'shaman comes to English from the Tungus language via Russian.
Among the Tungus of Siberia it is both a noun and a verb. While the
Tungus have no word for shamanism, it has come into usage by anthropolo-
gists, historians of religion and others in contemporary society to
designate the experience and the practices of the shaman. Its usage has
grown to include similar experiences and practices in cultures outside
of the original Siberian cultures from which the term shaman originated.
Thus shamanism is not the name of a religion or group of religions.
Particular attention should be paid to the use of qualifying words
such as "may" or "usually". They indicate examples or tendencies and
are not, in any way, intended to represent rigid standards
Please send comments to deane@netcom.com (Dean Edwards).

Shamanism-General Overview-Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
(c  November, 1993 by Dean Edwards)
This FAQ shall be posted monthly and is maintained by Dean Edwards
(deane@netcom.com). It is intended for the private non-commercial use
of Usenet users. It may not be sold without the permission of the
author.

Table of Contents:

 1. Terms used in this FAQ
 2. What is shamanism?
 3. What is Shamanic Ecstasy?
 4. Becoming a shaman
 5. The role of trauma in the development of a shaman
 6. The relationship between shamanic traditions and culture
 7. The role of Shamanic Ecstasy
 8. The origin of the term "shamanism"
 9. Roles of the shaman
10. Reasons for this FAQ

ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2707

1. Why were the terms used in this FAQ selected and do they have special
meanings. There is an extensive literature about shamanism that has been
compiled since the late Eighteenth Century. Like any field of study and
religious practice, shamanism has developed a specialized vocabulary.
Please note that some of the words used in the material that follows are
drawn from scholars who have a solid background in shamanic studies and
may have meanings that are specific and less general than is often the
case in popular usage. Consulting a good dictionary should clear up any
points of confusion.

2. What is Shamanism?
Shamanism is classified by anthropologists as an archaic
magico-religious phenomenon in which the shaman is the great master
of ecstasy. Shamanism itself, was defined by the late Mircea Eliade
as a technique of ecstasy. A shaman may exhibit a particular magical
specialty (such as control over fire, wind or magical flight). When a
specialization is present the most common is as a healer. The
distinguishing characteristic of  shamanism is its focus on an
ecstatic trance state in which the soul of the shaman is believed to
leave the body and ascend to the sky (heavens) or descend into the
earth (underworld). The shaman makes use of spirit helpers, which
he or she communicates with, all the while retaining control over
his or her own consciousness. (Examples of possession occur, but
are the exception, rather than the rule.) It is also important to
note that while most shamans in traditional societies are men,
either women or men may and have become shamans.

3. What is Shamanic Ecstasy and how does it compare with other
forms of ecstasy?

 From the Greek 'ekstasis', ecstasy literally means to be placed
outside, or to be placed.This is a state of exaltation in which a
person stands outside of or transcends his or herself. Ecstasy may
range from the seizure of the body by a spirit or the seizure of a
person by the divine, from the magical transformation or flight of
consciousness to psychiatric remedies of distress.

Three types of Ecstasy are specified in the literature on the subject:
1. Shamanic Ecstasy
2. Prophetic Ecstasy
3. Mystical Ecstasy

Shamanic ecstasy is provoked by the ascension of the soul of the
shaman into the heavens or its descent into the underworld. These
states of ecstatic exaltation are usually achieved after great and
strenuous training and initiation, often under distressing
circumstances. The resulting contact by the shaman with the
higher or lower regions and their inhabitants, and also with
nature spirits enables him or her to accomplish such tasks as
accompanying the soul of a deceased into its proper place in the
next world, affect the well-being of the sick and to convey the
story of their inner travels upon their return to the mundane
awareness.

The utterances of the shaman are in contrast with those of prophetic
and mystical ecstasy. The prophet literally speaks for God, while the
mystic reports an overwhelming divine presence. In mysticism, the
direct knowledge or experience of the divine ultimate reality, which is
2708

perceptible in two ways, emotional and intuitive. While these three
varieties of ecstatic experience are useful for the purposes of
analysis and discussion, it is not unusual for more than one form of
ecstasy to be present in an individual's experience.

However, it can be argued that, generally speaking, there are three
perceptive levels of ecstasy.
1) The physiological response, in which the mind becomes absorbed in
and focused on a dominant idea, the attention is withdrawn and the
nervous system itself is in part cut off from physical sensory input.
The body exhibits reflex inertia, involuntary nervous responses, frenzy.
2) Emotional perception of ecstasy refers to overwhelming feelings of
awe, anxiety, joy, sadness, fear, astonishment, passion, etc.
3) Intuitive perception communicates a direct experience and
understanding of the transpersonal experience of expanded states of
awareness or consciousness.

While the physiological response is always present, the emotional
response may or may not be significant when intuition is the principal
means of ecstatic perception. Some have argued that beyond the intuitive
state there is a fourth condition in which the holistic perception
exceeds mental and emotional limitations and understanding.

The ecstatic experience of the shaman goes beyond a feeling or percep-
tion of the sacred, the demonic or of natural spirits. It involves the
shaman directly and actively in transcendent realities or lower realms
of being.

4. How does one become a shaman?

Some have wondered if the experience of shamanic ecstasy or flight
makes a person a shaman. Generally speaking, most would say no.
A shaman is more than someone with an experience. First, he or she
is a trained initiate. Usually years of trenculturalization and
under a mentor precede becoming a functioning shaman. Second, a
shaman is not just an initiate who has received inner and outer
training, but is a master of shamanic journeying and techniques
(shamanic ecstasy). This is not a casual acquaintance with such
abilities, there is some degree of mastery of them. Finally, a
shaman is a link or bridge between this world and the next. This
is a sacred trust and a service to the community. Sometimes a
community that a shaman serves in is rather small. In other
instances it may be an entire nation. A lot of that depends on
social and cultural factors.

One becomes a shaman by one of three methods:
a) Hereditary transmission;
b) Spontaneous selection or "call" or "election";
c) personal choice and quest. (This latter method is less frequent
and traditionally such a shaman is considered less powerful than one
selected by one of the two preceding methods.) The shaman is not
recognized as legitimate without having undergone two types of
training:
1) Ecstatic (dreams, trances, etc.)
2) Traditional ("shamanic techniques, names and functions of
spirits,mythology and genealogy of the clan, secret language, etc.) The
two-fold course of instruction, given by the spirits and the old master
shamans is equivalent to an initiation." (Mircea Eliade, The Encyclo-
2709

pedia of Religion, v. 13 , p. 202; Mcmillian, N.Y., 1987.) It is also
possible for the entire process to take place in the dream state or in
ecstaticexperience.  Thus, there is more to becoming a shaman than a
single experience.  It requires training, perseverance and service.

5. What is the role of personal trauma or crisis in the selection or
development of a shaman?
A common experience of the call to shamanism is a psychic or spiritual
crisis, which often accompanies a physical or even a medical crisis, and
is cured by the shaman him or herself. This is a common occurrence for
all three types of shamanic candidates described above. The shaman is
often marked by eccentric behavior such as periods of melancholy,
solitude, visions, singing in his or her sleep, etc. The inability of
the traditional remedies to cure the condition of the shamanic candidate
and the eventual self cure by the new shaman is a significant episode in
development of the shaman. The underlying significant aspect of this
experience, when it is present,is the ability of the shaman to manage
and resolve periods of distress.

6. Does the presence of an active shamanic tradition necessarily mean
that the society itself should be deemed "shamanic"?
No, not at all. The presence of shamanism in a nation or a community
does not mean that shamanism is central to the spiritual or religious
life of the community or region. Shamanism often exists alongside and
even in cooperation with the religious or healing practices of the
community.

7. What is meant by shamanic ecstasy and what role does it actually play
in shamanism?
The ecstatic technique of shamanism does not involve itself in the broad
range of ecstasy reported in the history of religion. It is specifically
focused on the transpersonal movement of the consciousness of the
shaman into higher or lower realms of consciousness and existence.
Another aspect of shamanism is that compared to other spiritual
traditions, it is a path that the individual walks alone. While much of
the focus of shamanic studies has been on the shamanic complexes of
north and central Asia, shamanism is a universal phenomenon, not
confined to any particular region or culture.

8. What is the origin of the word "shaman"?
Shaman comes from the language of the Tungus of North-Central Asia. It
came into use in English via Russian.

9. What are the usual roles of a shaman?
In contemporary, historical or traditional shamanic practice the shaman
may at times fill the role of priest, magician, metaphysician or healer.
Personal experience is the prime determinant of the status of a shaman.
Knowledge of other realms of being and consciousness and the cosmology
of those regions is the basis of the shamanic perspective and power.
With this knowledge, the shaman is able to serve as a bridge between the
mundane and the higher and lower states The shaman lives at the edge of
reality as most people would recognize it and most commonly at the edge
of society itself.  Few indeed have the stamina to adventure into these
realms and endure the outer hardships and personal crises that have been
reported by or observed of many shamans.

10. Why was this FAQ written?
This FAQ was originally written to support a new Usenet
2710

newsgroup, 'soc.religion.shamanism'. The purpose of this
newsgroup is to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas,
views and information about historic,traditional, tribal and
contemporary shamanism. This FAQ is intended to provide a useful general
overview of what 'shamanism' actually means and what it is in practice.
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2711

                         SPRING EQUINOX RITUAL 
                         By Marian Starwatcher

Clothing : The priestess who will invoke Athena (1) can wear any robe
that feels right to her, but she will carry the sword.  The priestess
invoking Demeter (2)  should wear a green robe, but cover it with her
cloak to begin with.  The priestess invoking Kore (3) should wear a
spring robe, covered with a dark cloak.

Before the ritual, place a large number of candles about the temple. 
Leave them unlit.  One tiny candle should be placed on the altar.  The
matches should be put where they can be got at easily!

Burn Black Forest Incense ... a fair amount of it.  Keep the door of
your temple CLOSED.

Have ready some lavender oil to burn later in the ritual.

Have the participants each bring a candle.

When the participants enter, have them stand in the centre of the
temple. It will be dark.  Shut the door.

Priestess 1 goes to the east quarter, 2 to the south, 3 to the west.

Call the quarters theatrically.

All :  Kore is in the underworld.

Priestess 1 :  Blow, gentle breezes from the depths of the earth,
   Bring us to her in safety.

All :  Kore is in the underworld.

Priestess 2 :  Come, tiny flame, shine in the depths of the earth,
   Guide us to her in safety.

All :  Kore is in the underworld.

Priestess 3 :  Come, still dark waters in the depths of the earth,
   Bring us to her in safety.

All :  Kore is in the underworld.
   Cold stone under our feet in the depths of the earth,
   Bring us to her in safety.

P2 silently raises the circle.  The participants seat themselves.

P3 :  It is dark.  So dark.

P2 :  It is cold.  So cold.

P1 :  Where is the Grain Mother?

P3 :  Where is Demeter?

P2 :  She has turned her face from the earth.

2712

P1 :  How can this be?

All :   Mother Demeter, speak to us!
        Mother Demeter, speak to us!
        Mother Demeter, speak to us!

P2 :  invokes Demeter.

Demeter :  My daughter, where is my daughter?
   Where is she for whom I made the sun shine?
   Where is she for whom I made the grain grow?

   Kore, Kore, Kore!

P1 invokes Athena.

Athena :  She has gone below, Mother Demeter.

All :  Kore is in the underworld.
   Kore is in the underworld.
   Kore is in the underworld.

Demeter :  Then I will cover my face
   And let the earth die.

   Kore, Kore, Kore!

Athena :  Mother, the people of the earth need you.
   We are cold.
   We are hungry.
   We must have light.

Demeter :  Kore, Kore, Kore!

Demeter turns her back.

Athena turns to the participants.

Athena :  Then we must go below to her
   And beseech her to return.
   The earth must not die.

Athena moves to the altar and lights the tiny candle.

P3 :  Our steps falter.

All :  It is dark, dark.

P3 :  Our sight falters.

All :  It is dark, dark.

P3 :  Our hearts falter.

All :  It is dark, dark.

Athena :  Courage, for I am with you.
   Even in the darkness I am with you.
2713

   Even in the coldness I am with you.
   And see - we approach Kore on her throne!


Athena directs the participants' attention to the west.

All :  Kore, speak to us!
   Kore, speak to us!
   Kore, speak to us!

P3 invokes Kore/Persephone.

Kore :  I have gone below.
   Why do you now come to me?

Athena :  Kore, why are you here
   In the dark and the cold?

Kore :  Don't you know that all people
   Even gods
   Must go into the dark
   And look within?

Athena :  Kore, your Mother weeps for you.
   Will you come home to us?

Kore :  Don't you know that all children
   Even gods
   Must leave their Mothers
   And grow into adulthood?

Athena :  Kore, the earth is dying.
   Will you come home to us?

Kore :  The earth must not die.
   I will beseech my mother
   To bring life to the earth again.

Kore picks up the tiny candle and 'leads' the participants out.

Kore :  We walk through the darkness of the underworld.
   Our steps are sure.
   We do not fear the darkness of the underworld,
   For it is also the darkness within ourselves.
   We wind our way through the caverns.
   And now we feel the breath of the wind on our faces.
   We emerge from the underworld to the earth.
   The wind is cold.
   The earth is dark.

Athena :  Mother Demeter, we have returned.

Demeter :  Kore, Kore, Kore!

Kore :  Mother, I am here.

Demeter :  Kore, you have returned!
   Stay with me and run in the fields as you did before.
2714

   Play in the gardens of the earth as you did before.

Kore :  Mother, I cannot stay.

Demeter :  Then I will cover my face and grieve,
   And the earth will die.

Athena :  The earth must not die.

Kore :  I will stay with you
   For half of the year.
   But I must go below
   For the other half.

   Mother, look at me.

Demeter turns.

Demeter :  But what is this?
   Kore, you have changed.

Kore :  I went below to change, Mother.
   To grow.
   Call me now Persephone,
   For I have been to the underworld.
   I have been within.
   I must return to grow
   And to help others grow.
   Your world is the grain, Mother.
   My world is the hearts of all people
   Even gods.

Athena :  It is just, Mother Demeter.
   She must return below,
   But for now she will stay with you.

Demeter :  My daughter, you have grown wise.
   I accept what you must do.
   I will grieve when you go from me,
   And the earth will become cold and dark.
   But when you return,
   The earth will live again.

   See!

Athena, Demeter and Kore light all the candles.  Persephone throws off
her cloak to reveal a spring robe.  Demeter throws off her cloak to
reveal a green robe.

Athena :  Persephone has returned!
   The light has returned!
   The warmth has returned!

   Let us praise Mother Demeter
   For she has brought the earth to life again.
   Let us praise Persephone
   For she has returned from the underworld
   And will be there to guide us
2715

   When we must go within.

All Chant :  She has returned
   The earth lives again!
   We feel the warmth returning
   The sun shines again!
   We see the grain growing
   The garden grows again!
   Persephone, Demeter
   Persephone, Demeter
   Persephone, Demeter
   The earth lives again!

Repeat, then repeat last line to build cone of power until Demeter
judges the cone ready.  Send  out the power to bring life to the earth
again.

Farewell the Goddesses.

All sit down, forming a sitting circle.

P1 :  Long, long ago, there was no winter.
   Summer ruled the Earth as Mother Demeter
   Watched lovingly over her daughter Kore.

P2 :  All people knew her and loved her
   As the Grain Mother.
   There was no hunger
   And no one was ever cold.

P1 :  Kore ran in the fields of the earth
   Safe under her mother's loving eye.
   And for a long, long time
   She knew no other world.

P3 :  But all things change, and so did Kore.
   She felt something within her,
   An urge to know more,
   To grow.

P2 :  And so she approached the cave
   That led to the Underworld.
   She descended into the darkness.
   Her steps were faltering,
   For she could not see,
   And she was afraid.
   Yet she knew she must go on.

P1 :  When she came to the Underworld,
   Kore found a mirror.
   She looked within, and saw herself.
   Yet not the child she knew,
   She saw a young woman
   Who looked at her with knowledge in her eyes.

P3 :  Then she looked again,
   And saw an old woman,
   With a lined face and silver hair,
2716

   Who looked at her with knowledge in her eyes.

P1 :  And the old woman said,
   "Kore, you must change.
   All things must change.
   You must look within
   And know yourself truly,
   And grow."


P2 :  So Kore looked within,
   And embraced the old woman
   And the young woman.
   And she was filled with knowledge.
   And the knowledge changed her.

P1 :  On the earth, Demeter searched for Kore.
   She looked under every rock,
   She dived into every sea,
   She spoke to the flame,
   She rode on the winds.
   At last Athena came to her and said,
   "Your daughter has gone into the Underworld."

P3 :  Demeter wailed, and wept for Kore.
   She put aside her green robes
   And veiled herself in mourning.
   And the earth grew dark with her grief,
   And the earth grew barren with her grief,
   And the people cried out in fear.
   All the gods and people begged Demeter
   But she would not cease her weeping.

P2 :  At last Athena went to the cave,
   And descended to the Underworld.
   And there she spoke with Kore,
   And begged her to return.

P1 :  Kore was reluctant to go,
   But love of her mother
   And love of the earth
   Persuaded her to return.
   And so she went with Athena
   Back to the earth.

P2 :  Demeter was overjoyed to see her daughter.
   They embraced, and kissed.

P3 :  But then Kore told her mother
   How she had changed.
   And she said,
   "I must return,
   For I have been within.
   I am Queen of the Underworld."

P1 :  Demeter begged her daughter to stay.
   Kore, relenting, agreed;

2717

P2 :  That six months of every year
   She would stay with her mother.
   And the earth would be fruitful.
   And six months of every year
   She would return to the Underworld,
   And the earth would be barren
   Until she returned.

P1 :  And this is why we have winter.
   For Demeter veils her face
   When Kore, called Persephone,
   Returns to the Underworld each year.

P3 :  And the mystery is this :

   That the Underworld is within you,
   And you must descend to it
   If you are to grow.
   You must look into the mirror
   And see yourself as you truly are.

P1 :  But now is the time to rejoice!
   Persephone is returned,
   The earth is becoming warm again,
   And the grain is growing again.

P2 :  Let us share Demeter's joy
   In her daughter's return.
   Let us feast on her bounty.

Share cakes and water/cider.  Those who feel moved to may speak of their
feelings in the darkness, and experiences of their own in the Under-
world.

P3 opens the circle.


All :  Persephone has returned!

P3 :  Blow, winds of the East,
   Bring warmth to our bodies again.

All :  Persephone has returned!

P3 :  Shine, sun in the North,
   Bring warmth to our hearts again.

All :  Persephone has returned!

P3 :  Come, waters of the Western sea,
   Bring warmth to our souls again.

All :  Persephone has returned!

P3 :  Grow, all plants of the Earth,
   Bring warmth to our spirits again.

   The circle is open, but ever unbroken.
2718

   Merry meet,
   And merry part,
   And merry meet again.

   Blessed be.

All :  Blessed be.

P3 :  This rite is ended.

Note: The directions are all Southrn Hemisphere ... heh.

B*B* Marian*
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2719

                     Modern Female Rite Of Passage 
                           Lady Shyra, 1994

Note:  East - Air; South - Fire, West - Water, North - Earth

EARLY PREPERATIONS

Candles for the ritual will be made that day.  Celebrant will make two
white candles.   Candles will be herbal and scented, and enscribed
appropriately. Celebrant and mother will also bring something that
symbolically (to them) symbolizes the rite of passage.

Ritual baths will be taken prior to ceremony, with Celebrant's bath
being drawn for her.  Salt, herbs and scents appropriate to the occasion
will be added to the bath, and it will be blessed prior to use.  Mother
will help Celebrant to the bath, where she will light a candle and
incense, give words of love and comfort and instruction to the Celeb-
rant, and then withdraw to assist in Circle Preparation.

CIRCLE PREPARATION

Circle area will be cleansed and Circle constructed and consecrated in
the usual manner.  Altar will sit just West of Center of Circle to
symbolize both the emotional aspects of the ritual, as well as the
death/ rebirth aspects.

Added to altar arrangement will be the Celebrant's two white candles.
Also on the altar will be a mirror sitting behind and between the two
white candles.  Symbolic gifts will be placed beside the altar -- the
mother's to the North symbolizing steadfastness, grounding, caution,
and wisdom of the elder.  The Celebrant's will be to the South of the
altar, symboling the fire, passion and impetuosity of youth.

INVOCATIONS

Guardian of the East
    Hail to thee, Ancient ones of Air!
    Blow soft around us this night
    That the restrictions and pains of childhood
    Will be but memories in the mind of the adult.

Guardian of the South
    Hail to thee, Ancient ones of Fire!
    Lend to us this night your passion and strength
    Envelope us in your warmth,
    That the fires of youth may be tempered within thee.

Guardian of the West
    Hail to thee, Ancient ones of Water!
    Wash over us with thy loving embrace
    That the sorrows of days long past
    Can give way to new understanding.

Guardians of the North
    Hail to thee, Ancient ones of Earth!
    Stand firm with us in our purpose this night,
    That from the youth shall grow the adult
    Full of purpose and wisdom.
2720

Invocation to the Lady
    Blessed Lady of a Thousand Names,
    You who art Maiden, Mother and Crone.
    Grant that this night the bindings of childhood will be broken
    And the bond  between mother and daughter be strengthened.
    For  the two, as so reflected throughout all creation,
    Are but images of thee in thy divine Trinity.
    Blessed Be.

    In honor of thee do I pour this toast, and drink this wine.

Invocation to the Lord
    Great Lord, Ancient one of the fields and Consort to our Lady,
    We ask that thou wouldst give
    a measure of your love and protection
    to she who will soon join the battles of this life.
    Fill her with the knowledge of thee as sancutary
    And grant that peace may follow her always.

    In honor of thee do I pour this toast, and drink this wine.

Chalice is then passed to each of the coveners to share in the toast.


Drawing Down the Moon

Priestess/Mother stands facing the moon with hands upraised and palms
turned upwards, cupwise.  Drinking in the Lady's essence, she says,

    Come to me and fill me with thy light
    Enter me, shine in me your fullness
    That I may use your power for my good,
    And for the good of All.

When appropriate, she blesses all within the Circle, and the rite that
is about to be performed.  Then, nodding to the Father of the Celebrant,
says:

    Bring forth your daughter,
    that she might, this night,
    cross the threshold of adulthood.

Father brings the Celebrant to the Eastern Gate.

Mthr: Is this the daughter I bore so many years before?
      Nay, it cannot be, for she was but a child when last I held her.

Dtr:  Mother, I am your child.  Now grown and ready to throw away
      the things of childhood.  Years it has been since my moonflow
      began and I became a woman.  Now it is time that this is recog   
     nized.

Mthr: Very well, lead the child into the center of the Circle.  There to
have her sit in silence.

Father leads Celebrant to the center of the Circle, while mother
re-closes the Circle.  She then joins her daughter in the Circle's
center, saying:
2721

Mthr: You sit now in the Center of the Circle; that which is known
      as the Cauldron of Hecate; the point of transformation; the
      mother's womb, where beginnings end and endings re-begin.

      I have heard your words, and weep for them; Tears of both joy
      and sorrow.
      It was my body that cried out in pain and joy as you were born.
      It was my mind that went in circles to provide for us.
      It was my heart that broke when that which you wanted I could
      not give you.
      But always did you have my love... and always shall you carry
      that love with you.

      Behold in me the Three-Fold Goddess
      She who is One in Three - Maid, Mother, and Crone
      One in Three, as she is in you and all women,
      And as you and they are in her.
      Look upon her and know her,
      That you, too, may be whole.

      So I ask thee truly, art thou ready to face the woman within thee?
      To see within thee the light and dark, and fear no more the dark?
      To accept that which you are, and strive for that which you can
      become?
      To leave behind the things of childhood,
      But to continue to love and nurture the child which lives in
      all adults?

{Celebrant has answered accordingly to each of the questions, at which
time the Mother now exhorts the Celebrant to stand and face the altar.}

Mthr: Daughter, I ask you now to look deep within the mirror. See
      yourself reflected there.  Look into your eyes and know
      yourself. Repeat after me:"I come to commune with my Soul."

Dtr:  I come to commune with my Soul.

Mthr: Look into the reflection of your eyes, and name one thing about
      yourself that you love.

{Celebrant and Mother will continue this, alternating between what
the Celebrant thinks is both good and bad within her... }

After the last question, the Mother then says:

Mthr: Daughter, within thee is both light and dark. Know always your
      shadow side. If something is there which offends thee horrible,
      give it up.  For others to love you as an adult, you must love
      yourself first.  And loving yourself means giving up any self-
      hatred you've carried over from young years.  Now is the time
      to cut these things from thy life.  They are the bonds of
      childhood which have held you limited. Free yourself from them,
      and know that thy spirit flies free.

      Now look again into the mirror. Look at yourself with love.
      See the Goddess shining within thee. She is strong; no man
      has dominion over her.  She knows herself and loves herself.
      She will give herself to those who are worthy of her affections,
2722

      and turn from those who try to debase her.  Let the Goddess
      within thee shine through thee, that the nobility and strength
      of woman is clear for all to see.

      Now, come with me.


Mother embraces daughter and leads her to each of the four quarters.
After each challenge, the Celebrant must answer as she sees fit, and
asks the Guardian's Blessing.  The Covener at each gate will then bless
the Celebrant, and offer a gift for adulthood, such as strength,
courage, etc... or a physical gift pertinent to the rite and Gate.

Covener at Eastern Gate:
    Hold!  I am the wild wind and fury of the storm!
    That which buffets thee without shelter.
    How will you survive?

Covener at Southern Gate
    Hold!  I am fire and passion
    That which will consume thee with lust.
    How will you survive?

Covener at Western Gate
    Hold!  I am floods and weeping and gnashing of teeth.
    I am lonliness and frustration.
    How will thee survive?

Covener at Northern Gate
    Hold!  I am chaos and turmoil
    Plans gone wrong and dreams that die.
    How will thee survive?

Mother faces daughter (Priestess mode ON here)...
    I am the Lady, thy Mother...
    I shall be with thee no matter how far thou shalt roam.
    And when lonliness besets thee,
    Thou needs only gaze upon the moon,
    To see my face and my love reflected there to you.

Father approaches daugher and turns her to face him...
    I am he who is father to thee now.
    I shall stand behind and beside thee always.
    And when lonliness besets thee,
    Thou needs only to step out into sunlight
    To feel my warmth and love within thee.

Mother takes daughter by hand and returns to the altar. Daughter picks
up her gift of childhood and presents it to the mother, saying ...

    This I do give you as a symbol of childhood now behind me.
    Hold it and cherish it as you remember me.


Mother picks up her gift of adulthood and presents it the Celebrant,
saying...

    This I do give you as a symbol of your adulthood,
2723

    and my recognition of it.
    Hold it and cherish it as you remember me.


Draw a pentegram above the celebrant, with an affirmation at each of the
five points:

Point one:   In the name of Inanna, Queen of Heaven

Point two:   In the name of Athena, warrior Goddess, but also of Peace

Point three: In the name of Astarte, warrior Goddess, and protector of
        young females
Point four:  In the name of Diana, she of the bow and arrow, Goddess
        of Light
Point five:  Do I bless thee, and call thee "Woman".

May their strenth and independence, their love and virtue, be thine all
the days of thy life.

I recognize the child no more, but she the child who lives in all of us.

Mother stands with a space between her and her daughter and presents
the new adult to the coven.

Feasting (and in our case, a birthday celebration) follow.

Quarter Guardians are thanked, and blessings are asked of the
Lord and Lady upon the group, as well as the Celebrant.


Blessed Be * Lady Shyra *

ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2724

                            MUHAMMAD

From a Baha'i book by 'Abdu'l-Baha:

     Americans and Europeans have heard a number of stories about
the Prophet which they have thought to be true, although the
narrators were either ignorant or antagonistic: most of them were
clergy; others were ignorant Muslims who repeated unfounded
traditions about Muhammad which they ignorantly believed to be
to His praise.

     Thus some benighted Muslims made His polygamy the pivot of
their praises and held it to be a wonder, regarding it as a
miracle; and European historians, for the most part, rely on the
tales of these ignorant people.

     For example, a foolish man said to a clergyman that the true
proof of greatness is bravery and the shedding of blood, and that
in one day on the field of battle a follower of Muhammad had cut
off the heads of one hundred men!  This misled the clergyman to
infer that killing is considered the way to prove one's faith to
Muhammad, while this is merely imaginary.  The military expeditions
of Muhammad, on the contrary, were always defensive actions: a
proof of this is that during thirteen years, in Mecca, He and His
followers endured the most violent persecutions.  At this period
they were the target for the arrows of hatred: some of His
companions were killed and their property confiscated; others fled
to foreign lands.  Muhammad Himself, after the most extreme
persecutions by the Qurayshites, who finally resolved to kill Him,
fled to Medina in the middle of the night.  Yet even then His
enemies did not cease their persecutions, but pursued Him to
Medina, and His disciples even to Abyssinia.

     These Arab tribes were in the lowest depths of savagery and
barbarism, and in comparison with them the savages of Africa and
wild Indians of America were as advanced as a Plato.  The savages
of America do not bury their children alive as these Arabs did
their daughters, glorying in it as being an honorable thing to do.
[The Banu-Tamim, one of the most barbarous Arab tribes, practiced
this odious custom.]  Thus many of the men would threaten their
wives, saying, "If a daughter is born to you, I will kill you."
Even down to the present time the Arabs dread having daughters.
Further, a man was permitted to take a thousand women, and most
husbands had more than ten wives in their household.  When these
tribes made war, the one which was victorious would take the women
and children of the vanquished tribe captive and treat them as
slaves.

     When a man who had ten wives died, the sons of these women
rushed at each other's mothers; and if one of the sons threw his
mantle over the head of his father's wife and cried out, "This
woman is my lawful property," at once the unfortunate woman became
his prisoner and slave.  he could do whatever he wished with her.
He could kill her, imprison her in a well, or beat, curse and
torture her until death released her.  According to the Arab habits
and customs, he was her master.  It is evident that malignity,
jealousy, hatred and enmity must have existed between the wives and
children of a household, and it is, therefore, needless to enlarge
2725

upon the subject.  Again, consider what was the condition and life
of these oppressed women!  Moreover, the means by which these Arab
tribes lived consisted in pillage and robbery, so that they were
perpetually engaged in fighting and war, killing one another,
plundering and devastating each other's property, and capturing
women and children, whom they would sell to strangers.  How often
it happened that the daughters and sons of a prince, who spent
their day in comfort and luxury, found themselves, when night fell,
reduced to shame, poverty and captivity.  Yesterday they were
princes, today they are captives; yesterday they were great ladies,
today they are slaves.

     Muhammad received the Divine Revelation among these tribes,
and after enduring thirteen years of persecution from them, He
fled.  [To Medina.]  But this people did not cease to oppress; they
united to exterminate Him and all His followers.  It was under such
circumstances that Muhammad was forced to take up arms.  This is
the truth: we are not bigoted and do not wish to defend Him, but
we are just, and we say what is just.  Look at it with justice.
If Christ Himself had been placed in such circumstances among such
tyrannical and barbarous tribes, and if for thirteen years He with
His disciples had endured all these trials with patience,
culminating in flight from His native land -- if in spite of this
these lawless tribes continued to pursue Him, to slaughter the men,
to pillage their property, and to capture their women and children
-- what would have been Christ's conduct with regard to them?  If
this oppression had fallen only upon Himself, He would have
forgiven them, and such an act of forgiveness would have been most
praiseworthy; but if He had seen that these cruel and bloodthirsty
murderers wished to kill, to pillage and to injure all these
oppressed ones, and to take captive the women and children, it is
certain that He would have protected them and would have resisted
the tyrants.  What objection, then, can be taken to Muhammad's
action?  Is it this, that He did not, with His followers, and their
women and children, submit to these savage tribes?  To free these
tribes from their bloodthirstiness was the greatest kindness, and
to coerce and restrain them was a true mercy.  They were like a man
holding in his hand a cup of poison, which, when about to drink,
a friend breaks and thus saves him.  If Christ had been placed in
similar circumstances, it is certain that with a conquering power
He would have delivered the men, women and children from the claws
of these bloodthirsty wolves.

     Muhammad never fought against the Christians; on the contrary,
He treated them kindly and gave them perfect freedom.  A community
of Christian people lived at Najran and were under His care and
protection.  Muhammad said, "if anyone infringes their rights, I
Myself will be his enemy, and in the presence of God I will bring
a charge against him."  In the edicts which He promulgated it is
clearly stated that the lives, properties and honor of the
Christians and Jews are under the protection of God; and that if
a Muhammadan married a Christian woman, the husband must not
prevent her from going to church, nor oblige her to veil herself;
and that if she died, he must place her remains in the care of the
Christian clergy.  Should the Christians desire to build a church,
Islam ought to help them.  In case of war between Islam and her
enemies, the Christians should be exempted from the obligation of
fighting, unless they desired of their own free will to do so in
2726

defense of Islam, because they were under its protection.  But as
a compensation for this immunity, they should pay yearly a small
sum of money.  In short, there are seven detailed edicts on these
subjects, some copies of which are still extant at Jerusalem.  This
is an established fact and not dependent on my affirmation.  The
edict of the second Caliph [Of 'Umar] still exists in the custody
of the orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, and of this there is no
doubt. [Cf. Jurji Zaydan's _Umayyads and Abbasids_, trans. D. S.
Margoliouth.]

     Nevertheless, after a certain time, and through the
transgression of both the Muhammadans and the Christians, hatred
and enmity arose between them.  Beyond this fact, all the
narrations of the Muslims, Christians and others are simply
fabrications, which have their origin in fanaticism, or ignorance,
or emanate from intense hostility.

     For example, the Muslims say that Muhammad cleft the moon, and
that it fell on the mountain of Mecca: they think that the moon is
a small body which Muhammad divided into two parts and threw one
part on this mountain, and the other part on another mountain.

     Such stories are pure fanaticism.  Also the traditions which
the clergy quote, and the incidents with which they find fault, are
all exaggerated, if not entirely without foundation.

     Briefly, Muhammad appeared in the desert of Hijaz in the
Arabian Peninsula, which was a desolate, sterile wilderness, sandy
and uninhabited.  Some parts, like Mecca and Medina, are extremely
hot; the people are nomads with the manners and customs of the
dwellers in the desert, and are entirely destitute of education and
science.  Muhammad Himself was illiterate, and the Qur'an was
originally written upon the bladebones of sheep, or on palm leaves.
These details indicate the condition of the people to whom Muhammad
was sent.  The first question which He put to them was, "Why do you
not accept the Pentateuch and the Gospel, and why do you not
believe in Christ and in Moses?"  This saying presented
difficulties to them and they argued, "Our forefathers did not
believe in the Pentateuch and the Gospel; tell us, why was this?"
He answered, "They were misled; you ought to reject those who do
not believe in the Pentateuch and the Gospel, even though they are
your fathers and your ancestors."

     In such a country, and amidst such barbarous tribes, an
illiterate Man produced a book in which, in a perfect and eloquent
style, He explained the divine attributes and perfections, the
prophethood of the Messengers of God, the divine laws, and some
scientific facts.

     Thus, you know that before the observations of modern times -
- that is to say, during the first centuries and down to the
fifteenth century of the Christian era -- all the mathematicians
of the world agreed that the earth was the center of the universe,
and that the sun moved.  The famous astronomer who was the
protagonist of the new theory discovered the movement of the earth
and the immobility of the sun. [Copernicus.]  Until his time all
the astronomers and philosophers of the world followed the
Ptolemaic system, and whoever said anything against it was
2727

considered ignorant.  Though Pythagoras, and Plato during the
latter part of his life, adopted the theory that the annual
movement of the sun around the zodiac does not proceed from the
sun, but rather from the movement of the earth around the sun, this
theory had been entirely forgotten, and the Ptolemaic system was
accepted by all the mathematicians.  But there are some verses
revealed in the Qur'an contrary to the theory of the Ptolemaic
system.  One of them is "The sun moves in a fixed place," which
shows the fixity of the sun, and its movement around an axis.
[Qur'an 36:37]  Again, in another verse, "and each star moves in
its own heaven." [Qur'an 36:38]  Thus is explained the movement of
the sun, of the moon, of the earth, and of other bodies.  When the
Qur'an appeared, all the mathematicians ridiculed these statements
and attributed the theory to ignorance.  Even the doctors of Islam,
when they saw that these verses were contrary to the accepted
Ptolemaic system, were obliged to explain them away.

     It was not until after the fifteenth century of the Christian
era, nearly nine hundred years after Muhammad, that a famous
astronomer made new observations and important discoveries by the
aid of the telescope, which he had invented. [Galileo]  The
rotation of the earth, the fixity of the sun, and also its movement
around an axis, were discovered.  It became evident that the verses
of the Qur'an agreed with existing facts, and that the Ptolemaic
system was imaginary.

     In short, many Oriental peoples have been reared for thirteen
centuries under the shadow of the religion of Muhammad.  During the
Middle Ages, while Europe was in the lowest depths of barbarism,
the Arab peoples were superior to the other nations of the earth
in learning, in the arts, mathematics, civilization, government and
other sciences.  The Enlightener and Educator of these Arab tribes,
and the Founder of the civilization and perfections of humanity
among these different races, was an illiterate Man, Muhammad.  Was
this illustrious Man a thorough Educator or not?  A just judgment
is necessary.


                          'Abdu'l-Baha
             _Some Answered Questions_, pages 18-24
                   (c) 1930, 1954, 1964, 1981
               by the National Spiritual Assembly
               of the Baha'is of the United States
                       All Rights Reserved

For electronic reproduction only!  Do not reproduce in any other
way without permission from the National Spiritual Assembly of the
Baha'is of the United States.  Copies intended for electronic
reproduction such as within files available for download on
Bulletin Board Systems must contain the copyright information and
this paragraph and must not be altered in any way.

File name:  SAQ-018.TXT


 * Origin: Camphor Fountain*(510)547-5741*Oakland,California (93:5050/9)

ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2728

                    On the Sovereignty of Muhammad,
                   from the Writings of Baha'u'llah


  Behold how the sovereignty of Muhammad, the
Messenger of God, is today apparent and manifest
amongst the people.  You are well aware of what befell
His Faith in the early days of His Dispensation.
What woeful sufferings did the hand of the infidel
and erring, the divines of that age and their associates,
inflict upon that spiritual Essence, that most pure
and holy Being!  How abundant the thorns and briars
which they have strewn over His path!  It is evident
that that wretched generation, in their wicked and
satanic fancy, regarded every injury to that immortal
Being as a means to the attainment of an abiding
felicity; inasmuch as the recognized divines of that
age, such as Abdu'llah-i-Ubayy, Abu'Amir, the hermit,
Ka'b-ibn-i-Ashraf, and Nadr-ibn-i-Harith, all
treated Him as an impostor, and pronounced Him a
lunatic and a calumniator.  Such sore accusations they
brought against Him that in recounting them God
forbiddeth the ink to flow, Our pen to move, or the
page to bear them.  These malicious imputations provoked
the people to arise and torment Him.  And how
fierce that torment, if the divines of the age be its
chief instigators, if they denounce Him to their followers,
cast Him out from their midst, and declare
Him a miscreant!  Hath not the same befallen this
Servant, and been witnessed by all?

     For this reason did Muhammad cry out:  "No
Prophet of God hath suffered such harm as I have
suffered."  And in the Qur'an are recorded all the
calumnies and reproaches uttered against Him, as
well as all the afflictions which He suffered.  Refer ye
thereunto, that haply ye may be informed of that
which hath befallen His Revelation.  So grievous was
His plight, that for a time all ceased to hold intercourse
with Him and His companions.  Whoever associated
with Him fell a victim to the relentless
cruelty of His enemies....

     Consider, how great is the change today!  Behold,
how many are the Sovereigns who bow the knee before
His name!  How numerous the nations and kingdoms
who have sought the shelter of His shadow,
who bear allegiance to His Faith, and pride themselves
therein!  From the pulpit-top there ascendeth
today the words of praise which, in utter lowliness,
glorify His blessed name; and from the heights of
minarets there resoundeth the call that summoneth
the concourse of His people to adore Him.  Even those
Kings of the earth who have refused to embrace His
Faith and to put off the garment of unbelief, none-the-less
confess and acknowledge the greatness and
overpowering majesty of that Day Star of loving-kindness.
Such is His earthly sovereignty, the evidences
2729

of which thou dost on every side behold.  This
sovereignty must needs be revealed and established
either in the lifetime of every Manifestation of God
or after His ascension unto His true habitation in the
realms above....

     It is evident that the changes brought about in
every Dispensation constitute the dark clouds
that intervene between the eye of man's understanding
and the Divine Luminary which shineth
forth from the day spring of the Divine Essence.
Consider how men for generations have
been blindly imitating their fathers, and have
been trained according to such ways and manners
as have been laid down by the dictates of
their Faith.  Were these men, therefore, to discover
suddenly that a Man, Who hath been living in their
midst, Who, with respect to every human limitation
hath been their equal, had risen to abolish every established
principle imposed by their Faith--principles by
which for centuries they have been disciplined, and
every opposer and denier of which they have come to
regard as infidel, profligate and wicked,--they would
of a certainty be veiled and hindered from acknowledging
His truth.  Such things are as "clouds" that
veil the eyes of those whose inner being hath not
tasted the Salsabil of detachment, nor drunk from
the Kawthar of the knowledge of God.  Such men,
when acquainted with those circumstances, become
so veiled that, without the least question, they pronounce
the Manifestation of God as infidel, and sentence
Him to death.  You must have heard of such
things taking place all down the ages, and are now
observing them in these days.

     It behoveth us, therefore, to make the utmost endeavor,
that, by God's invisible assistance, these dark
veils, these clouds of Heaven-sent trials, may not hinder
us from beholding the beauty of His shining
Countenance, and that we may recognize Him only
by His own Self.


_Gleanings from the Writings of Baha'u'llah_, pages 24-27

--- Renegade v12-25 Exp
 * Origin: Camphor Fountain*(510)547-5741*Oakland,California (93:5050/9)
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2730

                           New Age Ministry 
                         By: Steve Kalinowski

The New Age concept, in an overview, is basically a shifting of
perspectives, or a changing paradigm, with focus and emphasis on
individual personal spirituality and its effect/consequences on
society. Since that in itself is such an individually eclectic
approach to philosophy, it is difficult to pin down a definition
that will be accepted by a concensus. Thus, there are many
different working definitions of New Age, I'm sure you've heard a
few different ones yourself. Some are valid to a certain extent;
while others are truly misguided.. it depends on the depth of
understanding and credibility of who you ask..

The mechanism that determines the New Age, in a strictly
time-line oriented sense.., comes from Astrology.
Astrologers have long tracked a cycle called "The Procession of
the Equinoxes."  Each year the beginning of Spring is noted as
the `point of Equinox,' the moment that the azimuth of the Sun
goes from south to north declination-- or is crossing at zero
degrees declination, when the day and night are equal in length.
(aequinoctium =<= ~aequus,~ equal + ~nox,~ night)

If the measurement of celestial longitude of the Equinox is
marked against the backdrop of the zodiac; it will be noticed
that the markings creep slowly backwards from year to year at a
random rate, (the present rate is at about 6 seconds of celestial
arc per year, or one full degree in seventy-five years...)  not
very fast, but enough so that in every 2,250 years or so (approx)
depending of the average rate, the marking of the Equinox point
actually changes zodiac signs. Astrologers call the duration
within one particular zodiac sign an `Age.' We have been in the Age
of Pisces for a little over 2,000 years; and the transition into
the Age of Aquarius is starting, hence expressions like `the Dawn
of Aquarius.'

A noteworthy historical point about the changing of Ages;
although there are always periods of overlap, with no real line
of demarcation, each Age has a distinctive flavor or tone of
philosophy, and images of common useage that mirror the images
connected to the sign naming the Age. From a religious
perspective, Christianity has come to be the flag-bearer of the
Piscean Age, complete with all Piscean attitudes and
characteristics... Judiasm was the flag-bearer of the Aries Age,
as was Hinduism the flag-bearer of the Taurus Age.

Interestingly, the Bhraman's Sacred Cow (Taurus image) became the
Golden Calf that was cast down by the Judiac nomads and shepherds
(Aries image) to promote the One-God concept (also an Aries
image). Likewise, the Sacrificial Lamb (Aries image) was offered
and became the Kyrstos/Christ/Savior (Piscean image) to promote
the Universal-God concept.. the imagery of the `Fisherman of Men'
is also strongly Piscean.

So, it is expected that the Aquarian Age will also have its own
tone and flavor in this regard... perhaps the image of the
Aquarian Water-bearer will empty his Urn that contains all the
fish that were caught by the Fisherman of Pisces.
2731

The attitude of Aquarius is `individuality in a harmonious
society of like-minded individuals.... or else, anarchy,
rebellion and revolution to obtain acceptance of individuality'
...ie., Ecumenism and apostacy gives way to tolerance, respect,
even protection of spiritual diversity. A motto might be:
`Spiritual Brotherhood; by Concensus of Conscious Awareness, or
Enlightened Anarchy, take your pick.'  A view of Diety in the
Aquarian Age might be `A Multifarious Multi-dimensional
Manifestation of the One' -- no longer cultural, no longer
personified, but integrated into all of humanity at once... ie.,
finally taking the Christ off of the Cross (the image of actually
sacrificing the sacrifice) and placing him in the very essence of
all beings.

For the record, I am an ordained minister of the International
Metaphysical Ministry... which is to say-- a New Age Minister!
As is the case of any ministry, my prime focus is to increase the
awareness of the Diety's [whatever name you may choose] Presence
in mankind. The metaphysical approach in this quest actually
compliments other religious teaching systems by supplementing
them with the premise that each of us is directly connected to
the God/dess-Source , and can
become consciously aware of that connection through meditation.
This approach encourages one to personally experience
God/dess-Source, rather than merely accept God/dess-Source on the
testimony of someone else.

In the course of my studies, I have traveled on many roads. Along
the way, I considered well that each one was to be but a link in
the chain, never placed total commitment to any one link, but
only in the strength of the full length of chain. As the chain
grows longer with each new link acquired, it approaches a binding
of the Universe. Religion... in a prayer, a spell, a divination,
or invocation... regardless of the name used, religion defined is
to bind oneself, or to be bound, to a way of life.

First, to define metaphysical science. We have incorporated many
varied topics into this general heading, including, but not
limited to meditation, yoga, esp, astral projection, psychic
perception, runes, channeling, astrology, tarot, I-ching, Jungian
psychology, aura-psionic manipulation, alchemy, feng shui,
creative visualization, high magick, and comparative religions.
The metaphysical practitioner uses at least one of these art
forms, most likely many more than one, in their work. A minister
in metaphysical science is studied in _most_ of these art forms,
not to any expertise level, but to a qualifying level to be more
than just conversant -- informed and able to understand each form
and teach the general concepts and principles to others.

The minister, once qualified, then, is able to pursue their own
particular study in whatever field they choose for a speciality
--  my speciality is astrology and psionics . This is not unlike the medical profession, in that
all of the basic skills are learned during the general degree;
and then a speciality skill is pursued for the final practice.
The common thread in all metaphysical science practices is that
we value every human being as being fully connected to, or a
manifestation of the Universal/Divine/God/dess-Source; that each
2732

practitioner is experiencing that connection in their life-work,
and is encouraging others to experience their own connection in
their life, thus leading to developing their own life-work goals..

The organization of the International Metaphysical Ministry is an
academic organization, not designed to create a new religion, but
to provide an acedemic `clearing house' for information and
professional contacts for all those in the diverse fields of
study under the metaphysical umbrella.  The organization provides
accrediting credentials for academic work, and continuing
education in yearly convention seminars.

In personal practice, the ordained minister is charged to provide
_only_one_precept/tenet_ to the client/student -- ie., the
connection to the God/dess-Source is found within each living
entity, therefore each person is capable of becoming conscious of
that connection, and living in accordance with that connection.
The implication is that each person has a Divine purpose, as well
as an individual purpose. Most times these two purposes seem to
be in conflict. Metaphysical ministry contends that they are
meant to coincide, to exist together in harmony, to complement
each other; and from that view attempts to resolve any apparent
conflict of dualistic purpose through education, meditation, and
prayer treatments.

Education is as straight forward as it sounds. The practitioner
has their personal area of expertise, as well as the general
working knowledge of most `spiritual paths,' and teaches that to
all those who seek. The more studied the practitioner, the more
areas of `spiritual path' they are able to work with to educate
their students. Here, the minister acts as a spiritual guide
until the client/student is able to access the `inner guidance'
that enables them to take over for themselves.

Meditation is the backbone of the philosophy, all other
metaphysical art forms are in some way connected to this. The
practitioner personally meditates to daily renew, validate and
experience their own connection to the God/dess-Source; and
teaches client/students to do the same through a series of
methods for exercising meditation skills. This is the ritual
level of the ministry.

Prayer treatment is the basic healing tool of the ministry of
metaphysical science. A prayer treatment is a conscious focus and
release of psychic energy (psionics) from the minister to the
client/student for the purpose of healing the spiritual self.
Once healing begins on the psychic level, healing on all other
levels soon follows. This is the conjure/magick level of the
ministry.

In my personal practice, the use of astrology to create
personalized prayer treatments combined with psionics (aura
visualization and field energy administration) is my specialty
and the subject of my masters thesis. This technique is now being
studied by all other ministers in the organization who are
interested in astrology and psionics. I intend to further develop
the technique in the doctorate work.

2733

LightWorking:

The term ~LightWork~ is meant to imply the `Nurturing and
mid-Wifery of the dawning Aquarius Age' -- working to bring it to
full Light. I use the term LightWorking to describe the personal
commitment of an individual to the opening of the world to the
concepts of the New Age... not all LightWorkers are metaphysical
ministers, on the contrary. There are LightWorker representatives
in all walks of life, all areas of human endeavor, and they focus
the concepts of the New Age through their own particular
perspective.

Notice that so many novel, movie and television writers, even the
commercial ads, are working with New Age themes, as are musicians
and artists of all kinds. Science scholars and philosophers, too,
have their representatives. Much of the work on `Quantum Physics'
is developed through the New Age perspectives, as is the growing
acceptance of alternative health care methods in the general
community. The underlying essence of such concepts as `Political
Correctness,' of the environmental `Green,' `EcoSafe,' and
`EarthWatch' movements, are all still other examples of New Age
focus areas. In fact, the mass networking of human thought (this
electronic media) is a very fine example of the Aquarian New Age.

New understandings in psychology and sociology, concepts of ESP
and intuitive creativity, of channeling and automatic writing, of
spirit guides, all have taken old existing concepts and
restructured them within the framework of the New Age views.  All
these areas of new thought have LightWorker representatives
working right along side of traditionalists, and diligently
participating in guiding the progress and development of their
fields toward the New Age view..

Well Neal, guess that should be a short summary ... aren't
you glad you asked?

Be Well... And so it is!            Rev Steve @)>--`-,--`---


ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2734

                   The Temple of Set, Is it Satanic? 
                           By: Lilith Aquino

I can't answer this in 25 words or less, so bear with me! If you
consider Satanism to be anti-Christian Devil worship, the answer is no.
The Temple of Set practices a completely non-Christianized, positive
"high Satanism". To understand what we mean by this, a bit of history of
the Temple is needed:
While the TOS as an organization was formally incorporated and recog-
nized by both state and federal governments in 1975 CE, its magical and
philosophical roots are prehistoric, originating in mankind's first
apprehension that there is "something different" about the human race -
a sense of SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS - that places humanity apart from all
other known forms of life. Ancient religions - of which those of Egypt
are generally acknowledged the eldest - either exalted or feared this
self-consciousness. Those which exalted it took the position that the
human psyche is capable of opposition to and domination
of the forces of nature.

The psyche-worshipping, reasoning religions - or schools of initiatory
philosophy - attained levels of abstract knowledge that made them
mysterious to the masses. In a few socities, such as Egypt and Greece,
such groups were respected and admired. More often, however, their
exclusive elitism and "supernatural" activities made them objects of
resentment and persecution.

While all philosophical schools embraced the psychecentric consciousness
to some degree, there were a very few which made it avowedly and
explicitly the focus of their attention. The divine personifications
("gods") of such schools have come down to us as symbols of what most
Western religions, worshippers of non-consciousness, consider the
supreme "evil": the Prince of Darkness in his many forms. Of these the
most ancient is Set, whose Priesthood can be traced to predynastic
times.

Originally a circumpolar/stellar deity portrayed as a cyclical counter-
part to the Solar Horus, Set was later recast as an evil principle by
the cults of Osiris and Isis. When the Hebrews emigrated from Egypt
during the XIX Dynasty, they took with them a caricature of Set: "Satan"
(from the hieroglyphic _Set-Hen_, one of the god's formal titles).
Originally a sort of "prosecuting angel for YHVH", the Hebrew Satan was
changed by Christianity into a personification of everything God was not
- and since God was "good", Satan was necessarily "bad". Alluring or
mysterious deities from religions competing with early Christianity -
such as the hellenic/Roman Mysteries and Persian Mithraic faith - were
also "bad". Non-Christian gods generally were redefined as Christian
"demons" and given a place in the Christian Hell (another name stolen
and perverted from Norse mythology). Christian propaganda nonwithstan-
ding, the present day "Satan" is wholly their invention.

Which brings us to the present time: The Satanic religion proposes to
raise the individual to personal godhood, free from enslavement to any
other "God" (or gods). However this is a question not just of power, but
also of ethics, morality, and psychological maturity. The parameters of
philosophy and metaphysics extend far beyond the conceptual and symbolic
limits of the Judaic/Chrisitian tradition. The Temple of Set explores
the "human equation" and the metaphysical and psychological roots of the
great Satanic/psyche-centered philosophies of history. The appeal of
2735

occultism is much the same as that of conventional religion: Logical
positivism and scientific materialism, though they have made great
strides towards explaining the "how" of existence, have failed entirely
to explain the why.

Conventional religions, with their colorful mythologies analyzed in
terms of
the underlying philosophical principles, represent simply the primitive
longing of man to feel "at one" with the Universal harmony he perceives
about him. The Black Magician rejects both the desirability of union
with the Universe and any self-deceptive actions designed to create such
an illusion.  He/she has considered the existence of the individual
psyche - the "core you" of your conscious intelligence - and has taken
satisfaction from its existence as something unlike anything else. The
Black Magician desires this psyche to live, to experience, to continue.
He/she does not wish to die - or to lose consciousness and identity in
a larger, Universal consciousness (assuming that such exists). He/she
wants to BE. This decision in favor of individual existence is the first
premise of the Temple of Set.

The second premise of the Temple is that the psychecentric consciousness
can evolve towards its own divinity through deliberate exercise of the
intelligence and Will, a process of BECOMING or COMING INTO BEING
(XEPER), whose roots may be found in the dialectic method expounded by
Plato and the conscious exaltation of the Will proposed by Nietzsche.

The "worship" of Set is thus the "worship" of individualism. In the
Church of Satan this was taken to mean indulgence in all (legal) desires
of the body and ego. Since many such desires are impulsive and destruc-
tive, the COS found itself in an awkward position, which accelerated its
eventual crisis and demise in 1975. The Temple of Set determined to
preserve the principle of individualism, but to add to it the evolution-
ary "higher self" aspirations of Aleister Crowley's pre-OTO philosophy
of Thelema. Glorification of the ego is not enough; it is the COMPLETE
psyche, the entire Self or soul, which must be recognized, appreciated,
and actualized. Dogma, - to include fixed ideology in any form - is
repugnant to Setians. We strive rather towards an atmosphere of "best
possible premises", which are always subject to constructive, intel-
ligent examination and criticism. Foolish, pretentious, or destructive
egotism under the guise of exploration is neither respected nor endured.

Regretfully there still exist some individuals whose idea of "Satanism"
is largely a simple-minded synthesis of Christian propaganda and
Hollywood horror movies. The Temple of Set enjoys the colorful legacy of
the Black Arts, and we use many forms of historical Satanic imagery for
our artistic stimulation and pleasure. But we have not found that any
interest or activity which an enlightened, mature intellect would regard
as undignified, sadistic, criminal, or depraved is desirable, much less
essential to our work. The Temple of Set is an evolutinary product of
human experience. Such experience includes the magical and philosophical
work of many occult individuals which have preceded us. In examining the
secret and suppressed corners of history for valuable and useful
material, the Temple insists upon ehtical presentation and use of such
discoveries. All Setians are expected to display a high measure of
maturity and common sense in this area. We reject absolutely wanton
cruelty and harm to others, and are particularly adamant about this with
regard to animals.

2736

The Temple of Set evaluates conventional religions as erroneous in
principle, and feels no need to concern itself with their activities
unless they intrude upon our affairs.
            Any further questions or comments are welcome.
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2737

                        Descent Into Confusion 
                           by Robert Hughes

One of the celebrated "mysteries" of revivalist Wicca is the
'ritual play' known as the Legend of the Descent of the
Goddess. In my Gardnerian Book of Shadows, dating from the
sixties, the Legend is to be enacted separately at "a meeting
for preparation for Third Degree". Only third degree witches
may attend this meeting with the initiate who is to take
second degree.

The Legend is enacted in front of the initiate by four of the
third degree witches. Two take the role of Narrator and
Guardian of the Portal (of the underworld), while the High
Priest and High Priestess or Maiden take the roles of God and
Goddess. The term Guardian of the Portal may have been
borrowed from the rituals of the Golden Dawn.

In this enactment, the ruler of the underworld and Lord of
Death is the Horned One. The Legend begins with the statement:
'...Our Lady, the Goddess, would solve all mysteries - even
the mystery of death. And so she journeyed to the Netherworld
where the Guardian of the Portal challenged her.' The Guardian
orders her to strip off her garments and jewels and she is
bound with cords and brought into the presence of the Lord of
Death.

The God is so overcome by her beauty that he falls and kisses
her feet and begs her to stay with him in the underworld. The
Goddess replies that she does not love him, and she asks why
he causes all the things she loves and delights in to fade and
die.

The God replies that the cause is 'age and fate' and he says
he is helpless to stop it, although he can give the dead 'rest
and peace and strength, so that they may return.' A second
time he asks the Goddess to stay with him. When she again says
she does not love him, Death replies she must suffer a
scourging at his hands.

Following this scourging, and the five fold kiss, the Goddess
says: 'I know the pain of love'. It is then that the God
'taught her all the mysteries'. He also gives her a special
necklace which is 'a symbol of the Circle of Rebirth'. In
return, our Lady teaches him the 'sacred mystery of the
cauldron'. The Legend ends with an affirmation of the reality
of reincarnation among the Hidden Children of the Goddess and
'the mystery of magick which is placed between the worlds'.
The initiate is then invited to ask questions about the
meaning of the Legend.

Even anyone with only a slight knowledge of understanding of
mythology will recognise the contradictions and confusions
which exist within the structure and symbolism of the Legend.
The first point of controversy is when, where, and by whom,
this ritual originated. Some (unconfirmed) sources claim it is
of 19th century origin. It is said to be a product of the
famous "Cambridge" coven of academics who revived the
2738

classical Mysteries in the early 1800s. More reliable evidence
exists to prove that Gerald Gardner sent a draft of the Legend
to Aleister Crowley for correction in the 1940s.

Kelly (Crafting the Art of Magic, Llewellyn, 1991) claims that
the Legend does not appear in the pre-1949 second degree
initiation in the famous (infamous?) Ye Bok of Ye Art Magical
and says: "The content of this document probably dates to 1953
or earlier..." (p.128). Gardner quotes from the Legend in his
book, Witchcraft Today as if he had received it from the New
Forest coven. In fact he describes it as 'the central part of
one of their rituals. It is a sort of primitive
spiritualism.'. He goes on to compare its importance in the
Craft to the Christian myth of the crucifixion and
resurrection. (1970, pp 44-46). Gardner goes on to say the
Legend 'upon which its members base their action is the
central idea of the cult.' He compares it with the story of
Istar (sic) descending into hell and the myth of the Hindu god
Siva (Shiva) as Lord of Death and destruction. Gardner then
says he believes the Legend may be of Celtic  origin. To
support this fanciful statement, he says that: 'In Celtic
legends the Lords of the Underworld did prepare you for death
and many living people are said to have entered their regions,
formed alliances with them, and returned safely, but it needed
great courage; only a hero or a demi-god dared to risk it.'
(p.46). One presumes that here Gardner is making an allusion
to the realm of Faerie and the widespread folk belief that
faeries were the spirits of the dead.

This is classic Gardner at his most confusing and, perhaps,
deliberately misleading and mischievous. The version of the
Legend as presented by Gardner is both patriarchal and
mythologically inaccurate. It seems to be based on a hybrid
combination of the Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone, and
the Middle Eastern myth of Inanna-Ishtar. Gardner does not
mention the Demeter-Persephone myth in his speculations,
instead sidetracking the reader into the realms of Celtic
myth, although he does devote a chapter of his book to the
Greek Mysteries - basically as a means of justifying the
practice of scourging.

In the Middle Eastern myth, Inanna is the Goddess of the Moon
and Venus. She was probably, 'one of the three great goddesses
of the Bronze Age' (Baring & Cashford, 1991). Inanna was known
by the title Queen of Heaven and Earth and her myth is an
archetypal form of the eternal story of the mourning
widow/mother goddess and the saviour god, who is her
son/lover, dies, descends to the underworld and is reborn.
This myth is found in most Mediterranean cultures and in
northern Europe, and it formed the 'pagan' basis for the new
religion of Christianity.

The Demeter-Persephone myth is a post-patriarchal variant on
this ancient legend with the daughter (Persephone) being
kidnapped and held prisoner by Pluto, the Lord of Death and
the ruler of Hades. In recent years some feminist
mythographers have re-written this classic story and produced
alternative versions without any patriarchal overtones (see
2739

Spretnak, 1978).

Gardner was correct to refer to visits to the underworld by
heroes and demi-gods (sic). However, in the majority of the
extant legends and myths, such as the descent of Arthur to
Annwn to capture the Cauldron of the Goddess, and Baldur's
ritual death and descent into the realm of Hel, it is a male
mortal or god who is involved in the descent and is "reborn".
It is the Goddess, in her 'dark aspect, who rules over the
realm of the dead, controls the power of fate and grants the
hero/god the supreme initiation of transformation and rebirth.
In the Gardnerian Legend of the Descent we are led to believe
that the Goddess, who is represented in The Charge as an
all-powerful deity offering her worshippers 'upon death, peace
unutterable, rest and the ecstasy of the Goddess', and is
described by Gardner himself as 'the Great Mother, the giver
of life' (1970, p.45), visits the underworld knowing nothing
about the mysteries of life and death. She allegedly knows
nothing about the natural process that makes 'all the things
that I love, and take delight in, fade and die' until she is
taught these mysteries by the God. In fact in response to her
question the God replies 'tis age and fate'. Significantly
these are both concepts associated with the Dark Goddess of
the Underworld, who has no role in Gardner's version of the
Craft.

It is not difficult to see the Legend of the Descent of the
Goddess in terms of 'a theologising of the scourging' (Kelly,
1991), which was such an important aspect of the rituals in
Gardner's time. Taking this argument a step forward, as Kelly
does (1991, pp 28-29), it could appear that the content of the
Legend was based on Gardner's sexual fantasies and his
personal concept of the Goddess. He imagined the Goddess as 'a
sweet, lovely woman', while in the more traditional branches
of the Craft she is a darker deity ruling fate, death and the
underworld as well as sexuality. This alternative archetypal
image of the witch goddess has largely been ignored by
revivalist Wicca. It will continue to do so while Gardner's
confused and mythologically incorrect Legend of the Descent of
the Goddess remains the 'central idea' of the modern Craft.

References and further reading:

Witchcraft Today    G B Gardner (Arrow paperback edition 1970)
The Witches' Way    J & S Farrar (Robert Hale 1984)
Crafting the Art of Magic: Book I
A Kelly (Llewellyn 1991)
Lost Goddesses of Early Greece
C Spretnak (Moon Books 1978)
The Myth of the Goddess
Baring & Cashford (Penguin 1991)
The Mysteries of Eleusis
G D'Alviella (Aquarian Press 1981)
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2740

                   The Derivation of the word Witch 
                          by Doreen Valiente

Strangely enough, the derivation of the word witch is a subject on which
scarcely any two authorities can be found to agree. The most frequent
explanation is that it is akin to the word wise, and that witchcraft
therefore means The Craft of the Wise.

It is widely believed that Gerald Gardner originated this derivation.
However, this is incorrect, as it appears in Hugh Ross Williamson's
book, The Arrow and the Sword, first published in 1947, before any of
Gerald Gardner's books on witchcraft. But is this the right derivation?

Not according to Professor Jeffrey Russell, who gives an appendix on
this subject in his book A History of Witchcraft (Thames & Hudson,
London, 1980). Professor Russell rejects any connection with the Old
English word witan, meaning to know, as he also does with the Old
English wican, to bend. In his opinion, the real origin comes from the
Indo-European word weik, which has a general connection with religion
and magic. From this very ancient root-word came in turn, among other
things, a word wikk, meaning magic and sorcery, and this eventually
produced the Old English wicca, a male witch, wicce, a female witch,
and the verb wiccian, to bewitch or work witchcraft.

It will be seen from the above that "Wicca" does not mean "witchcraft"
and never did, in spite of its widespread modern use. So how did this
usage originate? In his biography, Gerald Gardner: Witch, it describes
his initiation in "Old Dorothy's" house, and says, 'It was half way
through when the word Wica was first mentioned: "and I then knew that
that which I had thought burnt out hundreds of years ago still sur-
vived."' It will be seen that at this time Gerald didn't even know how
to spell the word. Its correct spelling is as above. Nor, unfortunately,
does this account state in what context the word was used. It might have
been that Old Dorothy's coven was simply proclaiming Gerald a male
witch, in which case this would have been an accurate use of the word.

So where did Gerald get the idea that "Wicca" meant witchcraft? I would
like to advance a theory of my own. I must emphasise that this is just
a theory, and I may be wrong. But I believe that this idea originated
from his reading of a book which I know that he possessed, namely
An Encyclopaedia of Occultism by Lewis Spence. This very valuable work
of reference first appeared in 1920, according to the mention of it
in the bibliography at the end of Gerald's book, Witchcraft Today.
It has recently been re-issued by Bracken Books under the title of
The Encyclopaedia of the Occult. The entry referring to witchcraft
begins: "Witchcraft: (from Saxon Wicca, a contraction of witega, a
prophet or sorcerer)." This could have been read and misunderstood
to mean that "Wicca" meant witchcraft, and this misconception has
been carried on through the ranks of modern witches ever since.

It has to be said, of course, that the word Wicca has its uses to
define the present-day revival, especially in the USA, where a number
of associations using this word have gained legal recognition as
religious bodies. Personally, however, I prefer the term The
Old Religion, which is the English equivalent of the Italian term
used by the followers of Aradia, namely La Vecchia Religione.
(See Charles Godfrey Leland's book, Aradia: or the Gospel of the
Witches, first published in 1899.)
2741

(Incidentally, there is a legend in witchcraft circles to the effect
that the reason why the original edition of this book is so rare is
that old Gerald bought up all the copies he could find and destroyed
them. Whether there is any truth in this or not, I cannot say.)

In spite of Professor Russell's opinion, as quoted above, there is an
older derivation of the word witch that may perhaps be worthy of
consideration. This may be found in A Concise Etymological Dictionary
of the English Language by the Rev. Walter W Skeat (Clarendon Press,
Oxford, 1901). This book discusses the above-mentioned derivations
from wicca, wicce, etc., and then in turn connects these old words
with the Norwegian vikja, which means firstly 'to turn aside' and
secondly 'to conjure away'. Thus, speculates the Rev. Skeat, the word
witch possibly meant 'averter'.

He also mentions that the Anglo-Saxon word witega, a prophet or seer,
comes from the Anglo-Saxon witan, to observe, which he says is 'cognate
with witan, to know.'. We have seen that Lewis Spence regarded witega as
the origin of wicca. So who is right? In spite of all claims, it seems
to me that it remains a matter of opinion. One thing we do know is that
the word came to Britain with the Saxons, who at the time of their
arrival on these shores were pagans. I believe that to them, the word
witch (or whichever of its forerunners they used), did not necessarily
have any derogatory meaning. A witch was a seer, a knower, an averter of
evil.  The word only took on a negative meaning with the coming of
Christianity, which taught that all the gods of the heathen were devils.
So anyone who clung o the old ways and the Old Religion was a devil
worshipper.  And annually, around Halloween, we still see the same old
charges being made in the same old spirit of bigotry. Isn't it sad that
these good folk haven't learnt anything since the Dark Ages?
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2742

                          Wicca vs. Paganism? 
                            By: David Piper

Firstly, Paganism is a collective term for many different faiths and
Wicca is one specific Pagan faith; however, specifics of Wicca IMHO:

Duotheistic monism *or* duotheistic monotheism (the One transcending
 the Two while the Two still have independent self-existence)

The Lady is the Mother of all Life and Giver of Rebirth: Her Womb is
 also the Tomb - "that which enters the Cauldron living, dies
 but that which is placed in it dead, comes forth living"

The Lord is the Father of all life, Son and Lover of the Goddess: He
 is born of Her, returns His Seed unto Her, returns to Her in
 death, and is reborn of Her

All initiated members are of the Priesthood: as Priest(ess) unto the
 self, if not to a group

The essential equality of all members, together with the respect for
 those of more experience and learning: Elders, HP, and HPS

Wiccans practice a somewhat "formal" liturgy - if only in terms of a
 regular "opening" and "closing" ritual, within which freedom
 and spontaneity can be expressed as the Spirit moves them

A common resemblance of working methods and practice, within a broad
 but nevertheless limited range of acceptable variation

The concept of "Drawing Down" - that the Deities can and do manifest
 Themselves "unto visible appearance" to Their worshippers

A reverence for sexuality as both natural and good, and as sacrament
 of the creative Union of the Lady and the Lord

The Great Rite - as the "Sacred Marriage," in which Goddess and God,
 human and Divine, are brought to Unity, or Unity perceived

Respect for the "Gifts of the Goddess" (to borrow a Farrarian term),
 as the true means by which humans can come to directly know,
 and experience, the Divine - reason and logic fail; emotions
 and intuition and the "psychic" are the channels of contact,
 and experiential "Knowledge"

The concept of "Naked in Her Sight" as expressive of freedom, and of
 obedience to Her, and of equality with Brothers and Sisters;
 whether by literal, "skyclad" ritual nudity, or by symbolic,
 "Naught is hidden from Your Sight" ritual robes

********************************************************************

Now, some of the ideas mentioned beg for more definition and further
discussion, but there's my offering for now...

B*B
David
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2743

                                    2401 BC                            
    
                                                                       
    
                               THE PAPYRUS OF ANI                      
    
                        (THE EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEAD)                
    
                                                                       
    
                        Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge                
    
                                                                      
HYMN TO OSIRIS                                                         
    
     
  "Homage to thee, Osiris, Lord of eternity, King of the Gods, whose  
names are manifold, whose forms are holy, thou being of hidden form in 
the temples, whose Ka is holy. Thou art the governor of Tattu         
(Busiris), and also the mighty one in Sekhem (Letopolis). Thou art the 
Lord to whom praises are ascribed in the nome of Ati, thou art the    
Prince of divine food in Anu. Thou art the Lord who is commemorated in 
Maati, the Hidden Soul, the Lord of Qerrt (Elephantine), the Ruler    
supreme in White Wall (Memphis). Thou art the Soul of Ra, his own     
body, and hast thy place of rest in Henensu (Herakleopolis). Thou     
art the beneficent one, and art praised in Nart. Thou makest thy      
soul to be raised up. Thou art the Lord of the Great House in         
Khemenu (Hermopolis). Thou art the mighty one of victories in         
Shas-hetep, the Lord of eternity, the Governor of Abydos. The path    
of his throne is in Ta-tcheser (a part of Abydos). Thy name is        
established in the mouths of men. Thou art the substance of Two       
Lands (Egypt). Thou art Tem, the feeder of Kau (Doubles), the Governor 
of the Companies of the gods. Thou art the beneficent Spirit among the 
spirits. The god of the Celestial Ocean (Nu) draweth from thee his    
waters. Thou sendest forth the north wind at eventide, and breath from 
thy nostrils to the satisfaction of thy heart. Thy heart reneweth     
its youth, thou producest the.... The stars in the celestial heights  
are obedient unto thee, and the great doors of the sky open themselves 
before thee. Thou art he to whom praises are ascribed in the          
southern heaven, and thanks are given for thee in the northern heaven. 
    
The imperishable stars are under thy supervision, and the stars       
which never set are thy thrones. Offerings appear before thee at the  
decree of Keb. The Companies of the Gods praise thee, and the gods    
of the Tuat (Other World) smell the earth in paying homage to thee.   
The uttermost parts of the earth bow before thee, and the limits of   
the skies entreat thee with supplications when they see thee. The holy 
ones are overcome before thee, and all Egypt offereth thanksgiving    
unto thee when it meeteth Thy Majesty. Thou art a shining Spirit-Body, 
the governor of Spirit-Bodies; permanent is thy rank, established is  
thy rule. Thou art the well-doing Sekhem (Power) of the Company of the 
Gods, gracious is thy face, and beloved by him that seeth it. Thy fear 
is set in all the lands by reason of thy perfect love, and they cry   
out to thy name making it the first of names, and all people make     
offerings to thee. Thou art the lord who art commemorated in heaven   
and upon earth. Many are the cries which are made to thee at the Uak  
festival, and with one heart and voice Egypt raiseth cries of joy to  
thee.                                                                  
2744
    
  "Thou art the Great Chief, the first among thy brethren, the        
Prince of the Company of the Gods, the stablisher of Right and Truth  
throughout the World, the Son who was set on the great throne of his  
father Keb. Thou art the beloved of thy mother Nut, the mighty one    
of valour, who overthrew the Sebau-fiend. Thou didst stand up and     
smite thine enemy, and set thy fear in thine adversary. Thou dost     
bring the boundaries of the mountains. Thy heart is fixed, thy legs   
are set firm. Thou art the heir of Keb and of the sovereignty of the  
Two Lands (Egypt). He (Keb) hath seen his splendours, he hath         
decreed for him the guidance of the world by thy hand as long as times 
endure. Thou hast made this earth with thy hand, and the waters, and  
the winds, and the vegetation, and all the cattle, and all the        
feathered fowl, and all the fish, and all the creeping things, and all 
the wild animals therof. The desert is the lawful possession of the   
son of Nut. The Two Lands (Egypt) are content to crown thee upon the  
throne of thy father, like Ra.                                         
    
  "Thou rollest up into the horizon, thou hast set light over the     
darkness, thou sendest forth air from thy plumes, and thou floodest   
the Two Lands like the Disk at daybreak. Thy crown penetrateth the    
height of heaven, thou art the companion of the stars, and the guide  
of every god. Thou art beneficent in decree and speech, the favoured  
one of the Great Company of the Gods, and the beloved of the Little   
Company of the Gods.                                                   
    
  His sister [Isis] hath protected him, and hath repulsed the         
fiends, and turned aside calamities (of evil). She uttered the spell  
with the magical power of her mouth. Her tongue was perfect, and it   
never halted at a word. Beneficent in command and word was Isis, the  
woman of magical spells, the advocate of her brother. She sought him  
untiringly, she wandered round and round about this earth in sorrow,  
and she alighted not without finding him. She made light with her     
feathers, she created air with her wings, and she uttered the death   
wail for her brother. She raised up the inactive members of whose     
heart was still, she drew from him his essence, she made an heir,     
she reared the child in loneliness, and the place where he was not    
known, and he grew in strength and stature, and his hand was mighty in 
the House of Keb. The Company of the Gods rejoiced, rejoiced, at the  
coming of Horus, the son of Osiris, whose heart was firm, the         
triumphant, the son of Isis, the heir of Osiris."                      


REFERENCES                                                             
    
  Following is a list of frequently-mentioned geographical locations,
and their commonly-known names:                                  
     Abtu                   Abydos                                     
    
     Abu                    Elephantine                                
    
     Anu                    Heliopolis                                 
    
     Bast                   Bubastis                                   
    
     Hensu                  Herakleopolis                              
    
     Het-ka-Ptah            Memphis                                    
    
2745

     Khemenu                Hermopolis                                 
    
     Per-Menu               Panopolis                                  
    
     Qerrt                  Elephantine                                
     Sau                    Sais                                       
    
     Sekhem                 Letopolis                                  
    
     Suat                   Asyut                                      
    
     Tetu                   Busiris                                    
    
     Two Lands              Upper and Lower Egypt                      
    
     Unu                    Hermopolis                                 
    
                                                                       
    
                        HYMN TO RA THE SUN GOD 
      
  A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN: 
    
Behold, the Osiris Ani, the scribe of the holy offerings of all the   
gods, saith: Homage to thee, O thou who hast come as Khepera,         
Khepera the creator of the gods, Thou art seated on thy throne, thou  
risest up in the sky, illumining thy mother [Nut], thou art seated    
on thy throne as the king of the gods. [Thy] mother Nut stretcheth out 
her hands, and performeth an act of homage to thee. The domain of Manu 
receiveth thee with satisfaction. The goddess Maat embraceth thee at  
the two seasons of the day. May Ra give glory, and power, and         
thruth-speaking, and the appearance as a living soul so that he may   
gaze upon Heru-khuti, to the KA of the Osiris the Scribe Ani, who     
speaketh truth before Osiris, and who saith: Hail, O all ye gods of   
the House of the Soul, who weigh heaven and earth in a balance, and   
who give celestial food [to the dead]. Hail, Tatun, [who art] One,    
thou creator of mortals [and] of the Companies of the Gods of the     
South and of the North, of the West and of the East, ascribe ye praise 
to Ra, the lord of heaven, the KING, Life, Strength, and Health, the  
maker of the gods. Give ye thanks unto him in his beneficent form     
which is enthroned in the Atett Boat; beings celestial praise thee,   
beings terrestial praise thee. Thoth and the goddess Maat mark out thy 
course for thee day by day and every day. Thine enemy the Serpent hath 
been given over to the fire. The Serpent-fiend Sebau hath fallen      
headlong, his forelegs are bound in chains, and his hind legs hath    
Ra carried away from him. The Sons of Revolt shall never more rise up. 
The House of the Aged One keepeth festival, and the voices of those   
who make merry are in the Great Place. The gods rejoice when they     
see Ra crowned upon his throne, and when his beams flood the world    
with light. The majesty of this holy god setteth out on his journey,  
and he goeth onwards until he reacheth the land of Manu; the earth    
becometh light at his birth each day; he proceedeth until he          
reacheth the place where he was yesterday. O be thou at peace with me. 
Let me gaze upon thy beauties. Let me journey above the earth. Let    
me smite the Ass. Let me slit asunder the Serpent-fiend Sebau. Let    
me destroy Aepep at the moment of his greatest power. Let me behold   
the Abtu Fish at his season, and the Ant Fish with the Ant Boat as    
it piloteth it in its lake. Let me behold Horus when he is in charge  
2746

of the rudder [of the Boat of Ra], with Thoth and the goddess Maat    
on each side of him. Let me lay hold of the tow-rope of the Sektet    
Boat, and the rope at the stern of the Matett Boat. Let Ra grant to me 
a view of the Disk (the Sun), and a sight of Ah (the Moon) unfailingly 
each day. Let my Ba-soul come forth to walk about hither and thither  
and whithersoever it pleaseth. Let my name be called out, let it be   
found inscribed on the tablet which recordeth the names of those who  
are to receive offerings. Let meals from the sepulchral offerings be  
given to me in the presence [of Osiris], as to those who are in the   
following of Horus. Let there be prepared for me a seat in the Boat of 
the Sun on the day wheron the god saileth. Let me be received in the  
presence of Osiris in the Land of Truth-speaking- the Ka of Osiris    
Ani.                                                                   
    
                                                                       
    
                               APPENDIX 
      
  (From the Papyrus of Nekht, Brit. Mus. No. 10471, Sheet 21)          
     
  NEKHT, THE CAPTAIN OF SOLDIERS, THE ROYAL SCRIBE, SINGETH A HYMN    
OF PRAISE TO RA, and saith:- Homage to thee, O thou glorious Being,   
thou who art dowered [with all sovereignty]. O Tem-Heru-Khuti         
(Tem-Harmakhis), when thou risest in the horizon of heaven a cry of   
joy goeth forth to thee from all people. O thou beautiful Being,      
thou dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the Disk,        
within thy mother Hathor. Therefore in every place every heart        
swelleth with joy at thy rising for ever. The regions of the South and 
the North come to thee with homage, and send forth acclamations at thy 
rising on the horizon of heaven, and thou illuminest the Two Lands    
with rays of turquoise-[coloured] light. O Ra, who art Heru-Khuti, the 
divine man-child, the heir of eternity, self-begotten and self-born,  
king of the earth, prince of the Tuat (the Other World), governor of  
Aukert, thou didst come from the Water-god, thou didst spring from the 
Sky-god Nu, who doth cherish thee and order thy members. O thou god of 
life, thou lord of love, all men live when thou shinest; thou art     
crowned king of the gods. The goddess Nut embraceth thee, and the     
goddess Mut enfoldeth thee at all seasons. Those who are in thy       
following sing unto thee with joy, and they bow down their foreheads  
to the earth when they meet thee, the lord of heaven, the lord of     
the earth, the King of Truth, the lord of eternity, the prince of     
everlastingness, thou sovereign of all the gods, thou god of life,    
thou creator of eternity, thou maker of heaven wherin thou art        
firmly stablished.                                                     
    
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2747

  The Company of the Gods rejoice at thy rising, the earth is glad    
when it beholdeth thy rays; the people who have been long dead come   
forth with cries of joy to behold thy beauties every day. Thou goest  
forth each day over heaven and earth, and thou art made strong each   
day be thy mother Nut. Thou passest over the heights of heaven, thy   
heart swelleth with joy; and the Lake of Testes (the Great Oasis) is  
content thereat. The Serpent-fiend hath fallen, his arms are hewn off, 
the Knife hath severed his joints. Ra liveth by Maat (Law), the       
beautiful! The Sektet Boat advanceth and cometh into port. The South  
and the North, and the West and East, turn to praise thee. O thou     
First, Great God (PAUTA), who didst come into being of thine own      
accord, Isis and Nephthys salute thee, they sing unto thee songs of   
joy at thy rising in the boat, they stretch out their hands unto thee. 
The Souls of the East follow thee, and the Souls of the West praise   
thee. Thou art the Ruler of all the gods. Thou in thy shrine hast joy, 
for the Serpent-fiend Nak hath been judged by the fire, and thy       
heart shall rejoice for ever. Thy mother Nut is esteemed by thy father 
Nu.                                                                    
    

                        HYMN TO OSIRIS UN-NEFER 
      
  A Hymn of Praise to Osiris Un-Nefer, the great god who dwelleth in  
Abtu, the king of eternity, the lord of everlastingness, who          
traverseth millions of years in his existence. Thou art the eldest son 
of the womb of Nut. Thou was begotten by Keb, the Erpat. Thou art     
the lord of the Urrt Crown. Thou art he whose White Crown is lofty.   
Thou art the King (Ati) of gods [and] men. Thou hast gained possession 
of the sceptre of rule, and the whip, and the rank and dignity of     
thy divine fathers. Thy heart is expanded with joy, O thou who art    
in the kingdom of the dead. Thy son Horus is firmly placed on thy     
throne. Thou hast ascended thy throne as the Lord of Tetu, and as     
the Heq who dwelleth in Abydos. Thou makest the Two Lands to          
flourish through Truth-speaking, in the presence of him who is the    
Lord to the Uttermost Limit. Thou drawest on that which hath not yet  
come into being in thy name of "Ta-her-sta-nef." Thou governest the   
Two Lands by Maat in thy name of "Seker." Thy power is wide-spread,   
thou art he of whom the fear is great in thy name of "Usar" (or       
"Asar"). Thy existence endureth for an infinite number of double henti 
periods in thy name of "Un-Nefer."                                     
    
  Homage to thee, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, and Prince of     
Princes. Thou hast ruled the Two Lands from the womb of the goddess   
Nut. Thou hast governed the Lands of Akert. Thy members are of        
silver-gold, thy head is of lapis-lazuli, and the crown of thy head is 
of turquoise. Thou art An of millions of years. Thy body is all       
pervading, O Beautiful Face in Ta-tchesert. Grant thou to me glory    
in heaven, and power upon earth, and truth-speaking in the Divine     
Underworld, and [the power to] sail down the river to Tetu in the form 
of a living Ba-soul, and [the power to] sail up the river to Abydos in 
the form of a Benu bird, and [the power to] pass in through and to    
pass out from, without obstruction, the doors of the lords of the     
Tuat. Let there be given unto me bread-cakes in the House of          
Refreshing, and sepulchral offerings of cakes and ale, and            
propitiatory offerings in Anu, and a permanent homestead in           
Sekhet-Aaru, with wheat and barley therein- to the Double of the      
Osiris, the scribe Ani.                                               
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2748

                  THE CHAPTERS OF COMING FORTH BY DAY 
      
  HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTERS OF COMING FORTH BY DAY, AND THE SONGS OF    
PRAISING AND GLORIFYING WHICH ARE TO BE RECITED FOR "COMING FORTH" AND 
FOR ENTERING INTO KHERT-NETER, AND THE SPELLS WHICH ARE TO BE SAID    
IN BEAUTIFUL AMENTET. THEY SHALL BE RECITED ON THE DAY OF THE FUNERAL, 
ENTERING IN AFTER COMING FORTH.                                        
    

  The Osiris Ani, the Osiris the scribe Ani saith:- Homage to thee,   
O Bull of Amentet, Thoth the king of eternity is with me. I am the    
great god by the side of the divine boat, I have fought for thee, I am 
one of those gods, those divine chiefs, who proved the                
truth-speaking of Osiris before his enemies on the day of the weighing 
of words. I am thy kinsman Osiris. I am [one of] those gods who were  
the children of the goddess Nut, who hacked in pieces the enemies of  
Osiris, and who bound in fetters the legion of Sebau devils on his    
behalf. I am thy kinsman Horus, I have fought on thy behalf, I have   
come to thee for thy name's sake. I am Thoth who proved the truth of  
the words of Osiris before his enemies on the day of the weighing of  
words in the great House of the Prince, who dwelleth in Anu. I am     
Teti, the son of Teti. My mother conceived me in Tetu, and gave       
birth to me in Tetu. I am with the mourners [and with] the women who  
tear out their hair and make lament for Osiris in Taui-Rekhti, proving 
true the words of Osiris before his enemies. Ra commanded Thoth to    
prove true the words of Osiris before his enemies; what was           
commanded [for Osiris], let that be done for me by Thoth. I am with   
Horus on the day of dressing Teshtesh. I open the hidden water-springs 
for the ablutions of Urt-ab. I unbolt the door of the Shetait Shrine  
in Ra-stau. I am with Horus as the protector of the left shoulder of  
Osiris, the dweller in Sekhem. I enter in among and I come forth      
from the Flame-gods on the day of the destruction of the Sebau        
fiends in Sekhem. I am with Horus on the day[s] of the festivals of   
Osiris, at the making of offerings and oblations, namely, on the      
festival which is celebrated on the sixth day of the month, and on the 
day of the Tenat festival in Anu. I am the UAB priest (libationer)    
in Tetu, Rera, the dweller in Per-Asar. I exalt him that is upon the  
high place of the country. I look upon the hidden things (the         
mysteries) in Ra-stau. I recite the words of the liturgy of the       
festival of the Soul-god in Tetu. I am the SEM priest, and [perform]  
his duties. I am the UR-KHERP-HEM priest on the day of placing the    
Henu Boat of Seker upon its divine sledge. I have taken in my hand the 
digging tool on the day of digging up the earth in Hensu.              
    
  Hail, O ye who make perfect souls to enter into the House of Osiris, 
make ye the well-instructed soul of the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose  
word is true, to enter in and to be with you in the House of Osiris.  
Let him hear even as ye hear; let him have sight even as ye have      
sight; let him stand up even as ye stand up; let him take his seat    
even as ye take your seats.                                            
    
  Hail, O ye who give cakes and ale to perfect souls in the House of  
Osiris, give ye cakes and ale twice each day (in the morning and in   
the evening) to the soul of the Osiris Ani, whose word is true        
before the gods, the Lords of Abydos, and whose word is true with you. 



2749

  Hail, O ye who open up the way, who act as guides to the roads [in  
the Other World] to perfect souls in the House of Osiris, open ye up  
for him the way, and act ye as guides to the roads to the soul of     
the Osiris, the scribe, the registrary of all the offerings made to   
the gods, Ani, [whose word is true] with you. May he enter the House  
of Osiris with boldness, and may he come forth therefrom in peace. May 
there be no opposition made to him, and may he not be sent back       
[therefrom]. May he enter in under favour [of Osiris], and may he come 
forth gratified [at the acceptance of] his true words. May his        
commands be performed in the House of Osiris, may his words travel    
with you, may he be glorious as ye are. May he be not found to be     
light in the Balance, may the Balance dispose of his case.             
    
   
  (In the Turin Papyrus, ed. Lepsius, this Chapter ends with the      
following.)                                                            
    
      
  Permit thou not me to be judged according to the mouths of the      
multitude. May my soul lift itself up before [Osiris], having been    
found to have been pure when on earth. May I come into thy presence, O 
Lord of the gods; may I arrive at the Nome of Maati (Truth); may I    
rise up on my seat like a god endowed with life; may I give forth     
light like the Company of the Gods who dwell in heaven; may I become  
like one of you; may I lift up my footsteps in the town of Kher-Aha;  
may I look upon the Sektet Boat of the god, Saah, the holy one, as    
it passeth across the sky; may I not be repulsed; may I look upon     
the Lords of the Tuat, or, according to another reading, the Company  
of the Gods; may I smell the savour of the divine food of the         
Company of the Gods; may I sit down with them; may my name be         
proclaimed for offerings by the KHER-HEB priest at the sacrificial    
table; may I hear the petitions which are made when offerings are     
presented; may I draw nigh unto the Neshem Boat; and may neither my   
Heart-soul nor its lord be repulsed.                                   
    
  Homage to thee, O Chief of Amentet, thou god Osiris, who dwellest in 
the town of Nifu-ur. Grant thou that I may arrive in peace in Amentet. 
May the Lords of Ta-Tchesert receive me, and may they say unto me:    
"Hail, hail; welcome, welcome!" May they make ready for me a seat by  
the side of the President of the Chiefs; may the Nursing-goddesses    
receive me at the seasons, and may I come forth into the presence of  
Un-Nefer true of word. May I be a Follower of Horus in Ra-stau, and of 
Osiris in Tetu; and may I perform all the transformations which my    
heart may desire to make in every place wherein my Double (KA) wisheth 
to be.                                                                 
    
-                                                                      
    
  RUBRIC: If this text be known [by the deceased] upon earth or if    
he causeth it to be done in writing upon [his] coffin, then will he be 
able to come forth on any day he pleaseth, and to enter into his      
habitation unrepulsed. Cakes and ale and joints of meat from those    
which are on the altar of Ra shall be given unto him, and his         
homestead shall be among the fields of the Field of Reeds(Sekhet-Aaru),
and wheat and barley shall be given unto him therein, and he shall
flourish there even as he flourished upon earth.               
                                                                       
    
2750

                               APPENDIX 
  (From the Papyrus of Nekhtu-Amen, ed. Naville, I, 5)                 
     
  THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE SAHU TO ENTER THE TUAT ON THE DAY OF THE  
FUNERAL, WHEN THE FOLLOWING WORDS ARE TO BE SAID: Homage to thee, O   
thou who dwellest in the Holy Hill (Set-Tchesert) of Amentet! the     
Osiris, the royal scribe, Nekhtu-Amen, whose word is true, knoweth    
thee, he knoweth thy name. Deliver thou him from the worms which are  
in Ra-stau, which live upon the bodies of men and women, and feed upon 
their blood, for Osiris, the favoured servant of the god of his       
city, the royal scribe Nekhtu-Amen, knoweth you, and he knoweth your  
names. Let the order for his protection be the first command of       
Osiris, the Lord to the Uttermost Limit, who keepeth his body         
hidden. May he give him release from the Terrible One who dwelleth    
at the bend of the River of Amentet, and may he decree the acts that  
will make him to rise up. Let him pass on to him whose throne is      
placed within the darkness, who giveth light in Ra-stau. O thou Lord  
of Light, come thou and swallow up the worms which are in Amentet. Let 
the Great God who dwelleth in Tetu, and who is himself unseen, hear   
his prayers, and let those who cause afflictions hold him in fear as  
he cometh forth with the sentence of their doom to the Divine Block. I 
the Osiris, the royal scribe, Nekhtu-Amen, come, bearing the decree of 
Neb-er-tcher, and I am the Horus who taketh possession of his throne  
for him. His father, the lord of all those who are in the Boat of     
his Father Horus, hath ascribed praise unto him. He cometh bearing    
tidings....... let him see the town of Anu. Their chief shall stand on 
the earth before him, the scribes shall magnify him at the doors of   
their assemblies, and thy shall swathe im with swathings in Anu. He   
hath led heaven captive, and he hath seized the earth in his grasp.   
Neither the heavens nor the earth can be taken away from him, for,    
behold, he is Ra, the firstborn of the gods. His mother shall nurse   
him, and shall give him her breast on the horizon.                     
    
-                                                                      
    
  RUBRIC: The words of this Chapter shall be said after [the deceased] 
is laid to rest in Amentet; by means of them the region Tenn-t shall  
be contented with her lord. And the Osiris, the royal scribe,         
Nekhtu-Amen, whose word is truth, shall come forth, and he shall      
embark in the Boat of Ra, and [his] body upon its bier shall be       
counted up, and he shall be established in the Tuat.                   
    
                         GIVING A MOUTH TO ANI 

  THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A MOUTH TO THE OSIRIS ANI, THE SCRIBE, AND    
TELLER OF THE OFFERINGS WHICH ARE MADE TO ALL THE GODS, WHOSE WORD    
IS TRUE, WHO SAITH:- I rise up out of the Egg in the Hidden Land.     
May my mouth be given unto me that I may speak therewith in the       
presence of the Great God, the Lord of the Tuat. Let not my hand and  
my arm be repulsed in the presence of the Chiefs (Tchatchau) of any   
god. I am Osiris, the Lord of Ra-stau. May I, the Osiris, the scribe  
Ani, whose word is true, have my portion with him who is on the top of 
the Steps (Osiris). According to the desire of my heart I have come   
forth from the Island of Nesersert, and I have extinguished the fire.  
    
                                                                       
    
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2751

                               APPENDIX 
  [The following passage is taken from the Saite Recension]            
    
-                                                                      
    
  [THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A MOUTH TO THE OSIRIS, THE SCRIBE ANI, WHO   
SAITH]:- Homage to thee, O thou lord of brightness, Governor of the   
Temple, Prince of the night and of the thick darkness. I have come    
unto thee. I am shining, I am pure. My hands are about thee, thou hast 
thy lot with thy ancestors. Give thou unto me my mouth that I may     
speak with it. I guide my heart at its season of flame and of night.   
    
-                                                                      
    
  RUBRIC: If this Chapter be known by the Osiris the scribe Ani,      
upon earth, [or if it be done] in writing upon [his] coffin, he       
shall come forth by day in every form which he pleaseth, and he       
shall enter into [his] abode, and shall not be repulsed. And cakes,   
and ale, and joints of meat [from those which are on] the altar of    
Osiris shall be given unto him; and he shall enter in peace into      
Sekhet-Aaru, conformably to the decree of the Dweller in Busiris.     
Wheat and barley (dhura) shall be given unto him therein, and he shall 
flourish there just as he did upon earth; and he shall do whatsoever  
it pleaseth him to do, even as do the Company of the Gods who are in  
the Tuat, regularly and continually, for millions of times.            
    
                                                     
                   {GIVING A MOUTH TO ANI|APPENDIX 

                 (From the Paprys of Nebseni, Sheet 3)

  THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY AND OF OPENING UP A WAY THROUGH  
THE AMEHET: Behold, the scribe Nebseni, whose word is truth, saith:-  
Homage to you, O ye Lords of Kau, ye who are without sin, and who live 
for the endless and infinite aeons of time which make up eternity. I  
have opened up a way for myself to you. I have become a spirit in my  
forms, I have gotten the mastery over my words of magical power, and I 
am adjudged a spirit; therefore deliver ye me from the Crocodile      
[which liveth in] this Country of Truth. Grant ye to me my mouth      
that I may speak therewith, and cause ye that sepulchral offerings    
shall be made unto me in your presence, for I know you, and I know    
your names, and I know also the name of the mighty god before whose   
face ye set your celestial food. His name is "Tekem." [When] he       
openeth up his path on the eastern horizon of heaven, [when] he       
alighteth towards the western horizon of heaven, may he carry me along 
with him, and may I be safe and sound. Let not the Mesqet make an     
end of me, let not the Fiend (Sebau) gain the mastery over me, let    
me not be driven away from the doors of the Other World, let not you  
doors be shut in my face, for my cakes are in the city of Pe, and my  
ale is in the city of Tep. And there, in the celestial mansions of    
heaven which my divine father Tem hath stablished, let my hands lay   
hold upon the wheat and the barley, which shall be given unto me      
therein in abundant measure, and may the son of my own body make ready 
for me my food therein. And grant ye unto me when I am there          
sepulchral meals, and incense, and unguents, and all the pure and     
beautiful things whereon the god liveth, in every deed for ever, in   
all the transformations which it pleaseth me [to perform], and grant  
unto me the power to float down and to sail up the stream in the Field 
2752

of Reeds (Sekhet-Aaru), [and may I reach Sekhet-hetepet (the Field    
of Offerings)]. I am the twin Lion-gods (Shu and Tefnut).              
    
                     WEIGHING OF THE HEART OF ANI 
          TEXTS RELATING TO THE WEIGHING OF THE HEART OF ANI
-                                                                      
    
  THE NAMES OF THE GODS OF THE GREAT COMPANY:- 1. Ra Harmakhis, the   
Great God in his boat. 2. Temu. 3. Shu. 4. Tefnut. 5. Keb. 6. Nut, the 
Lady of Heaven. 7. Isis. 8. Nephthys. 9. Horus, the Great God. 10.    
Hathor, Lady of Amentet. 11. Hu. 12. Sa.                               
    
      
  THE PRAYER OF ANI:- My heart, my mother; my heart, my mother! My    
heart whereby I came into being! May nought stand up to oppose me at  
[my] judgment, may there be no opposition to me in the presence of the 
Chiefs (Tchatchau); may there be no parting of thee from me in the    
presence of him that keepeth the Balance! Thou art my KA, which       
dwelleth in my body; the god Khnemu who knitteth together and         
happiness whither we go. May the Sheniu officials, who make the       
conditions of the lives of men, not cause my name to stink, and may no 
lies be spoken against me in the presence of the God. [Let it be      
satisfactory unto us, and let the Listener god be favourable unto     
us, and let there be joy of heart (to us) at the weighing of words.   
Let not that which is false be uttered against me before the Great    
God, the Lord of Amentet. Verily, how great shalt thou be when thou   
risest in triumph.]                                                    
    
  THE SPEECH OF THOTH:- Thoth, the judge of right and truth of the    
Great Company of the Gods who are in the presence of Osiris, saith:   
Hear ye this judgment. The heart of Osiris hath in very truth been    
weighed, and his Heart-soul hath borne testimony on his behalf; his   
heart hath been found right by the trial in the Great Balance. There  
hath not been found any wickedness in him; he hath not wasted the     
offerings which have been made in the temples; he hath not committed  
any evil act; and he hath not set his mouth in motion with words of   
evil whilst he was upon earth.                                         
    
  SPEECH OF THE DWELLER IN THE EMBALMMENT CHAMBER (ANUBIS):- Pay      
good heed, O righteous Judge to the Balance to support [the testimony] 
thereof. Variant: Pay good heed to the weighing in the Balance of     
the heart of the Osiris, the singing-woman of Amen, Anhai, whose      
word is truth, and place thou her heart in the seat of truth in the   
presence of the Great God.                                             
    
  THE SPEECH OF THE GODS:- The Great Company of the Gods say to       
Thoth who dwelleth in Khemenu: That which cometh forth from thy       
mouth shall be declared true. The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is 
true, is holy and righteous. He hath not committed any sin, and he    
hath done no evil against us. The devourer Am-mit shall not be        
permitted to prevail over him. Meat offerings and admittance into     
the presence of the god Osiris shall be granted unto him, together    
with an abiding habitation in the Field of Offerings (Sekhet-hetepet), 
as unto the Followers of Horus.                                        
  THE SPEECH OF HORUS TO OSIRIS IN INTRODUCING ANI TO HIM:- Horus, the 
son of Isis, saith: I have come to thee, O Un-Nefer, and I have       
brought unto thee the Osiris Ani. His heart is righteous, and it      
hath come forth from the Balance; it hath not sinned against any god  
2753

or any goddess. Thoth hath weighed it according to the decree         
pronounced unto him by the Company of the Gods, and it is most true   
and righteous. Grant thou that cakes and ale may be given unto him,   
and let him appear in the presence of the god Osiris, and let him be  
like unto the Followers of Horus for ever and ever.                    
    
  THE SPEECH OF ANI:- And the Osiris Ani saith: Behold, I am in thy   
presence, O Lord of Amentet. There is no sin in my body. I have not   
spoken that which is not true knowingly, nor have I done anything with 
a false heart. Grant thou that I may be like unto those favoured      
ones who are in thy following, and that I may be an Osiris greatly    
favoured of the beautiful god, and beloved of the Lord of the Two     
Lands, I who am a veritable royal scribe who loveth thee, Ani, whose  
word is true before the god Osiris.                                    
    
  DESCRIPTION OF THE BEAST AM-MIT:- Her forepart is like that of a    
crocodile, the middle of her body is like that of a lion, her hind    
quarters are like those of a hippopotamus.                             
    
                        PRAISES AND GLORIFYINGS 

HERE BEGIN THE PRAISES AND GLORIFYINGS OF COMING OUT FROM AND OF      
GOING INTO THE GLORIOUS KHERT-NETER, WHICH IS IN THE BEAUTIFUL        
AMENTET, OF COMING FORTH BY DAY IN ALL THE FORMS OF EXISTENCE WHICH IT 
MAY PLEASE THE DECEASED TO TAKE, OF PLAYING AT DRAUGHTS, OF SITTING IN 
THE SEH HALL, AND OF APPEARING AS A LIVING SOUL:                       
    
  The Osiris the scribe Ani saith after he hath arrived in his haven  
of rest- now it is good for [a man] to recite [this work whilst he is] 
upon earth, for then all the words of Tem come to pass-                
    
  "I am the god Tem in rising. I am the Only One. I came into         
existence in Nu. I am Ra who rose in the beginning, the ruler of      
this [creation]."                                                      
 Who is this?                                                          
   
  "It is Ra, when at the beginning he rose in the city of Hensu,      
crowned like a king for his coronation. The Pillars of the god Shu    
were not as yet created, when he was upon the steps of him that       
dwelleth in Khemenu.                                                   
    
  "I am the Great God who created himself, even Nu, who made his names 
to become the Company of the Gods as gods."                            
    
  Who is this?                                                         
     
  "It is Ra, the creator of the names of his limbs, which came into   
being in the form of the gods who are in the train of Ra.              
    
  "I am he who cannot be repulsed among the gods."                     
     
  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "It is Temu, the dweller in his disk, but others say that it is Ra  
when he riseth in the eastern horizon of the sky.                      
    
  "I am Yesterday, I know To-day."                                     
    
2754

  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "Yesterday is Osiris, and To-day is Ra, when he shall destroy the   
enemies of Neb-er-tcher (the lord to the uttermost limit), and when he 
shall establish as prince and ruler his son Horus.                     
    
  "Others, however, say that To-day is Ra, on the day when we         
commemorate the festival of the meeting of the dead Osiris with his   
father Ra, and when the battle of the gods was fought, in which       
Osiris, the Lord of Amentet, was the leader."                          
 What is this?                                                         
   
  "It is Amentet, [that is to say] the creation ofthe souls of the    
gods when Osiris was leader in Set-Amentet.                            
    
  "Others, however, say that it is the Amentet which Ra hath given    
unto me; when any god cometh he must rise up and fight for it.         
    
  "I know the god who dwelleth therein."                               
  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "It is Osiris. Others, however, say that his name is Ra, and that   
the god who dwelleth in Amentet is the phallus of Ra, wherewith he had 
union with himself.                                                    
    
  "I am the Benu bird which is in Anu. I am the keeper of the volume  
of the book (the Tablet of Destiny) of the things which have been     
made, and of the things which shall be made."                          
    
  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "It is Osiris.                                                       
    
  "Others, however, say that it is the dead body of Osiris, and yet   
others say that it is the excrement of Osiris. The things which have  
been made, and the things which shall be made [refer to] the dead body 
of Osiris. Others again say that the things which have been made are  
Eternity, and the things which shall be made are Everlastingness,     
and that Eternity is the Day, and Everlastingness the Night.           
    
  "I am the god Menu in his coming forth; may his two plumes be set on 
my head for me."                                                       
    
  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "Menu is Horis, the Advocate of his father [Osiris], and his        
coming forth means his birth. The two plumes on his head are Isis     
and Nephthys, when these goddesses go forth and set themselves        
thereon, and when they act as his protectors, and when they provide   
that which his head lacketh.                                           
    
  "Others, however, say that the two plumes are the two exceedingly   
large uraei which are upon the head of their father Tem, and there are 
yet others who say that the two plumes which are upon the head of Menu 
are his two eyes.                                                      
    
  "The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is true, the registrar of all 
the offerings which are made to the gods, riseth up and cometh into   
2755

his city."                                                             
    
  What is this [city]?                                                 
    
  "It is the horizon of his father Tem.                                
    
  "I have made an end of my shortcomings, and I have put away my      
faults."                                                               
    
  What is this?                                                        
    
  "It is the cutting of the navel string of the body of the Osiris the 
scribe Ani, whose word is true before all the gods, and all his faults 
are driven out.                                                        
    
  What is this ?                                                       
    
  "It is the purification [of Osiris] on the day of his birth.         
    
  "I am purified in my great double nest which is in Hensu on the     
day of the offerings of the followers of the Great God who dwelleth   
therein."                                                              
    
  What is the "great double nest"?                                     
    
  "The name of one nest is 'Millions of years,' and 'Great Green      
[Sea]' is the name of the other, that is to say 'Lake of Natron' and  
'Lake of Salt.'                                                        
    
  "Others, however, say the name of the one is 'Guide of Millions of  
Years,' and that 'Great Green Lake' is name of the other. Yet others  
say that 'Begetter of Millions of Years' is the name of one, and      
'Great Green Lake' is the name of the other. Now, as concerning the   
Great God who dwelleth therein, it is Ra himself.                      
    
  "I pass over the way, I know the head of the Island of Maati."       
     
  What is this?                                                        
    
  "It is Ra-stau, that is to say, it is the gate to the South of      
Nerutef, and it is the Northern Gate of the Domain (Tomb of the god).  
    
  "Now, as concerning the Island of Maati, it is Abtu.                 
    
  "Others, however, say that it is the way by which Father Tem        
travelleth when he goeth forth to Sekhet-Aaru, [the place] which      
produceth the food and sustenance of the gods who are [in] their      
shrines.                                                               
    
  "Now the Gate Tchesert is the Gate of the Pillars of Shu, that is to 
say, the Northern Gate of the Tuat.                                    
 "Others, however, say that the Gate of Tchesert is the two leaves of 
the door through which the god Tem passeth when he goeth forth to     
the eastern horizon of the sky.                                        
    
  "O ye gods who are in the presence [of Osiris], grant to me your    
arms, for I am the god who shall come into being among you."           
    
2756

  Who are these gods?                                                  
    
  "They are the drops of blood which came forth from the phallus of Ra 
when he went forth to perform his own mutilitation. These drops of    
blood sprang into being under the forms of the gods Hu and Sa, who are 
in the bodyguard of Ra, and who accompany the god Tem daily and       
every day.                                                             
    
  "I, Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, have filled for thee 
the utchat (the Eye of Ra, or of Horus), when it had suffered         
extinction on the day of the combat of the Two Fighters (Horus and    
Set)."                                                                 
    
  What was this combat?                                                
    
  It was the combat which took place on the day when Horus fought with 
Set, during which Set threw filth in the face of Horus, and Horus     
crushed the genitals of Set. The filling of the utchat Thoth performed 
with his own fingers.                                                  
    
  "I remove the thunder-cloud from the sky when there is a storm      
with thunder and lightning therein."                                   
    
  What is this?                                                        
    
  "This storm was the raging of Ra at the thunder-cloud which [Set]   
sent forth against the Right Eye of Ra (the Sun). Thoth removed the   
thunder-cloud from the Eye of Ra, and brought back the Eye living,    
healthy, sound, and with no defect in it to its owner.                 
    
  "Others, however, say that the thunder-cloud is caused by sickness  
in the Eye of Ra, which weepeth for its companion Eye (the Moon); at  
this time Thoth cleanseth the Right Eye of Ra.                         
    
  "I behold Ra who was born yesterday from the thighs of the goddess  
Mehurt; his strength is my strength, and my strength is his strength." 
    
  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "Mehurt is the great Celestial Water, but others say that Mehurt    
is the image of the Eye of Ra at dawn at his birth daily.              
    
  "[Others, however, say that] Mehurt is the utchat of Ra.             
    
  "Now Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, is a very great one 
among the gods who are in the following of Horus; they say that he    
is the prince who loveth his lord."                                    
    
  Who are the gods who are in the train of Horus?                      
    
  "[They are] Kesta, Hapi, Taumutef, and Qebhsenuf.                    
    
  "Homage to you, O ye lords of right and truth, ye sovereign         
princes (Tchatcha) who [stand] round about Osiris, who do away utterly 
sins and offences, and who are in the following of the goddess        
Hetepsekhus, grant ye that I may come unto you. Destroy ye all the    
faults which are within me, even as ye did for the Seven Spirits who  
are among the followers of their lord Sepa. Anpu (Anubis) appointed to 
2757

them their places on the day [when he said unto them], "Come ye       
hither."                                                               
    
  Who are the "lords of right and truth"?                              
    
  "The lords of right and truth are Thoth and Astes, the Lord of      
Amentet.                                                               
    
  "The Tchatcha round about Osiris are Kesta, Hapi, Tuamutef, and     
Qebhsenuf, and they are also round about the Constellation of the     
Thigh (the Great Bear), in the northern sky.                           
    
  "Those who do away utterly sins and offences, and who are in the    
following of the goddess Hetepsekhus, are the god Sebek and his       
associates who dwell in the water.                                     
    
  "The goddess Hetepsekhus is the Eye of Ra.                           
    
  "Others, however, say that it is the flame which accompanieth Osiris 
to burn up the souls of his enemies.                                   
    
  "As concerning all the faults which are in Osiris, the registrar    
of the offerings which are made unto all the gods, Ani, whose word    
is truth, [these are all the offences which he hath committed         
against the Lords of Eternity] since he came forth from his mother's  
womb.                                                                  
    
  "As concerning the Seven Spirits who are Kesta, Hapi, Tuamutef,     
Qebhsenuf, Maa-atef, Kheribeqef and Heru-khenti-en-ariti, these did   
Anubis appoint to be protectors of the dead body of Osiris.            
    
  "Others, however, say that he set them round about the holy place of 
Osiris.                                                                
    
  "Others say that the Seven Spirits [which were appointed by         
Anubis] were Netcheh-netcheh, Aatqetqet, Nertanef-besef-khenti-hehf,  
Aq-her-ami-unnut-f, Tesher-ariti-ami-Het-anes,                        
Ubes-her-per-em-khetkhet, and Maaem-kerh-annef-em-hru.                 
    
  "The chief of the Tchatcha (sovereign princes) who is in Naarutef is 
Horus, the Advocate of his father.                                     
    
  "As concerning the day wherein [Anubis said to the Seven Spirits],  
'Come ye hither,' [the allusion here] is to the words 'Come ye        
hither,' which Ra spake unto Osiris."                                  
    
  Verily may these same words be said unto me in Amentet.              
    
  "I am the Divine Soul which dwelleth in the Divine Twin-gods."       
    
  Who is this Divine Soul?                                             
    
  "It is Osiris. [When] he goeth into Tetu, and findeth there the Soul 
of Ra, the one god embraceth the other, and two Divine Souls spring   
into being within the Divine Twin-gods."                               
    
                                                                       
    
2758

                               APPENDIX 
(From the Papyrus of Nebseni, Brit. Mus. No. 9900, Sheet 14, ll.      
16ff.)                                                                 
    
  "As concerning the Divine Twin-gods they are Heru-netch-her-tefef   
and Heru-khent-en-Ariti (Horus the Advocate of his father [Osiris],   
and Horus the sightless).                                              
    
  "Others say that the double Divine Soul which dwelleth in the Divine 
Twin-gods is the Soul of Ra and the Soul of Osiris, and yet others say 
that it is the Soul which dwelleth in Shu, and the Sould which        
dwelleth in Tefnut, and that these two Souls form the double Divine   
Soul which dwelleth in Tetu.                                           
    
  "I am the Cat which fought near the Persea Tree in Anu on the       
night when the foes of Neb-er-tcher were destroyed."                   

  Who is this Cat?                                                     
    
  "This male Cat is Ra himself, and he was called 'Mau' because of the 
speech of the god Sa, who said concerning him: 'He is like (mau)      
unto that which he hath made'; therefore, did the name of Ra become   
'Mau.'                                                                 
    
  "Others, however, say that the male Cat is the god Shu, who made    
over the possessions of Keb to Osiris.                                 
    
  "As concerning the fight which took place near the Persea Tree in   
Anu [these words have reference to the slaughter] of the children of  
rebellion, when righteous retribution was meted out to them for [the  
evil] which they had done.                                             
    
  "As concerning the 'night of the battle,' [these words refer to] the 
invasion of the eastern portion of the heaven by the children of      
rebellion, whereupon a great battle arose in heaven and in all the    
earth.                                                                 
    
  "O thou who art in thine egg (Ra,) who showest from thy Disk, who   
risest on thy horizon, and dost shine with golden beams in the        
height of heaven, like unto whom there is none among the gods, who    
sailest above the Pillars of Shu, who sendest forth blasts of fire    
from thy mouth, [who illuminest the Two Lands with thy splendour,     
deliver] thou Nebseni, the lord of fealty [to Osiris], from the god   
whose form is hidden, and whose eyebrows are like unto the two arms of 
the Balance on the night when the sentences of doom are promulgated."  
    
  Who is this invisible god?                                           
    
  "It is An-a-f (he who bringeth his arm.).                            
    
  "As concerning 'the night when the sentences of doom are            
promulgated,' it is the night of the burning of the damned, and of the 
overthrow of the wicked at the Block, and of the slaughter of souls."  
  Who is this [slaughterer of souls]?                                  
    
  "It is Shesmu, the headsman of Osiris.                               
    
  "[Concerning the invisible god] some say that he is Aapep when he   
2759

riseth up with a head bearing upon it [the feather of] Maat (Truth).  
But others say that he is Horus when he riseth up with two heads,     
whereon one beareth [the feather of] Maat, and the other [the symbol  
of] wickedness. He bestoweth wickedness on him that worketh           
wickedness, and right and truth upon him that followeth               
righteousness and truth.                                               
    
  "Others say that he is Heru-ur (the Old Horus), who dwelleth in     
Sekhem; others say that he is Thoth; others say that he is            
Nefer-Tem; and others say that he is Sept who doth bring to nought the 
acts of the foes of Nebertcher.                                        
    
  "Deliver thou the scribe Nebseni, whose word is truth, from the     
Watchers, who carry murderous knives, who possess cruel fingers, and  
who would slay those who are in the following of Osiris."              
    
  May these Watchers never gain the mastery over me, and may I never  
fall under their knives!                                               
    

  Who are these Watchers?                                              
    
  "They are Anubis and Horus, [the latter being] in the form of       
Horus the sightless. Others, however, say that they are the Tchatcha  
(sovereign princes of Osiris), who bring to nought the operations of  
their knives; and others say that they are the chiefs of the Sheniu   
chamber.                                                               
    
  "May their knives never gain the mastery over me. May I never fall  
under the knives wherewith they inflict cruel tortures. For I know    
their names, and I know the being, Matchet, who is among them in the  
House of Osiris. He shooteth forth rays of light from his eye, being  
himself invisible, and he goeth round about heaven robed in the flames 
which come from his mouth, commanding Hapi, but remaining invisible   
himself. May I be strong on earth before Ra, may I arrive safely in   
the presence of Osiris. O ye who preside over your altars, let not    
your offerings to me be wanting, for I am one of those who follow     
after Nebertcher, according to the writings of Khepera. Let me fly    
like a hawk, let me cackle like a goose, let me lay always like the   
serpent-goddess Neheb-ka."                                             
    
  Who are those who preside over their altars?                         
    
  "Those who preside over their altars are the similitude of the Eye  
of Ra, and the similitude of the Eye of Horus.                         
    
  "O Ra-Tem, thou Lord of the Great House [in Anu], thou Sovereign    
(life, strentgh, health [be to thee]) of all the gods, deliver thou   
the scribe Nebseni, whose word is truth, from the god whose face is   
like unto that of a greyhound, whose brows are like those of a man,   
who feedeth upon the dead, who watcheth at the Bend of the Lake of    
Fire, who devoureth the bodies of the dead, and swalloweth hearts, and 
who voideth filth, but who himself remaineth unseen."                  
    
  Who is this greyhound-faced god?                                     
    
  "His name is 'Everlasting Devourer,' and he liveth in the Domain [of 
Fire] (the Lake of Unt).                                               
2760
    
  "As concerning the Domain of Fire, it is that Aat which is in       
Naarutef, and is near the Sheniu chamber. The sinner who walketh      
over this place falleth down among the knives [of the Watchers].       
    
  "Others, however, say that the name of this god is 'Mates,' and that 
he keepeth watch over the door of Amentet; others say that his name is 
'Beba,' and that he keepeth watch over the Bend [of the stream] of    
Amentet, and yet others say that his name is 'Herisepef.'              
    
  "Hail, Lord of Terror, Chief of the Lands of the South and North,   
thou Lord of the Desert, who dost keep prepared the block of          
slaughter, and who dost feed on the intestines [of men]!"              
    
  Who is this Lord of Terror?                                          
    
  "It is the Keeper of the Bend [of the stream] of Amentet."           
    
  Who is this Keeper?                                                  
    
  "It is the Heart of Osiris, which is the devourer of all slaughtered 
things.                                                                
    
  "The Urrt Crown hath been given unto him, with gladness of heart, as 
Lord of Hensu."                                                        
    
  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "He to whom the Urrt Crown hath been given with gladness of heart as 
Lord of Hensu is Osiris. He was bidden to rule among the gods on the  
day of the union of earth [with earth] in the presence of Nebertcher." 
    
  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "He who was bidden to rule among the gods is the son of Isis        
(Horus), who was appointed to rule in the room of his father Osiris.   
    
  "As concerning [the words] 'day of the union of earth with earth,'  
they have reference to the union of earth with earth in the coffin    
of Osiris, the Soul that liveth in Hensu, the giver of meat and drink, 
the destroyer of wrong, and the guide to the everlasting paths."       
    
  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "It is Ra himself."                                                  
    
  "[Deliver thou the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth]      
from the great god who carrrieth away souls, who eateth hearts, who   
feedeth upon offal, who keepeth watch in the darkness, who dwelleth in 
the Seker Boat; those who live in sin fear him."                       
    
  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "It is Suti, but others say that it is Smamur, the soul of Keb.      
    
  "Hail, Khepera in thy boat, the two Companies of the Gods are in thy 
body. Deliver thou the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth,    
from the Watchers who pass sentences of doom, who have been           
appointed by the god Nebertcher to protect him, and to fasten the     
2761

fetters on his foes, and who slaughter in the torture chambers;       
there is no escape from their fingers. May they never stab me with    
their knives, may I never fall helpless into their chambers of        
torture. I have never done the things which the gods hate. I am he who 
is pure in the Mesqet chamber. And saffron cakes have been brought    
unto him in Tannt."                                                    
    
  Who is this?                                                         
    
  "It is Khepera in his boat; it is Ra himself.                        
    
  "As concerning the Watchers who pass sentences of doom, they are the 
Apes Isis and Nephthys.                                                
    
  "As concerning the things which the gods hate, they are acts of     
deceit and lying. He who passeth through the place of purification    
within the Mesqet chamber is Anpu (Anubis), who is hard by the        
coffer which containeth the inward parts of Osiris. He to whom saffron 
cakes have been brought in Tannt is Osiris.                            
    
  "Others, however, say that the saffron cakes in Tannt represent     
heaven and earth, and others say that they represent Shu, the         
strengthener of the Two Lands in Hensu; and others say that they      
represent the Eye of Horus, and that Tannt is the burial-place of     
Osiris.                                                                
    
  "Tem hath builded thy house, and the double Lion-god hath laid the  
foundations of thy habitation. Lo! medicaments have been brought.     
Horus purifieth Set and Set strengtheneth, and Set purifieth and Horus 
strengtheneth.                                                         
    
  "The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth before Osiris,      
hath come into this land, and he hath taken possession thereof with   
his two feet. He is Tem, and he is in the city.                        
    
  "Turn thou back, O Rehu, whose mouth shineth, whose head moveth,    
turn thou back before his strength." Another reading is, 'Turn thou   
back from him who keepeth watch, and is himself unseen.' Let the      
Osiris Ani be safely guarded. He is Isis, and he is found with her    
hair spread over him; it is shaken out over his brow. He was conceived 
by Isis, and engendered by Nephthys, and they have cut away from him  
the things which should be cut from him.                               
    
  "Fear followeth after thee, terror is about thine arms. Thou hast   
been embraced for millions of years by arms; mortals go round about   
thee. Thou smitest down the mediators of thy foes, and thou seizest   
the arms of the power of darkness. Thy two sisters (Isis and Nephthys) 
are given to thee for thy delight. Thou hast created that which is    
in Kher-aha, and that which is Anu. Every god feareth thee, for thou  
art exceedingly great and terrible; thou [avengest] every god on the  
man who curseth him, and thou shootest arrows at him. Thou livest     
according to thy will. Thou art Uatchet, the Lady of Flame, evil      
befalleth those who set themselves up against thee."                   
    
  What is this?                                                        
  "'Hidden in form, given of Menhu,' is the name of the "tomb. 'He who 
seeth what is on his hand' is the name of Qerau, or, as others say, it 
is the name of the Block.                                              
2762
    
  "Now, he whose mouth shineth and whose head moveth is the phallus of 
Osiris, but others say it is [the phallus] of Ra. 'Thou spreadest     
thy hair, and I shake it out over his brow" is said concerning Isis,  
who hideth in her hair, and draweth it round about her.                
    
  "Uatchet, the Lady of Flames, is the Eye of Ra."                     
    
                            THE SEVEN ARITS 
  The First Arit.                                                      
    
  The name of the Doorkeeper is Sekhet-her-asht-aru. The name of the  
Watcher is Smetti. The name of the Herald is Hakheru.                  
    
  The Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, shall say when he cometh unto  
the First Arit: "I am the mighty one who createth his own light. I    
have come unto thee, O Osiris, and, purified from that which          
defileth thee, I adore thee. Lead on. Name not the name of Ra-stau    
to me. Homage to thee, O Osiris, in thy might and in thy strength in  
Ra-stau. Rise up and conquer, O Osiris, in Abtu. Thou goest round     
about heaven, thou sailest in the presence of Ra, thou lookest upon   
all the beings who have knowledge. Hail, Ra, thou who goest round     
about in the sky, I say, O Osiris in truth, that I am the Sahu         
    
(Spirit-body) of the god, and I beseech thee not to let me be driven  
away, nor to be cast upon the wall of blazing fire. Let the way be    
opened in Ra-stau, let the pain of the Osiris be relieved, embrace    
that which the Balance hath weighed, let a path be made for the Osiris 
in the Great Valley, and let the Osiris have light to guide him on his 
way."                                                                  
    
  The Second Arit.                                                     
  The name of the Doorkeeper is Unhat. The name of the Watcher is     
Seqt-her. The name of the Herald is Ust.                               
    
  The Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, shall say [when he cometh to   
this Arit]: "He sitteth to carry out his heart's desire, and he       
weigheth words as the Second of Thoth. The strength which protecteth  
Thoth humbleth the hidden Maati gods, who feed upon Maat during the   
years of their lives. I offer up my offerings [to him] at the moment  
when he maketh his way. I advance, and I enter on the path. O grant   
thou that I may continue to advance, and that I may attain to the     
sight of Ra, and of those who offer up [their] offerings."             
    
  The Third Arit.                                                      
    
  The name of the Doorkeeper is Unem-hauatu-ent-pehui. The name of the 
Watcher is Seres-her. The name of the Herald is Aa.                    
    
  The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, shall say [when he  
cometh to this Arit]: "I am he who is hidden in the great deep. I am  
the Judge of the Rehui, I have come and I have done away the offensive 
thing which was upon Osiris. I tie firmly the place on which he       
standeth, coming forth from the Urt. I have stablished things in Abtu, 
I have opened up a way through Ra-stau, and I have relieved the pain  
which was in Osiris. I have balanced the place whereon he standeth,   
and I have made a path for him; he shineth brilliantly in Ra-stau."    
    
  The Fourth Arit.                                                     
2763
    
  The name of the Doorkeeper is Khesef-her-asht-kheru. The name of the 
Watcher is Seres-tepu. The name of the Herald is Khesef-at.            
    
  The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, shall say [when he  
cometh to this Arit]: "I am the Bull, the son of the ancestress of    
Osiris. O grant ye that his father, the Lord of his god-like          
companions, may bear witness on his behalf. I have weighed the        
guilty in judgment. I have brought unto his nostrils the life which is 
ever lasting. I am the son of Osiris, I have accomplished the journey, 
I have advanced in Khert-Neter."                                       
    
  The Fifth Arit.                                                      
    
  The name of the Doorkeeper is Ankhf-em-fent. The name of the Watcher 
is Shabu. The name of the Herald is Teb-her-kha-kheft.                 
  The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, shall say [when he  
cometh to this Arit]: "I have brought unto thee the jawbone in        
Ra-stau. I have brought unto thee thy backbone in Anu. I have gathered 
together his manifold members therein. I have driven back Aapep for   
thee. I have spit upon the wounds [in his body]. I have made myself   
a path among you. I am the Aged One among the gods. I have made       
offerings to Osiris. I have defended him with the word of truth. I    
have gathered together his bones, and have collected all his members." 
  The Sixth Arit.                                                      
    
  The name of the Doorkeeper is Atek-tau-kehaq-kheru. The name of     
the Watcher is An-her. The name of the Herald is Ates-her-[ari]-she.   
  The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, shall say [when he  
cometh to this Arit]: "I have come daily, I have come daily. I have   
made myself a way. I have advanced over that which was created by Anpu 
(Anubis). I am the Lord of the Urrt Crown. I am the possessor [of     
the knowledge of] the words of magical power, I am the Avenger        
according to law, I have avenged [the injury to] his Eye. I have      
defended Osiris. I have accomplished my journey. The Osiris Ani       
advanceth with you with the word which is truth."                      
    
  The Seventh Arit:                                                    
    
  The name of the Doorkeeper is Sekhmet-em-tsu-sen. The name of the   
Watcher is Aa-maa-kheru. The name of the Herald is Khesef-khemi.       
    
  The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, shall say [when he  
cometh to this Arit]: "I have come unto thee, O Osiris, being purified 
from foul emissions. Thou goest round about heaven, thou seest Ra,    
thou seest the beings who have knowledge. [Hail], thou, ONE! Behold,  
thou art in the Sektet Boat which traverseth the heavens. I speak what 
I will to his Sahu (Spirit-body). He is strong, and cometh into       
being even [as] he spake. Thou meetest him face to face. Prepare      
thou for me all the ways which are good [and which lead] to thee."     
    
  RUBRIC: If [these] words be recited by the spirit when he shall come 
to the Seven Arits, and as he entereth the doors, he shall neither    
be turned back nor repulsed before Osiris, and he shall be made to    
have his being among the blessed spirits, and to have dominion among  
the ancestral followers of Osiris. If these things be done for any    
spirit he shall have his being in that place like a lord of eternity  
in one body with Osiris, and at no place shall any being contend      
against him.                                                           
2764
    
                   THE PYLONS OF THE HOUSE OF OSIRIS 

  The following shall be said when one cometh to the FIRST PYLON.     
The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith: "Lady of       
tremblings, high-walled, the sovereign lady, the lady of              
destruction, who uttereth the words which drive back the destroyers,  
who delivereth from destruction him that cometh." The name of her     
Doorkeeper is Neruit.                                                  
    
  The following shall be said when one cometh to the SECOND PYLON. The 
Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith: "Lady of heaven,   
Mistress of the Two Lands, devourer by fire, Lady of mortals, who     
art infinitely greater than any human being." The name of her         
Doorkeeper is Mes-Ptah.                                                
    
  The following shall be said when one cometh to the THIRD PYLON.     
The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith: "Lady of the   
Altar, the mighty lady to whom offerings are made, greatly beloved one 
of every god sailing up the river to Abydos." The name of her         
Doorkeeper is Sebqa.                                                   
    
  The following shall be said when one cometh to the FOURTH PYLON. The 
Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith: "Prevailer with    
knives, Mistress of the Two Lands, destroyer of the enemies of the    
Still-Heart (Osiris), who decreeth the release of those who suffer    
through evil hap." The name of her Doorkeeper is Nekau.                
    
  The following shall be said when one cometh to the FIFTH PYLON.     
The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith: "Flame, Lady of 
fire, absorbing the entreaties which are made to her, who permitteth  
not to approach her the rebel." The name of her Doorkeeper is         
Henti-Reqiu.                                                           
    
  The following shall be said when one cometh to the SIXTH PYLON.     
The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith: "Lady of light, 
who roareth mightily, whose breadth cannot be comprehended. Her like  
hath not been found since the beginning. There are serpents over which 
are unknown. They were brought forth before the Still-Heart." The name 
of her Doorkeeper is Semati.                                           
    
  The following shall be said when one cometh to the SEVENTH PYLON.   
The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith: "Garment       
which envelopeth the helpless one, which weepeth for and loveth that  
which it covereth." The name of her Doorkeeper is Saktif.              
    
  The following shall be said when one cometh to the EIGHTH PYLON. The 
Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith: "Blazing fire,     
unquenchable, with far-reaching tongues of flame, irresistible        
slaughterer, which one may not pass through fear of its deadly        
attack." The name of her Doorkeeper is Khutchetef.                     
    
  The following shall be said when one cometh to the NINTH PYLON.     
The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith:                
"Chieftainess, lady of strength, who giveth quiet of heart to the     
offspring of her lord. Her girth is three hundred and fifty khet,     
and she is clothed with green feldspar of the South. She bindeth up   
the divine form and clotheth the helpless one. Devourer, lady of all  
men." The name of her Doorkeeper is Arisutchesef.                      
2765
    
  The following shall be said when one cometh to the TENTH PYLON.     
The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith: "Goddess of the 
loud voice, who maketh her suppliants to mourn, the awful one who     
terrifieth, who herself remaineth unterrified within." The name of her 
Doorkeeper is Sekhenur.                                                
    
  Nu, the steward of the keeper of the seal, saith when he cometh to  
the ELEVENTH PYLON of Osiris: "I have made my way, I know you, and I  
know thy name, and I know the name of her who is within thee: She     
who slayeth always, consumer of the fiends by fire, mistress of       
every pylon, the lady who is acclaimed on the day of darkness" is     
thy name. She inspecteth the swathing of the helpless one.             
    
  The Osiris Nu, the steward of the keeper of the seal, saith when    
he cometh to the TWELFTH PYLON of Osiris: "I have made my way, I      
know you, and I know thy name, and I know the name of her who is      
within thee: Invoker of thy Two Lands, destroyer of those who come    
to thee by fire, lady of spirits, obeyer of the word of thy Lord" is  
thy name. She inspecteth the swathing of the helpless one.             
    
  The Osiris Nu, the steward of the keeper of the seal, saith when    
he cometh to the THIRTEENTH PYLON of Osiris: "I have made my way, I   
know you and I know thy name, and I know the name of her who is within 
thee: Osiris foldeth his arms about her, and maketh Hapi (the         
Nile-god), to emit splendour out of his hidden places" is thy name.   
She inspecteth the swathing of the helpless one.                       
    
  The Osiris Nu, the steward of the keeper of the seal, saith when    
he cometh to the FOURTEENTH PYLON of Osiris: "I have made my way, I   
know thee, and I know thy name, and I know the name of her who is     
within thee. Lady of might, who trampleth on the Red Demons, who      
keepeth the festival of Haaker on the day of the hearing of faults" is 
thy name. She inspecteth the swathing of the helpless one.             
    
  THE FIFTEENTH PYLON. The Osiris Heru-em-khebit, whose word is truth, 
shall say when he cometh to this pylon: "Fiend, red of hair and       
eyes, who appeareth by night, and doth fetter the fiend in his lair.  
Let her hands be given to the Still-Heart in his hour, let her advance 
and go forward" is thy name. She inspecteth the swathing of the       
helpless one.                                                          
    
  THE SIXTEENTH PYLON. The Osiris Heru-em-khebit, whose word is truth, 
shall say when he cometh to this pylon: "Terrible one, lady of the    
rain-storm, destroyer of the souls of men, devourer of the bodies of  
men, orderer, producer, and maker of slaughter" is thy name. She      
inspecteth the swathing of the helpless one.                           
    
  THE SEVENTEENTH PYLON. The Osiris Heru-em-khebit, whose word is     
truth, shall say when he cometh to this pylon: "Hewer-in-pieces in    
blood, Ahibit, lady of hair" is thy name. She inspecteth the          
swathing of the helpless one.                                          
    
  THE EIGHTEENTH PYLON. The Osiris Heru-em-khebit, whose word is      
truth, shall say when he cometh to this pylon: "Fire-lover, pure      
one, lover of slaughterings, cutter off of heads, devoted one, lady of 
the Great House, slaughterer of fiends at eventide" is thy name. She  
inspecteth the swathing of the helpless one.                           
    
2766

  THE NINETEENTH PYLON. The Osiris Heru-em-khebit, whose word is      
truth, shall say when he cometh to this pylon: "Light-giver for       
life, blazing all the day, lady of strength [and of] the writings of  
the god Thoth himself" is thy name. She inspecteth the swathings of   
the White House.                                                       
    
  THE TWENTIETH PYLON. The Osiris Heru-em-khebit, whose word is truth, 
shall say when he cometh to this pylon: "Dweller in the cavern of     
her lord, her name is Clother, hider of her creations, conqueror of   
hearts, swallower [of them]" is thy name. She inspecteth the swathings 
of the White House.                                                    
    
  THE TWENTY-FIRST PYLON. The Osiris Heru-em-khebit, whose word is    
truth, shall say when he cometh to this pylon: "Knife which cutteth   
when [its name] is uttered, slayer of those who approach thy flame" is 
thy name. She possesseth hidden plans.                                 
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2767

                               APPENDIX 

  (From the Turin Papryus, ed. Lepsius, Bl. 64, the text referring    
to the twenty-first Pylon.)                                            
    
  THE OSIRIS AUFANKH, WHOSE WORD IS TRUTH, SAITH: Hail, saith Horus, O 
Twenty-first pylon of the Still-Heart! I have made the way. I know    
thee. I know thy name. I know the name of the goddess who guardeth    
thee. "Sword that smiteth at the utterance of its own name, stinking  
face, overthrower of him that approacheth her flame" is thy name. Thou 
keepest the hidden things of the avenger of the god, thou guardest    
them. Amam is his name. He maketh the ash trees (cedars) not to       
grow, and the shenu trees (acacias) not to blossom, and preventeth    
copper from being found in the mountain. The Tchatcha (Chiefs) of this 
Pylon are Seven Gods. Tchen, or Anthch (At), is the name of the one at 
the door. Hetepmes is the name of another there. Messep is the name of 
another there. Utchara is the name of another there. Beq is the name  
of another there. Anp (Anubis) is the name of another there.           
    
  I have made the way. I am Menu-Heru, the avenger of his father,     
the heir of his father Un-Nefer. I have come. I have given [offerings] 
to my father Osiris. I have overthrown all his enemies. I have come   
daily with the word of truth, the lord of fealty, in the house of my  
father Tem, the Lord of Anu, I, the Osiris Auf-ankh, whose word is    
truth in the southern heaven. I have done what is right for him that  
made the right, I have celebrated the Haker festival to the lord      
thereof. I have acted as the leader of the festivals. I have given    
cakes to the Lords of the Altar. I have been the leader of the        
propitiatory offerings, cakes, ale, oxen, geese, to my father Osiris  
Un-Nefer. I am the protector of the Ba-soul, I have made the Benu bird 
to appear [by my] words. I have come daily into the house of the god  
to make offerings of incense. I have come with the shenti tunic. I    
have set the Neshem Boat afloat on the water. I have made the word    
of Osiris Khenti Amenti to be truth before his enemies. I have carried 
away in a boat all his enemies to the slaughter-house of the East, and 
they shall never escape from the wardship of the god Keb who          
dwelleth therein. I have made the Kefaiu gods of Ra to stand up, I    
have made his word to be truth. I have come as a scribe. I have       
explained [the writings]. I have made the god to have power over his  
legs. I have come into the house of him that is upon his mountain     
(Anubis). I have seen the Chief of the Seh hall. I have entered into  
Ra-stau. I have made myself invisible. I have found for myself the    
boundary. I have approached Nerutef. I have clothed the naked. I      
have sailed up the river to Abydos. I have performed the ceremonies of 
Hu and Sa. I have entered the house of Astes. I have made supplication 
to the Khati gods and to Sekhmet in the temple of Net (Neith), or     
the Aged Ones. I have entered Ra-stau. I have made myself invisible. I 
have found the frontier. I have approached Nerutef. I have clothed the 
naked. I have sailed up the river to Abydos. I have performed the     
ceremonies of Hu and Sa. I have received. I have risen like a king    
crowned. I fill my seat on the throne in the place of my father, the  
God Who was at the beginning. I have praised the Meskhen of           
Ta-tchesert. My mouth is full of Maat (Truth). I have overwhelmed     
the Akhekhau serpents. I have come into the Great House with [my] body 
in a flourishing condition. I have caused myself to travel in the Boat 
of Hai. The myrrh unguent of..... is in the hair of men (Rekhit). I   
have entered into the House of Astes. I have approached with worship  
the two Khati gods and Sekhmet, who are in the temple of the Aged     
2768

One [in Anu].                                                          
    
  [And the god Osiris saith:] "Thou hast come, thou shalt be a        
favoured one in Tetu, O Osiris Auf-ankh, whose word is truth, the     
son of the lady Shert-en-Menu, whose word is truth."                   
    
                    THE PRIESTS ANMUTEF AND SAMEREF 
                                         
  THE SPEECH OF THE PRIEST ANMUTEF.                                    
    
  I have come unto you, O ye great Tchatcha Chiefs who dwell in       
heaven, and upon earth, and in Khert-Neter, and I have brought unto   
you the Osiris Ani. He hath not committed any act which is an         
abomination before all the gods. Grant ye that he may live with you   
every day.                                                             
    
  The Osiris the scribe Ani adoreth Osiris, Lord of Rasta, and the    
Great Company of the Gods who live in Khert-Neter. He saith: "Homage  
to thee, Khenti Amenti, Un-Nefer, who dwellest in Abtu. I come to     
thee. My heart holdeth Truth. There is no sin in my body. I have not  
told a lie wittingly, I have not acted in a double manner. Grant      
thou to me cakes, let me appear in the presence, at the altar of the  
Lords of Truth, let me go in and come forth from Khert-Neter [at      
will], let not my Heart-soul be driven away [from me]; and grant me   
a sight of the Disk and the beholding of the Moon for ever and ever.   
    
  THE SPEECH OF THE PRIEST SAMEREF.                                    
    
  I have come unto you, O ye Tchatcha Chiefs who dwell in Rasta, and I 
have brought unto you the Osiris Ani, grant ye unto him cakes, and    
water, and air, and a homestead in Sekhet-hetep as to the followers of 
Horus.                                                                 
    
  The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, adoreth Osiris,     
the Lord of everlastingness, and the Tchatcha Chiefs, the Lords of    
Rasta. He saith: "Homage to thee, O King of Khert-Neter, thou Governor 
of Akert! I have come unto thee. I know thy plans, I am equipped      
with the forms which thou takest in the Tuat. Give thou to me a       
place in Khert-Neter, near the Lords of Truth. May my homestead be    
lasting in Sekhet-hetep, may I receive cakes in thy presence."         
    
                           THE JUDGES IN ANU 
                         
  Hail, Thoth, who madest to be true the word of Osiris against his   
enemies, make thou the word of the scribe Nebseni to be true against  
his enemies, even as thou didst make the word of Osiris to be true    
against his enemies, in the presence of the Tchatcha Chiefs who are   
with Ra and Osiris in Anu, on the night of the "things of the         
night," and the night of battle, and of the fettering of the Sebau    
fiends, and the day of the destruction of the enemies of Neb-er-tcher. 
    
  Now the great Tchatcha Chiefs in Anu are Tem, Shu, Tefnut, [Osiris  
and Thoth]. Now the "fettering of the Sebau fiends" signifieth the    
destruction of the Smaiu fiends of Set, when he wrought iniquity a    
second time.                                                           
    
  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of Osiris to be true against   
his enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris Ani to be true against  
2769

his enemies, with the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Tetu, on the   
night of setting up the Tet in Tetu.                                   

  Now the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Tetu are Osiris, Isis,     
Nephthys, and Horus the avenger of his father. Now the "setting up    
of the Tet in Tetu" signifieth [the raising up of] the shoulder of    
Horus, the Governor of Sekhem. They are round about Osiris in the band 
[and] the bandages.                                                    
    
  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of Osiris to be true against   
his enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris Ani to be true against  
his enemies, with the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Sekhem, on     
the night of the "things of the night" in Sekhem.                      
    
  Now the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Sekhem are                 
Heru-khenti-en-ariti and Thoth who is with the Tchatcha Chiefs of     
Nerutef. Now the night of the "things of the night festival"          
signifieth the dawn on the sarcophagus of Osiris.                      
    
  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of Osiris to be true against   
his enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris the scribe Ani to be    
true against his enemies, with the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in   
the double town Pe-Tep, on the night of setting up the "Senti" of     
Horus, and of establishing him in the inheritance of the possessions  
of his father Osiris.                                                  
    
  Now the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Pe-Tep are Horus, Isis,    
Kesta (Mesta) and Hapi. Now the "setting up of the 'Senti' of Horus"  
hath reference to the words which Set spake to his followers, saying  
"Set up the Senti."                                                    
    
  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of Osiris to be true against   
his enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris the scribe Ani to be    
true, in peace, against his enemies, with the great Tchatcha Chiefs   
who are in the Lands of the Rekhti (Taiu-Rekhti), in the night when   
Isis lay down, and kept watch to make lamentation for her brother     
Osiris.                                                                
    
  Now the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Taiu-Rekhti are Isis,      
Horus, Kesta (Mesta) [Anpu and Thoth].                                 
    
  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of Osiris true against his     
enemies, make thou the word of Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is   
truth, in peace, to be true against his enemies, with the great       
Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Abtu, on the night of the god Haker, when  
the dead are separated, and the spirits are judged, and when the      
procession taketh place in Teni.                                       
    
  Now the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Abtu are Osiris, Isis,     
and Up-uat.                                                            
    
  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of Osiris to be true against   
his enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris, the scribe and assessor 
of the sacred offerings which are made to all the gods, Ani, to be    
true against his enemies, with the Tchatcha Chiefs who examine the    
dead on the night of making the inspection of those who are to be     
annihilated.                                                           
    
2770

  Now the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are present at the examination    
of the dead are Thoth, Osiris, Anpu and Asten (read Astes). Now the   
inspection (or, counting) of those who are to be annihilated          
signifieth the shutting up of things from the souls of the sons of    
revolt.                                                                
    
  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of Osiris true against his     
enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris the scribe Ani to be true   
against his enemies, with the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are present at 
the digging up of the earth [and mixing it] with their blood, and of  
making the word of Osiris to be true against his enemies.              
    
  As concerning the Tchatcha Chiefs who are present at the digging    
up of the earth in Tetu: When the Smaiu fiends of Set came [there],   
having transformed themselves into animals, these Tchatcha Chiefs slew 
them in the presence of the gods who were there, and they took their  
blood, and carried it to them. These things were permitted at the     
examination [of the wicked] by those [gods] who dwelt in Tetu.         
    
  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of Osiris to be true against   
his enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris [the scribe] Ani to be  
true against his enemies, with the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in   
Nerutef on the night of the "Hidden of Forms."                         
    
  Now the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Nerutef are Ra, Osiris, Shu 
and Bebi.                                                              
    
  Now, the night of the "Hidden of Forms" referreth to the placing    
on the sarcophagus [of Osiris] the arm, the heel, and the thigh of    
Osiris Un-Nefer.                                                       
    
  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of Osiris true against his     
enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris, whose word is truth, to    
be true against his enemies, with the great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in 
Rasta, on the night when Anpu lay with his arms on the things by      
Osiris, and when the word of Horus was make to be true against his    
enemies.                                                               
    
  The great Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Rasta are Horus, Osiris, and   
Isis. The heart of Osiris is happy, the heart of Horus is glad, and   
the two halves of Egypt (Aterti) are well satisfied thereat.           
    
  Hail, Thoth, who didst make the word of Osiris true against his     
enemies, make thou the word of the Osiris the scribe Ani, the assessor 
of the holy offerings made to all the gods, to be true against his    
enemies, with the Ten great Tchatcha Chiefs who are with Ra, and      
with Osiris, and with every god, and with every goddess, in the       
presence of the god Nebertcher. He hath destroyed his enemies, and    
he hath destroyed every evil thing which appertained to him.           
    
  RUBRIC: If this Chapter be recited for, or over, the deceased, he   
shall come forth by day, purified after death, according to the desire 
of his heart. Now if this Chapter be recited over him, he shall       
progress over the earth, and he shall escape from every fire, and none 
of the evil things which appertain to him shall ever be round about   
him; never, a million times over, shall this be.                       
    

2771


                           OPENING THE MOUTH 
     
  THE CHAPTER OF OPENING THE MOUTH OF THE OSIRIS ANI. To be said:- The 
god Ptah shall open my mouth, and the god of my town shall unfasten   
the swathings, the swathings which are over my mouth. Thereupon       
shall come Thoth, who is equipped with words of power in great        
abundance, and shall untie the fetters, even the fetters of the god   
Set which are over my mouth. And the god Tem shall cast them back at  
those who would fetter me with them, and cast them at him. Then       
shall the god Shu open my mouth, and make an opening into my mouth    
with the same iron implement wherewith he opened the mouth of the     
gods. I am the goddess Sekhmet, and I take my seat upon the place by  
the side of Amt-ur the great wind of heaven. I am the great           
Star-goddess Saah, who dwelleth among the Souls of Anu. Now as        
concerning every spell, and every word which shall be spoken against  
me, every god of the Divine Company shall set himself in opposition   
thereto.                                                               
    
                                                                       
    
                        BRINGING_SPELLS_TO_ANI 

THE CHAPTER OF BRINGING WORDS OF POWER TO THE OSIRIS ANI, who         
saith:- I am Tem-Khepera who produced himself on the thighs of his    
divine mother. Those who dwell in Nu have been made wolves, and those 
who are among the Tchatcha Chiefs have become hyenas. Behold, I will  
gather together to myself this charm from the person with whom it is  
[and from the place] wherein it is [and it shall come to me] quicker  
than a greyhound, and swifter that light. Hail, thou who bringest the 
Ferry-Boat of Ra, thou holdest thy course firmly and directly in the  
north wind as thou sailest up the river towards the Island of Fire    
which is in Khert-Neter. Behold, thou shalt gather together to thee   
this charm from wheresoever it may be, and from whomsoever it may be  
with [and it shall come to me] quicker than a greyhound, and swifter  
than light. It (the charm) made the transformations of Mut; it        
fashioned the gods [or] kept them silent; by it Mut gave the warmth   
[of life] to the gods. Behold, these words of power are mine, and     
they shall come unto me from wheresoever they may be, or with         
whomsoever they may be, quicker than greyhounds and swifter than      
light, or, according to another reading, "swifter than shadows."       
    
                               APPENDIX 

THE CHAPTER WHICH MAKETH A MAN TO REMEMBER HIS NAME IN                
KHERT-NETER. [The deceased] saith:- Let my name be given to me in     
the Great House (Per-ur), and let me remember my name in the House    
of Fire (Per Neser), on the night wherein the years are counted up,   
and the number of the months is told. I am dwelling with the Divine   
One, I take my seat on the eastern side of the sky. If any god        
cometh after me, I shall be able to declare his name forthwith.        
    
                            GIVING A HEART 

THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A HEART TO THE OSIRIS ANI IN KHERT-NETER. He    
saith:- Let my heart be with me in the House of Hearts. Let my        
heart-case be with me in the House of heart-cases. Let my heart be    
with me, and let it rest in [me or] I shall not eat the cakes of      
2772

Osiris in the eastern side of the Lake of Flowers, nor have a boat    
wherein to float down the river, nor a boat to sail up the river to   
thee, nor be able to embark in a boat with thee. Let my mouth be to me 
that I may speak therewith. Let my legs be to me that I may walk      
therewith. Let my arms be to me that I may overthrow the foe          
therewith. Let the two doors of the sky be opened to me. May Keb,     
the Erpat of the gods, open his jaws to me. May he open my two eyes   
which are blinded by swathings. May he make me to lift up my legs in  
walking which are tied together. May Anpu make my thighs to become    
vigorous. May the goddess Sekhmet raise me, and lift me up. Let me    
ascend into heaven, let that which I command be performed in          
Het-ka-Ptah. I know how to use my heart. I am master of my heart-case. 
I am master of my hands and arms. I am master of my legs. I have the  
power to do that which my KA desireth to do. My Heart-soul shall not  
be kept a prisoner in my body at the gates of Amentet when I would    
go in in peace and come forth in peace.                               
                  NOT LETTING THE HEART ANI BE TAKEN 

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF THE OSIRIS, THE ASSESSOR      
OF THE DIVINE OFFERINGS OF ALL THE GODS, ANI, WHOSE WORD IS TRUTH     
BEFORE OSIRIS, BE DRIVEN BACK FROM HIM IN KHERT-NETER. He saith:- My  
heart of my mother. My heart of my mother. My heart-case of my        
transformations. Let not any one stand up to bear testimony against   
me. Let no one drive me away from the Tchatcha Chiefs. Let no one make 
thee to fall away from me in the presence of the Keeper of the        
Balance. Thou art my KA, the dweller in my body, the god Khnemu who   
makest sound my members. Mayest thou appear in the place of           
happiness whither we go. Let not make my name to stink Shenit         
Chiefs, who make men to be stable. [Let it be satisfactory unto us,   
and let the listening be satisfactory unto us, and let there be joy of 
heart to us at the weighing of words. Let not lies be told against    
me before the Great God, the Lord of Amentet. Verily, how great       
shalt thou be when thou risest up in triumph!]                         
    
  RUBRIC I: These words are to be said over a scarab of green stone   
encircled with a band of refined copper, and [having] a ring of       
silver; which shall be placed on the neck of the Khu (the deceased),  
etc.                                                                   
    
  RUBRIC II (From the Papyrus of Nu, Sheet 21): If this Chapter be    
known [by the deceased] he shall be declared a speaker of the truth   
both upon earth and in Khert-Neter, and he shall be able to perform   
every act which a living human being can perform. Now it is a great   
protection which hath been given by the god. This Chapter was found in 
the city of Khemenu upon the slab of ba, which was inlaid with        
[letters of] genuine lapis-lazuli, and was under the feet of [the     
statue] of the god, during the reign of His Majesty, the King of the  
South and North, Menkaura (Mycerinus), true of word, by Prince        
Herutataf, who found it during a journey which he made to inspect     
the temples. One Nekht was with him who was diligent in making him    
to understand it, and he brought it to the king as a wonderful        
object when he perceived that it was a thing of great mystery, [the   
like of] which had never [before] been seen or looked upon. This      
Chapter shall be recited by a man who is ceremonially clean and       
pure, who hath not eaten the flesh of animals, or fish, and who hath  
not had intercourse with women. And behold, thou shalt make a scarab  
of green stone, with a rim [plated] with gold, which shall be placed  
above the heart of a man, and it shall perform for him the "opening of 
2773

the mouth." And thou shalt anoint it with myrrh unguent, and thou     
shalt recite over it the following words of magical power. [Here      
follows the text of the Chapter of Not Letting the Heart of Ani Be    
Taken from Him.]                                                       
    
              NOT LETTING THE HEART SOUL BE CARRIED AWAY 

THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART-SOUL OF A MAN BE SNATCHED        
AWAY FROM HIM IN KHERT-NETER. The Osiris the scribe Ani saith:--I,    
even I, am he who cometh forth from the Celestial Water (Akeb). He    
(Akeb) produced abundance for me, and hath the mastery there in the   
form of the River.                                                     
    
(This is a portion of a longer Chapter which is included in the Appen-
dix.)
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2774

                               APPENDIX 

(The following is from the Papyrus of Nefer-uben-f, Naville, op.      
cit., I, Bl. 72.)                                                      
    
  THE CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER IN KHERT-NETER. The am khent priest,  
Nefer-uben-f, whose word is truth, saith:- I, even I, am he who cometh 
forth from the god Keb. The water-flood is given to him, he hath      
become the master thereof in the form of Hapi. I, the am khent        
Nefer-uben-f, open the doors of heaven. Thoth hath opened to me the   
doors of Qebh (the Celestial Waters). Lo, Hepi Hepi, the two sons of  
the Sky, mighty in splendour, grant ye that I may be master over the  
water, even as Set had dominion over his evil power on the day of     
the storming of the Two Lands. I pass by the Great Ones, arm to       
shoulder, even as they pass that Great God, the Spirit who is         
equipped, whose name is unknown. I have passed by the Aged One of     
the shoulder. I am Nefer-uben-f, whose word is truth. Hath opened to  
me the Celestial Water Osiris. Hath opened to me the Celestial Water  
Thoth-Hapi, the Lord of the horizon, in his name of "Thoth, cleaver of 
the earth." I am master of the water, as Set is master of his         
weapon. I sail over the sky, I am Ra, I am Ru. I am Sma. I have       
eaten the Thigh, I have seized the bone and flesh. I go round about   
the Lake of Sekhet-Ar. Hath been given to me eternity without limit.  
Behold, I am the heir of eternity, to whom hath been given            
everlastingness.                                                       
    
(The following two Chapters are from the Papyrus of Nu, Sheets 7 and 12) 
                                                                       
 THE CHAPTER OF DRINKING WATER AND OF NOT BEING BURNT UP BY FIRE     
[IN KHERT-NETER]. Nu saith:- Hail, Bull of Amentet! I am brought      
unto thee. I am the paddle of Ra wherewith he transported the Aged    
Gods. Let me neither be burnt up nor destroyed by fire. I am Beb,     
the firstborn son of Osiris, to whom every god maketh an offering in  
the temple of his Eye in Anu. I am the divine Heir, the Mighty One,   
the Great One, the Resting One. I have made my name to flourish.      
Deliverer, thou livest in me [every day].                              
    
  THE CHAPTER OF NOT BEING BOILED IN FIRE. Nu saith:- I am the        
paddle which is equipped, wherewith Ra transported the Aged Gods,     
which raised up the emissions of Osiris from the Lake of blazing fire, 
and he was not burned. I sit down like the Light-god, and like Khnemu, 
the Governor of lions. Come, cut away the fetters from him that       
passeth by the side of this path, and let me come forth therefrom.     
                                                                     
                              GIVING AIR 

  THE CHAPTER OF GIVING AIR IN KHERT-NETER. The Osiris Ani saith:- I  
am the Egg which dwelt in the Great Cackler. I keep ward over that    
great place which Keb hath proclaimed upon earth. I live; it liveth. I 
grow up, I live, I snuff the air. I am Utcha-aab. I go round about his 
egg [to protect it]. I have thwarted the moment of Set. Hail, Sweet   
one of the Two Lands! Hail, dweller in the tchefa food! Hail,         
dweller in the lapis-lazuli! Watch ye over him that is in his         
cradle, the Babe when he cometh forth to you.                         
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2775

                               APPENDIX 

  (From the Papyrus of Nu, Sheet 12)                                   
    
  THE CHAPTER OF GIVING AIR TO NU IN KHERT-NETER. He saith:- Hail,    
thou God Temu, grant thou unto me the sweet breath which dwelleth in  
thy nostrils! I am the Egg which is in Kenken-ur (the Great           
Cackler), and I watch and guard that mighty thing which hath come into 
being, wherewith the god Keb hath opened the earth. I live; it liveth; 
I grow, I live, I snuff the air. I am the god Utcha-aabet, and I go   
about his egg. I shine at the moment of the mighty of strength,       
Suti. Hail, thou who makest sweet the time of the Two Lands! Hail,    
dweller among the celestial food. Hail, dweller among the beings of   
blue (lapis-lazuli), watch ye to protect him that is in his nest,     
the Child who cometh forth to you.                                     
    
  THE CHAPTER OF GIVING AIR IN KHERT-NETER. Nu saith:- I am the jackal 
of jackals. I am Shu. I draw air from the presence of the Light-god,  
from the uttermost limits of heaven, from the uttermost limits of     
earth, from the uttermost limits of the pinion of Nebeh bird. May     
air be given unto this young divine Babe. [My mouth is open, I see    
with my eyes.]                                                         
    
  THE CHAPTER OF SNUFFING THE AIR WITH WATER IN KHERT-NETER. Hail,    
Tem. Grant thou unto me the sweet breath which dwelleth in thy        
nostrils. I am he who embraceth that great throne which is in the city 
of Unu. I keep watch over the Egg of Kenken-ur (the Great Cackler).   
I grow and flourish as it groweth and flourisheth. I live as it       
liveth. I snuff the air as it snuffeth the air.                        
    
                NOT LETTING THE HEART BE SNATCHED AWAY 

  THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF A MAN BE SNATCHED AWAY      
FROM HIM IN KHERT-NETER. The Osiris Ani, whose word is truth,         
saith:- Get thee back, O messenger of every god! Art thou come to     
[snatch away] my heart-case which liveth? My heart-case which liveth  
shall not be given unto thee. [As] I advance, the gods hearken unto my 
propitiation [prayer] and they fall down on their faces [whilst]      
they are on their own land.                                            
    
                               APPENDIX 

  (From the Papyrus of Nu)                                             
                                                                       
THE CHAPTER OF NOT ALLOWING THE HEART.... TO BE CARRIED AWAY DEAD IN 
KHERT-NETER. [Nu, whose word is truth, saith]:- My heart is with me,  
and it shall never come to pass that it be carried away. I am the Lord 
of Hearts, the slayer of the heart-case. I live in truth, I have my   
being therein. I am Horus, the Dweller in Hearts, [I am] in the       
Dweller in the body. I have life by my word, my heart hath being. My  
heart-case shall not be snatched away from me, it shall not be        
wounded, it shall not be put in restraint if wounds are inflicted upon 
me. [If] one take possession of it I shall have my being in the body  
of my father Keb and in the body of my mother Nut. I have not done    
that which is held in abomination by the gods. I shall not suffer     
defeat [for] my word is truth.                                         
    
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2776

                  NOT LETTING THE HEART CASE BE TAKEN 

  THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART-CASE OF A MAN BE TAKEN AWAY    
FROM HIM IN KHERT-NETER. The Osiris Ani saith:- Hail, ye who steal and 
crush heart-cases [and who make the heart of a man to go through its  
transformations according to his deeds: let not what he hath done harm 
him before you]. Homage to you, O ye Lords of Eternity, ye masters    
of everlastingness, take ye not this heart of Osiris Ani into your    
fingers, and this heart-case, and cause ye not things of evil to      
spring up against it, because this heart belongeth to the Osiris      
Ani, and this heart-case belongeth to him of the great names          
(Thoth), the mighty one, whose words are his members. He sendeth his  
heart to rule his body, and his heart is renewed before the gods.     
The heart of the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, is to him; he hath  
gained the mastery over it. He hath not said what he hath done. He    
hath obtained power over his own members. His heart obeyeth him, he is 
the lord thereof, it is in his body, and it shall never fall away     
therefrom. I command thee to be obedient unto me in Khert-Neter. I,   
the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, in peace; whose word is truth    
in the Beautiful Amentet, by the Domain of Eternity.                   
    
                               APPENDIX 

 (From the Papyrus of Nu, Sheet 5)                                     
  THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF NU, WHOSE WORD IS TRUTH,    
BE CARRIED AWAY FROM HIM IN KHERT-NETER. He saith:- Hail, thou        
Lion-god! I am Unb (the Blossom). That which is held in abomination to 
me is the block of slaughter of the god. Let not this my heart-case be 
carried away from me by the Fighting Gods in Anu. Hail, thou who      
dost wind bandages round Osiris, and who hast seen Set. Hail, thou who 
returnest after smiting and destroying him before the mighty ones!    
This my heart weepeth over itself before Osiris; it hath made         
supplication for me. I have given unto him and I have dedicated unto  
him the thoughts of the heart in the House of the god (Usekh-her),    
have brought unto him sand at the entry to Khemenu. Let not this my   
heart-case be carried away from me. I make you to ascend his throne,  
to fetter heart-cases for him in Sekhet-hetep, [to live] years of     
strength away from things of all kinds which are abominations to      
him, to carry off food from among the things which are thine, and     
which are in thy grasp through thy strength. And this my heart-case is 
devoted to the decrees of the god Tem, who guideth me through the     
caverns of Suti, but let not this my heart, which hath performed its  
desire before the Tchatcha Chiefs who are in Khert-Neter, be given    
to him. When they find the leg and the swathings they bury them.       
    
  THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEART OF NU, WHOSE WORD IS TRUTH,    
BE DRIVEN AWAY FROM HIM IN KHERT-NETER. He saith:- My heart of my     
mother. My heart of my mother. My heart-case of my existence upon     
the earth. Let no one stand up against me when I bear testimony in the 
presence of the Lords of Things. Let it not be said against me and    
of that which I have done "He hath committed acts which are opposed to 
what is right and true," and let not charges be brought up against    
me in the presence of the Great God, the Lord of Amentet. Homage to   
thee, O my heart (ab). Homage to thee, O my heart-case. Homage to you, 
O my reins. Homage to you, O ye gods, who are masters of [your]       
beards, and who are holy by reason of your sceptres. Speak ye for me  
words of good import to Ra, and make ye me to have favour in the sight 
of Nehebkau.                                                           
2777    
                                                                       
    
                           BREATHING THE AIR 

  THE CHAPTER OF BREATHING THE AIR AND OF HAVING POWER OVER WATER IN  
KHERT-NETER. The Osiris Ani saith:- Open to me! Who art thou?         
Whither goest thou? What is thy name? I am one of you. Who are these  
with you? The two Merti goddesses (Isis and Nephthys). Thou separatest 
head from head when [he] entereth the divine Mesqen chamber. He       
causeth me to set out for the temple of the gods Kem-heru.            
"Assembler of souls" is the name of my ferry-boat. "Those who make the 
hair to bristle" is the name of the oars. "Sert" ("Goad") is the      
name of the hold. "Steering straight in the middle" is the name of the 
rudder; likewise, [the boat] is a type of my being borne onward in the 
lake. Let there be given unto me vessels of milk, and cakes, and      
loaves of bread, and cups of drink, and flesh, in the Temple of Anpu.  
     
  RUBRIC: If the deceased knoweth this Chapter, he shall go into,     
after coming forth from Khert-Neter of [the Beautiful Amentet].        
                                                                     
                    SNUFFING THE AIR IN KHERT NETER 

  THE CHAPTER OF SNUFFING THE AIR, AND OF HAVING POWER OVER THE       
WATER IN KHERT-NETER. The Osiris Ani saith:- Hail, thou Sycamore      
tree of the goddess Nut! Give me of the [water and of the] air which  
is in thee. I embrace that throne which is in Unu, and I keep guard   
over the Egg of Nekek-ur. It flourisheth, and I flourish; it liveth,  
and I live; it snuffeth the air, and I snuff the air, I the Osiris    
Ani, whose word is truth, in [peace].                                  
    
                                                                      
                        NOT DYING A SECOND TIME 

  THE CHAPTER OF NOT DYING A SECOND TIME IN KHERT-NETER. The Osiris   
Ani saith:- My hiding place is opened, my hiding place is opened.     
The Spirits fall headlong in the darkness, but the Eye of Horus hath  
made me holy, and Upuati hath nursed me. I will hide myself among you, 
O ye stars which are imperishable. My brow is like the brow of Ra.    
My face is open. My heart-case is upon its throne, I know how to utter 
words. In very truth I am Ra himself. I am not a man of no account.   
I am not a man to whom violence can be done. Thy father liveth for    
thee, O son of Nut. I am thy son, O great one, I have seen the        
hidden things which are thine. I am crowned upon my throne like the   
king of the gods. I shall not die a second time in Khert-Neter.        
    
                      NOT ROTTING IN KHERT NETER 

  THE CHAPTER OF NOT ROTTING IN KHERT-NETER. The Osiris Ani saith:-   
O thou who art motionless, O thou who art motionless, O thou whose    
members are motionless, like unto those of Osiris. Thy members shall  
not be motionless, they shall not rot, they shall not crumble away,   
they shall not fall into decay. My members shall be made [permanent]  
for me as if I were Osiris.                                            
    
  RUBRIC: If this Chapter be known by the deceased he shall never     
see corruption in Khert-Neter.                                         
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2778

                               APPENDIX 

  (From the Papyrus of Nu, Sheet 18)                                   
    
  THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE BODY PERISH. The Osiris Nu saith:-   
Homage to thee, O my divine father Osiris! I come to embalm thee. Do  
thou embalm these my members, for I would not perish and come to an   
end [but would be] even like unto my divine father Khepera, the divine 
type of him that never saw corruption. Come then, strengthen my       
breath, O Lord of the winds, who dost magnify these divine beings     
who are like unto thyself. Stablish me, stablish me, and fashion me   
strongly, O Lord of the funeral chest. Grant thou that I may enter    
into the land of everlastingness, according to that which was done for 
thee, along with thy father Tem, whose body never saw corruption,     
and who himself never saw corruption. I have never done that which    
thou hatest, nay, I have acclaimed thee among those who love thy KA.  
Let not my body become worms, but deliver thou me as thou didst       
deliver thyself. I pray thee, let me not fall into rottenness, as thou 
lettest every god, and every goddess, and every animal, and every     
reptile, see corruption, when the soul hath gone out of them, after   
their death.                                                           
    
  And when the soul hath departed, a man seeth corruption, and the    
bones of his body crumble away and become stinking things, and the    
members decay one after the other, the bones crumble into a helpless  
mass, and the flesh turneth into foetid liquid. Thus man becometh a   
brother unto the decay which cometh upon him, and he turneth into a   
myriad of worms, and he becometh nothing but worms, and an end is made 
of him, and perisheth in the sight of the god of day (Shu), even as do 
every god, and every goddess, and every bird, and every fish, and     
every creeping worm, and every reptile, and every beast, and every    
thing whatsoever. Let [all the Spirits fall] on their bellies [when]  
they recognize me, and behold, the fear of me shall terrify them;     
and thus also let it be with every being that hath died, whether it be 
animal, or bird, or fish, or worm, or reptile. Let life [rise out     
of] death. Let not the decay caused by any reptile make an end [of    
me], and let not [enemies] come against me in their various forms.    
Give thou me not over to the Slaughterer in this execution-chamber,   
who killeth the members, and maketh them rot, being [himself]         
invisible, and who destroyeth the bodies of the dead, and liveth by   
carnage. Let me live, and perform his order; I will do what is        
commanded by him. Give me not over to his fingers, let him not        
overcome me, for I am under thy command, O Lord of the Gods.           
    
  Homage to thee, O my divine father Osiris, thou livest with thy     
members. Thou didst not decay, thou didst not become worms, thou didst 
not wither, thou didst not rot, thou didst not putrefy, thou didst not 
turn into worms. I am the god Khepera, and my members shall have being 
everlastingly. I shall not decay, I shall not rot, I shall not        
putrefy, I shall not turn into worms, and I shall not see corruption  
before the eye of the god Shu. I shall have my being, I shall have    
by being; I shall live, I shall live; I shall flourish, I shall       
flourish, I shall flourish, I shall wake up in peace, I shall not     
putrefy, my intestines shall not perish, I shall not suffer injury. My 
eye shall not decay. The form of my face shall not disappear. My ear  
shall not become deaf. My head shall not be separated from my neck. My 
tongue shall not be removed. My hair shall not be cut off. My eyebrows 
shall not be shaved away, and no evil defect shall assail me. My      
2779

body shall be stablished. It shall neither become a ruin, nor be      
destroyed on this earth.                                               
    
                                                                      
                             NOT_PERISHING 

  THE CHAPTER OF NOT PERISHING AND OF BEING ALIVE IN KHERT-NETER.     
The Osiris Ani saith:- Hail ye children of the god Shu. The Tuat      
hath gained the mastery over his diadem. Among the Hamemet Spirits may 
I arise, even as did arise Osiris.                                     
    
                   NOT GOING TO THE BLOCK OF THE GOD 

  THE CHAPTER OF NOT GOING IN TO THE BLOCK OF THE GOD. The Osiris     
Ani saith:- My head was fastened on my body in heaven, O Guardian of  
the Earth, by Ra. [This] was granted [to me] on the day of my being   
stablished, when I rose up out of a state of weakness upon [my] two   
feet. On the day of cutting off the hair Set and the Company of the   
Gods fastened my head to my neck, and it became as firm as it was     
originally. Let nothing happen to shake it off again! Make ye me      
safe from the murderer of my father. I have tied together the Two     
Earths. Nut hath fastened together the vertebrae of my neck, and [I]  
behold them as they were originally, and they are seen in the order   
wherein they were when as yet Maat was not seen, and when the gods    
were not born in visible forms. I am Penti. I am the heir of the great 
gods, I the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth.                
    
                   NOT BEING TRANSPORTED TO THE EAST 

  THE CHAPTER OF NOT BEING TRANSPORTED TO THE EAST IN KHERT-NETER. The 
Osiris Ani saith:- Hail, Phallus of Ra, which advanceth and beateth   
down opposition. Things which have been without motion for millions of 
years have come into life through Baba. I am stronger thereby than the 
strong, and I have more power thereby than the mighty. Now, let me not 
be carried away in a boat, or be seized violently and taken to the    
East, to have the festivals of Sebau Devils celebrated on me. Let     
not deadly wounds be inflicted upon me, and let me not be gored by    
horns. Thou shalt neither fall [nor] eat fish made by Tebun.           
    
  Now, no evil thing of any kind whatsoever shall be done unto me by  
the Sebau Devils. [I shall not be gored by] horns. Therefore the      
Phallus of Ra, [which is] the head of Osiris, shall not be swallowed  
up. Behold, I shall come into me fields and I shall cut the grain. The 
gods shall provide me with food. Thou shalt not then be gored,        
Ra-Khepera. There shall not be then pus in the Eye of Tem, and it     
shall not be destroyed. Violence shall not be done unto me, and I     
shall not be carried away in [my] boat to the East to have the        
festivals of the Sebau Devils celebrated on me in evil fashion.       
Cruel gashes with knives shall not be inflicted upon me, and I shall  
not be carried away in [my] boat to the East. I the Osiris, the       
assessor of the holy offerings of all the gods, Ani, whose word is    
truth, happily, the lord of fealty [to Osiris].                        
                                                                     
                    NOT LETTING THE HEAD BE CUT OFF 

  THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE HEAD OF A MAN BE CUT OFF FROM HIS    
BODY IN KHERT-NETER. The Osiris Ani saith:- I am a Great One, the     
son of a Great One. [I am] Fire, the son of Fire, to whom was given   
2780

his head after it had been cut off. The head of Osiris was not removed 
from his body, and the head of Osiris Ani shall not be removed from   
his body. I have knitted myself together, I have made myself whole and 
complete. I shall renew my youth. I am Osiris Himself, the Lord of    
Eternity.                                                              
    
                                                                       
    
                     UNITING THE SOUL TO ITS BODY 

  THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE SOUL TO BE JOINED TO ITS BODY IN          
KHERT-NETER. The Osiris Ani saith:- Hail, thou god Aniu! Hail, thou   
god Pehreri, who dwellest in thy hall, the Great God. Grant thou      
that my soul may come to me from any place wherein it may be. Even    
if it would tarry, let my soul be brought unto me from any place      
wherein it may be. Thou findest the Eye of Horus standing by thee like 
unto those beings who resemble Osiris, who never lie down in death.   
Let not the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, lie down dead among those 
who lie in Anu, the land wherein [souls] are joined to their bodies in 
thousands. Let me have possession of my Ba-soul and of my Spirit-soul, 
and let my word be truth with it (the Ba-soul) in every place         
wherein it may be. Observe then, O ye guardians of Heaven, my soul    
[wherever it may be]. Even if it would tarry, cause thou my Ba-soul to 
see my body. Thou shalt find the Eye of Horus standing by thee like   
[the Watchers].                                                        
    
  Hail, ye gods who tow along the boat of the Lord of Millions of     
Years, who bring it over the sky of the Tuat, who make it to journey  
over Nent, who make Ba-souls to enter into their Spirit-bodies,       
whose hands hold the steering poles and guide it straight, who grasp  
tightly your paddles, destroy ye the Enemy; thus shall the Boat       
rejoice, and the Great God shall travel on his way in peace. Moreover, 
grant ye that the Ba-soul of the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth      
before the gods, may come forth with your navel cords in the eastern  
part of the sky, and that it may follow Ra to the place where he was  
yesterday, and may set in peace, in peace in Amentet. May it gaze upon 
its earthly body, may it take up its abode and its Spirit-body, may it 
neither perish nor be destroyed for ever and for ever.                 
    
  RUBRIC: These words shall be said over a model of the Ba-soul made  
of gold, and inlaid with precious stones, which shall be placed on the 
breast of the Osiris.                                                  
    
                 NOT LETTING THE SOUL BE HELD CAPTIVE 

  THE CHAPTER OF NOT LETTING THE SOUL OF A MAN BE HELD CAPTIVE IN     
KHERT-NETER. The Osiris Ani saith:- Hail, thou who art exalted!       
Hail, thou who art adored! Hail, Mighty One of Souls, thou divine Soul 
who inspirest great dread, who dost set the fear of thyself in the    
gods, who are enthroned upon thy mighty seat. Make thou a path for the 
Spirit-soul and the Ba-soul of the Osiris Ani. I am equipped with     
[words of power]. I am a Spirit-soul equipped with [words of power]. I 
have made my way to the place where are Ra and Hathor.                 
    
  RUBRIC: If this Chapter be known by the deceased he shall be able to 
transform himself into a Spirit-soul who shall be equipped with [his  
soul and his shadow] in Khert-Neter, and he shall not be shut up      
inside any door in Amentet, when he is coming forth upon the Earth, or 
2781

when he is going back into [Khert-Neter.]                              
    
                    OPENING THE TOMB TO THE BA SOUL 

  THE CHAPTER OF OPENING THE TOMB TO THE BA-SOUL AND THE SHADOW, AND  
OF COMING FORTH BY DAY, AND OF HAVING MASTERY OVER THE TWO LEGS. The  
Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- The place which is 
closed is opened, the place which is shut (or sealed) is sealed.      
That which lieth down in the closed place is opened by the Ba-soul    
which is in it. By the Eye of Horus I am delivered. Ornaments are     
stablished on the brow of Ra. My stride is made long. I lift up my two 
thighs [in walking]. I have journeyed over a long road. My limbs are   
    
in a flourishing condition. I am Horus, the Avenger of his Father, and 
I bring the Urrt Crown [and set it on] its standard. The road of souls 
is opened. My twin soul seeth the Great God in the Boat of Ra, on     
the day of souls. My soul is in the front thereof with the counter    
of the years. Come, the Eye of Horus hath delivered for me my soul, my 
ornaments are stablished on the brow of Ra. Light is on the faces of  
those who are in the members of Osiris. Ye shall not hold captive my  
soul. Ye shall not keep in durance my shadow. The way is open to my   
soul and to my shadow. It seeth the Great God in the shrine on the day 
of counting souls. It repeateth the words of Osiris. Those whose seats 
are invisible, who fetter the members of Osiris, who fetter           
Heart-souls and Spirit-souls, who set a seal upon the dead, and who   
would do evil to me, shall do no evil to me. Haste on the way to me.  
Thy heart is with thee. My Heart-soul and my Spirit-soul are equipped; 
they guide thee. I sit down at the head of the great ones who are     
chiefs of their abodes. The wardens of the members of Osiris shall not 
hold thee captive, though they keep ward over souls, and set a seal on 
the shadow which is dead. Heaven shall not shut thee in.               
    
  RUBRIC: If this Chapter be known by the deceased he shall come forth 
by day, and his soul shall not be kept captive.                        
    
                               APPENDIX 
                                                                  
  (From the Papryus of Nebseni, Sheet 6)                               
    
  That which was shut hath been opened [that is] the dead. That       
which was shut fast hath been opened by the command of the Eye of     
Horus, which hath delivered me. Established are the beauties on the   
forehead of Ra. My steps are long. My legs are lifted up. I have      
performed the journey, my members are mighty and are sound. I am      
Horus, the Avenger of his Father. I am he who bringeth along his      
father, and his mother, by means of his staff. The way shall be opened 
to him that hath power over his feet, and he shall see the Great God  
in the Boat of Ra, when souls are counted therein at the bows, and    
when the years also are counted up. Grant that the Eye of Horus, which 
maketh the adornments of splendour to be firm on the forehead of Ra,  
may deliver my soul for me, and let darkness cover your faces, O ye   
who would imprison Osiris. O keep not captive my soul. O keep not ward 
over my shadow, but let a way be opened for my soul and my shadow, and 
let them see the Great God in the shrine on the day of the counting of 
souls, and let them hold converse with Osiris, whose habitations are  
hidden, and those who guard the members of Osiris, and who keep ward  
over the Spirit-souls, and who hold captive the shadows of the dead,  
and who would work evil against me, so that they shall [not] work evil 
2782

against me. A way shall be for KA with thee, and thy soul shall be    
prepared by those who keep ward over the members of Osiris, and who   
hold captive the shadows of the dead. Heaven shall not keep thee fast, 
the earth shall not hold thee captive. Thou shalt not live with the   
beings who slay, but thou shalt be master of thy legs, and thou       
shalt advance to thy body straightway in the earth, [and to] those who 
belong to the shrine of Osiris and guard his members.                  
    
            LIFTING UP THE FEET AND APPEARING ON THE EARTH 

  THE CHAPTER OF LIFTING UP THE FEET, AND OF COMING FORTH ON THE      
EARTH. The Osiris Ani saith:- Perform thy work, O Seker, perform thy  
work, O Seker, O thou who dwellest in thy circle, and who dwellest    
in my feet in Khert-Neter. I am he who sendeth forth light over the   
Thigh of heaven. I come forth in heaven. I sit down by the Light-god  
(Khu). O I am helpless. O I am helpless. I would walk. I am            
    
helpless. I am helpless in the regions of those who plunder in        
Khert-Neter, I the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, in peace.          
                                                                     
                  MAKING A WAY THROUGH AMENTET BY DAY 

  THE CHAPTER OF FORCING A WAY INTO AMENTET [AND OF COMING FORTH] BY  
DAY. The Osiris Ani saith:- The town of Unu is opened. My head is     
sealed up, Thoth. Perfect is the Eye of Horus. I have delivered the   
Eye of Horus which shineth with splendours on the brow of Ra, the     
Father of the gods, [I am] that self-same Osiris, [the dweller in]    
Amentet. Osiris knoweth his day, and he knoweth that he shall live    
through his period of life; I shall have by being with him. I am the  
Moon-god Aah, the dweller among the gods. I shall not come to an      
end. Stand up therefore, O Horus, for thou art counted among the gods. 
    
                               APPENDIX 

  (Naville, op. cit., I, Bl. X)                                        
    
  THE CHAPTER OF FORCING A WAY INTO THE TUAT. The Am Khent priest     
Nefer-uben-f, whose word is truth, saith:- Hail, Soul, thou mighty one 
of terror. Behold, I have come unto thee. I see thee. I have forced   
a way through the Tuat. I see my father Osiris. I drive away the      
darkness. I love him. I have come. I see my father Osiris. He hath    
counted the heart of Set. I have made offerings for my father         
Osiris. I have opened all the ways in heaven and on earth. I love him. 
I have come. I have become a Spirit-body and a Spirit-soul, who is    
equipped. Hail, every god and every Spirit-soul, I have made the ways. 
I am Thoth....                                                         
    
        ANOTHER CHAPTER OF THE TUAT AND OF COMING FORTH BY DAY. 

  Open is the land of Unu. Shut is the head of Thoth. Perfect is the  
Eye of Horus. I have delivered the Eye of Horus, the shining one,     
the ornament of the Eye of Ra, the Father of the Gods. I am that      
same Osiris who dwelleth in Amentet. Osiris knoweth his day, which    
cometh to an end. I am Set, the Father of the Gods. I shall never come 
to an end.                                                             
    
 COMING_FORTH_BY_DAY_&_LIVING_AFTER_DEATH 

2783

  THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY AND OF LIVING AFTER DEATH. The   
Osiris Ani saith:- Hail, thou One, who shinest from the moon. Hail,   
thou One, who shinest from the moon. Grant that this Osiris Ani may   
come forth among thy multitudes who are at the portal. Let him be with 
the Light-God. Let the Tuat be opened to him. Behold, the Osiris Ani  
shall come forth by day to perform everything which he wisheth upon   
the earth among those who are living [thereon].                        
    
                               APPENDIX 

  (From the Papyrus of Nu, Sheet 13)                                   
    
  Hail, thou god Tem, who comest forth from the Great Deep, who       
shinest gloriously under the form of the twin Lion-gods, send forth   
with might thy words unto those who are in thy presence, and let the  
Osiris Nu enter into their assembly. He hath performed the decree     
which hath been spoken to the mariners at eventide, and the Osiris Nu, 
whose word is truth, shall live after his death, even as doth Ra every 
day. Behold, most certainly Ra was born yesterday, and the Osiris Nu  
was born yesterday. And every god shall rejoice in the life of the    
Osiris Nu, even as they rejoice in the life of Ptah, when he appeareth 
from the Great House of the Aged One which is in Anu.                  
    
             COMING FORTH AFTER PASSING THROUGH THE AAMHET 

  THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY AFTER FORCING AN ENTRANCE THROUGH 
THE AAMHET. The Osiris Ani saith:- Hail, Soul, thou mighty one of     
terror! Verily, I am here. I have come. I behold thee. I have passed  
through the Tuat. I have seen Father Osiris. I have scattered the     
gloom of night. I am his beloved one. I have come, I have seen my     
Father Osiris. I have stabbed the heart of Suti. I have made offerings 
to my Father Osiris. I have opened every way in heaven and on the     
earth. I am the son who loveth his Fathers (sic) Osiris. I am a       
Spirit-body. I am a Spirit-soul. I am equipped. Hail, every god and   
every Spirit-soul. I have made the way [to Osiris]. I the Osiris the  
scribe Ani, whose word is truth.                                       
    
              MAKING MAN TO RETURN TO LOOK UPON HIS HOUSE 

  THE CHAPTER OF MAKING A MAN TO RETURN TO LOOK UPON HIS HOUSE ON     
EARTH. The Osiris Ani saith:- I am the Lion-god who cometh forth      
with long strides. I have shot arrows, and I have wounded my prey. I  
have shot arrows, and I have wounded my prey. I am the Eye of Horus, I 
traverse the Eye of Horus at this season. I have arrived at the       
domains. Grant that the Osiris Ani may come in peace.                  
    
              MAN COMING FORTH BY DAY AGAINST HIS ENEMIES 

  ANOTHER CHAPTER OF THE COMING FORTH OF A MAN BY DAY AGAINST HIS     
ENEMIES IN KHERT-NETER. [The Osiris Ani saith:-] I have divided the   
heavens. I have cleft the horizon. I have traversed the earth         
[following in] his footsteps. I have conquered the mighty Spirit-souls 
because I am equipped for millions of years with words of power. I eat 
with my mouth. I evacuate with my body. Behold, I am the God of the   
Tuat! Let these things be given unto me, the Osiris Ani, in perpetuity 
withou fail or diminution.                                             
                               APPENDIX 

2784

  (From the Papyrus of Nu, Sheet 21)                                   
    
  THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH AGAINST ENEMIES IN KHERT-NETER. The     
Osiris Nu saith:- Hail, Am-a-f (Eater of his arm), I have passed      
over the road. I am Ra. I have come forth from the horizon against    
my enemies. I have not permitted him to escape from me. I have        
stretched out my hand like that of the Lord of the Urrt Crown. I      
have lifted up my feet even as the Uraei-goddesses lift themselves up. 
I have not permitted the enemy [to be saved] from me. As for mine     
enemy, he hath been given to me, and he shall not be delivered from   
me. I stand up like Horus. I sit down like Ptah. I am strong like     
Thoth. I am mighty like Tem. I walk with my legs. I speak with my     
mouth. I chase my enemy. He hath been given unto me, and he shall     
not be delivered from me.                                              
    
                                                                       
    
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2785

                 HYMN TO RA WHEN HE RISETH AND SETTETH 

  A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH UPON THE HORIZON, AND WHEN    
HE SETTETH IN THE LAND OF LIFE. Osiris the scribe Ani saith:- Homage  
to thee, O Ra, when thou risest as Tem-Heru-Khuti. Thou art to be     
adored. Thy beauties are before mine eyes, [thy] radiance is upon my  
body. Thou goest forth to thy setting in the Sektet Boat with [fair]  
winds, and thy heart is glad; the heart of the Matet Boat rejoiceth.  
Thou stridest over the heavens in peace, and all thy foes are cast    
down; the stars which never rest sing hymns of praise unto thee, and  
the stars which are imperishable glorify thee as thou sinkest to      
rest in the horizon of Manu, O thou who art beautiful at morn and at  
eve, O thou lord who livest, and art established, O my Lord!           
    
  Homage to thee, O thou who art Ra when thou risest, and who art     
Tem when thou settest in beauty. Thou risest and thou shinest on the  
back of thy mother [Nut], O thou who art crowned the king of the gods! 
Nut welcometh thee, and payeth homage unto thee, and Maat, the        
everlasting and never-changing goddess, embraceth thee at noon and    
at eve. Thou stridest over the heavens, being glad at heart, and the  
Lake of Testes is content. The Sebau-fiend hath fallen to the         
ground, his fore-legs and his hind-legs have been hacked off him,     
and the knife hath severed the joints of his back. Ra hath a fair     
wind, and the Sektet Boat setteth out on its journey, and saileth on  
until it cometh into port. The gods of the South, the gods of the     
North, the gods of the West, and the gods of the East praise thee, O  
thou Divine Substance, from whom all living things came into being.   
Thou didst send forth the word when the earth was submerged with      
silence, O thou Only One, who didst dwell in heaven before ever the   
earth and the mountains came into being. Hail, thou Runner, Lord, Only 
One, thou maker of the things that are, thou hast fashioned the tongue 
of the Company of the Gods, thou hast produced whatsoever cometh forth 
from the waters, thou springest up out of them above the submerged    
land of the Lake of Horus. Let me breathe the air which cometh forth  
from thy nostrils, and the north wind which cometh forth from thy     
mother Nut. Make thou my Spirit-soul to be glorious, O Osiris, make   
thou my Heart-soul to be divine. Thou art worshipped as thou          
settest, O Lord of the gods, thou art exalted by reason of thy        
wondrous works. Shine thou with the rays of light upon my body day    
by day, upon me, Osiris the scribe, the assessor of the divine        
offerings of all the gods, the overseer of the granary of the Lords of 
Abydos, the real royal scribe who loveth thee, Ani, whose word is     
truth, in peace.                                                       
    
  Praise be unto thee, O Osiris, the Lord of Eternity, Un-Nefer,      
Heru-Khuti (Harmakhis), whose forms are manifold, whose attributes are 
majestic [Praise be unto thee], O thou who art Ptah-Seker-Tem in      
Anu, thou Lord of the hidden shrine, thou Creator of the House of     
the KA of Ptah (Het-ka-Ptah) and of the gods [therein], thou Guide    
of the Tuat, who art glorified when thou settest in Nu (the Sky). Isis 
embraceth thee in peace, and she driveth away the fiends from the     
entrances of thy paths. Thou turnest thy face towards Amentet, and    
thou makest the earth to shine as with refined copper. Those who      
have lain down in death rise up to see thee, they breathe the air, and 
they look upon thy face when the disk riseth on the horizon. Their    
hearts are at peace since they behold thee, o thou who art Eternity   
and Everlastingness.                                                   
    
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2786

                           THE SOLAR LITANY 

  Homage to you, O ye gods of the Dekans in Anu, and to you, O ye     
Hememet-spirits in Kher Aha, and to thee, O Unti, who art the most    
glorious of all the gods who are hidden in Anu,                        
    
  O grant thou unto me a path whereover I may pass in peace, for I    
am just and true; I have not spoken falsehood wittingly, nor have I   
done aught with deceit.                                                
    
  Homage to thee, O An in Antes, Heru-khuti, who dost with long       
strides march across the heavens,                                      
    
  O grant thou unto me a path whereover I may pass in peace, for I    
am just and true; I have not spoken falsehood wittingly, nor have I   
done aught with deceit.                                                
    
  Homage to thee, O Everlasting Soul, thou Soul who dwellest in       
Tetu, Un-Nefer, the son of Nut, who art the Lord of Akert,             
    
  O grant thou unto me a path whereover I may pass in peace, for I    
am just and true; I have not spoken falsehood wittingly, nor have done 
aught with deceit.                                                     
    
  Homage to thee in thy dominion over Tetu, upon whose brow the Urrt  
Crown is established, thou One who createst the strength to protect   
thyself, and who dwellest in peace,                                    
    
  O grant thou unto me a path whereover I may pass in peace, for I    
am just and true; I have not spoken falsehood wittingly, nor have I   
done aught with deceit.                                                
    
  Homage to thee, O Lord of the Acacia Tree, whose Seker Boat is set  
upon its sledge, who turnest back the Fiend, the Evildoer, and dost   
cause the Eye of Ra (utchat) to rest upon its seat,                    
    
  O grant thou unto me a path whereover I may pass in peace, for I    
am just and true; I have not spoken falsehood wittingly, nor have I   
done aught with deceit.                                                
    
  Homage to thee, O thou who art mighty in thine hour, thou great     
and mighty Prince who dost dwell in Anrutef, thou Lord of Eternity and 
Creator of the Everlastingness, thou Lord of Hensu,                    
    
  O grant thou unto me a path whereover I may pass in peace, for I    
am just and true; I have not spoken falsehood wittingly, nor have I   
done aught with deceit.                                                
    
  Homage to thee, O thou who restest upon Truth, thou Lord of Abtu,   
whose limbs form the substance of Ta-tchesert, unto whom fraud and    
deceit are abominations,                                               
    
  O grant thou unto me a path whereover I may pass in peace, for I    
am just and true; I have not spoken falsehood wittingly, nor have I   
done aught with deceit.

  Homage to thee, O thou who dwellest in thy boat, who dost bring Hapi 
(the Nile) forth from his cavern, whose body is the light, and who    
2787

dwellest in Nekhen,                                                    
    
  O grant thou unto me a path whereover I may pass in peace, for I    
am just and true; I have not spoken falsehood wittingly, nor have I   
done aught with deceit.                                                
    
  Homage to thee, O thou Creator of the gods, thou King of the South  
and North, Osiris, whose word is truth, who rulest the world by thy   
gracious goodness, thou Lord of the Atebui,                            
    
  O grant thou unto me a path whereover I may pass in peace, for I    
am just and true; I have not spoken falsehood wittingly, nor have I   
done aught with deceit.                                                
    
                               APPENDIX 

  (From the Saite Recension, ed. Lepsius, Bl. V)                       
    
  Homage to thee, O thou who comest as Tem, who didst come into       
being to create the Company of the Gods.                               
  Homage to thee, O thou who comest as the Soul of Souls, the Holy One 
in Amentet.                                                            
    
  Homage to thee, O President of the Gods, who illuminest the Tuat    
with thy beauties.                                                     
    
  Homage to thee, O thou who comest as the Light-god, who travellest  
in thy Disk.                                                           
    
  Homage to thee, O thou greatest of all gods, who are crowned King in 
heaven, Governor in the Tuat.                                          
    
  Homage to thee, O thou who makest a way through the Tuat, who dost  
lead the way through all doors.                                        
    
  Homage to thee, O thou who art among the gods, who dost weigh       
words in Khert-Neter.                                                  
    
  Homage to thee, O thou who dwellest in thy secret places, who dost  
fashion the Tuat with thy might.                                       
    
  Homage to thee, O great one, O mighty one, thine enemies have fallen 
in places where they were smitten.                                     
    
  Homage to thee, O thou who hast hacked the Sebau-fiends in pieces,  
and hast annihilated Aapep.                                            
    
  Grant thou the sweet breeze of the north wind to the Osiris         
Auf-ankh, whose word is truth.                                         
    
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2788

          HYMN TO RA WHEN HE RISETH AND TO THOSE IN HIS TRAIN 

  A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN. 
Those who are in his following rejoice, and the Osiris, the scribe    
Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- Hail, thou Disk, thou lord of       
rays, who risest on the horizon day by day. Shine thou with thy       
beams of light upon the face of the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth,  
for he singeth hymns of praise to thee at dawn, and he maketh thee    
to sit at eventide [with words of adoration]. May the soul of the     
Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, come forth with thee into heaven! May 
he set out with thee in the Matet Boat [in the morning], may he come  
into port in the Sektet Boat [in the evening], and may he cleave his  
path among the stars of heaven which never rest.                       
    
  The Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, being at peace [with his       
god], maketh adoration to his Lord, the Lord of Eternity, and         
saith:- Homage to thee, O Heru-khuti, who art the god Khepera, the    
self-created. When thou risest on the horizon and sheddest thy beams  
of light upon the Lands of the South and of the North, thou art       
beautiful, yea beautiful, and all the gods rejoice when they behold   
thee, the king of heaven. The goddess, the Lady of the Hour, is       
stablished upon thy head, her Uraei of the South and of the North     
are upon thy brow, and she taketh up her place before thee. The god   
Thoth is stablished in the bows of thy boat to destroy utterly all thy 
foes. Those who dwell in the Tuat come forth to meet thee, and they   
bow to the earth in homage as they come towards thee, to look upon thy 
beautiful Form. And I, Ani, have come into thy presence, so that I may 
be with thee, and may behold thy Disk every day. Let me not be kept   
captive [by the tomb], and let me not be turned back [on my way].     
Let the members of my body be made new again when I contemplate thy   
beauties, even as are the members of all thy favoured ones, because   
I am one of those who worshipped thee upon earth. Let me arrive in the 
Land of Eternity, let me enter into the Land of Everlastingness. This, 
O my Lord, behold thou shalt ordain for me.                            
    
  AND MOREOVER, THE OSIRIS ANI, WHOSE WORD IS TRUTH, IN PEACE, THE    
TRUTH-SPEAKER, SAITH:- Homage to thee, O thou who risest on thy       
horizon in the form of Ra, who restest upon Law, [which can neither be 
changed nor altered]. Thou passest over the sky, and every face,      
watcheth thee and thy course, for thou thyself art hidden from their  
gaze. Thou dost show thyself [to them] at dawn and at eventide each   
day. The Sektet Boat, wherein Thy Majesty dwelleth, setteth forth on  
its journey with vigour. Thy beams [fall] upon all faces, thy light   
with its manifold colours is incomprehensible [to man], and thy       
brilliant rays cannot be reported. The Lands of the Gods see thee,    
they could write [concerning thee]; the Deserts of Punt could count   
thee. Thy creation is hidden. It is one by the opening of thy mouth.  
Thy form is the head of Nu. May he (Ani) advance, even as thou dost   
advance, without cessation, even as Thy Majesty [ceaseth not to       
advance] even for a moment. With great strides thou dost in one little 
moment pass over limitless distances which would need millions and    
hundreds of thousands of years [for a man to pass over; this] thou    
doest, and then thou sinkest to rest. Thou bringest to an end the     
hours of the night, even as thou stridest over them. Thou bringest    
them to an end by thine own ordinance, and dawn cometh on the earth.  
Thou settest thyself before thy handiwork in the form of Ra, and      
thou rollest up on the horizon....... Thou sendest forth light when   
thy form raiseth itself up, thou ordainest the increase of thy         
2789

splendours. Thou mouldest thy limbs as thou advancest, thou bringest  
them forth, thou who wast never brought forth, in the form of Ra,     
who rolleth up into the height of heaven. Grant thou that I may       
reach the heaven of eternity, and the region where thy favoured ones  
dwell. May I unite with those holy and perfect Spirit-souls of        
Khert-Neter. May I come forth with them to behold thy beauties as thou 
rollest on at eventide, as thou journeyest to thy mother Nut (the     
Night-sky), and dost place thyself at the right hand (in the West). My 
two hands are raised to thee in praise and thanksgiving when thou     
settest in life. Behold, thou art the Creator of Eternity, who art    
adored when thou settest in Nu. I have set thee in my heart, without  
wavering, O thou who art more divine than the gods.                    
    
  The Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- Praise and thanksgiving 
be unto thee, O thou who rollest on like unto gold, thou Illuminer    
of the Two Lands on the day of thy birth. Thy mother brought thee     
forth on her hand, and thou didst light up with splendour the circle  
which is travelled over by the Disk. O Great Light who rollest        
across Nu, thou dost raise up the generations of men from the deep    
source of thy waters, and dost make to keep festivals all districts   
and cities, and all habitations. Thou protectest [them] with thy      
beauties. Thy KA riseth up with the celestial food hu and tchefau. O  
thou mightily victorious one, thou Power of Powers, who makest        
strong thy throne against the sinful ones, whose risings on thy throne 
in the Sektet Boat are mighty, whose strength is widespread in the    
Atett Boat, make thou the Osiris Ani to be glorious by virtue of his  
word, which is truth, in Khert-Neter. Grant thou that he may be in    
Amentet free from evil, and let [his] offences be [set] behind thee.  
Grant thou that he may [live there] a devoted slave of the            
Spirit-souls. Let him mingle among the Heart-souls who live in        
Ta-tchesert (the Holy Land). Let him travel about in the Sekhet-Aaru  
(the Elysian Fields), conformably to [thy] decree with joy of heart-  
him the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth.                               
    
  [And the god maketh answer]:--Thou shalt come forth into heaven,    
thou shalt sail over the sky, and thou shalt hold loving intercourse  
with the Star-gods. Praises shall be made to thee in the Boat. Thy    
name shall be proclaimed in the Atett Boat. Thou shalt look upon Ra   
within his shrine. Thou shalt make the Disk to set [with prayer] every 
day. Thou shalt see the Ant Fish in his transformations in the        
depths of the waters of turquoise. Thou shalt see the Abtu Fish in his 
time. It shall be that the Evil One shall fall when he deviseth a plan 
to destroy thee, and the joints of his neck and back shall be hacked  
asunder. Ra saileth with a fair wind, and the Sektet Boat             
progresseth and cometh into port. The mariners of Ra rejoice, and     
the heart of the Lady of the Hour is glad, for the enemy of her Lord  
hath been cast to the ground. Thou shalt behold Horus standing on     
the pilot's place in the Boat, and Thoth and Maat shall stand one on  
each side of him. All the gods shall rejoice when they behold Ra      
coming in peace to make the hearts of the Spirit-souls to live, and   
the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, the assessor of the holy         
offerings of the Lords of Thebes, shall be with them!                  
    
                      THE CHAPTER OF THE NEW MOON 

  THE FOLLOWING IS TO BE RECITED ON THE DAY OF THE MONTH (NEW MOON    
DAY). The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, in peace,       
whose word is truth, saith:- Ra ascendeth his throne on his horizon,  
2790

and the Company of his Gods follow in his train. The God cometh       
forth from his hidden place, [and] tchefau food falleth from the      
eastern horizon of heaven at the word of Nut. They (the gods)         
rejoice over the paths of Ra, the Great Ancestor [as] he journeyeth   
round about. Therefore art thou exalted, O Ra, the dweller in thy     
Shrine. Thou swallowest the winds, thou drawest into thyself the north 
wind, thou eatest up the flesh of thy seat on the day when thou       
breathest truth. Thou dividest [it among] the gods who are [thy]      
followers. [Thy] Boat saileth on travelling among the Great Gods at   
thy word. Thou countest thy bones, thou gatherest together thy        
members, thou settest thy face towards Beautiful Amentet, and thou    
comest there, being made new every day. Behold, thou art that Image of 
Gold, thou hast the unitings of the disks of the sky, thou hast       
quakings, thou goest round about, and art made new each day. Hail!    
There is rejoicing in the horizon! The gods who dwell in the sky      
descend the ropes [of thy Boat] when they see the Osiris Ani, whose   
word is truth, they ascribe praise unto him as unto Ra. The Osiris Ani 
is a Great Chief. [He] seeketh the Urrt Crown. His provisions are     
apportioned to him- the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth. [His] fate is 
strong from the exalted body of the Aamu gods, who are in the presence 
of Ra. The Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, is strong on the earth and 
in Khert-Neter. O Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, wake up, and be    
strong like unto Ra every day. The Osiris Ani, whose word is truth,   
shall not tarry, he shall not remain motionless in this land for ever. 
Right well shall he see with his two eyes, right well shall he hear   
with his two ears, the things which are true, the things which are    
true. The Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, is in Anu, the Osiris      
Ani, whose word is truth, is as Ra, and he is exalted by reason of    
[his] oars among the Followers of Nu. The Osiris Ani, whose word is   
truth, cannot tell what he hath seen [or] narrate [what he hath heard] 
in the House of the God of Mysteries. Hail! Let there be shouts of    
acclamation of the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, the divine body of 
Ra in the Boat of Nu, who beareth propitiatory offerings for the KA of 
the god of that which he loveth. The Osiris Ani, whose word is        
truth, in peace, whose word is truth, is like Horus, the mighty one of 
transformations.                                                       
    
  RUBRIC: This Chapter is to be recited over a boat seven cubits long, 
made of green stone of the Tchatchau. Make a heaven of stars, and     
purify it and cleanse it with natron and incense. Make then a figure  
of Ra upon a tablet of new stone in paint, and set it in the bows of  
the boat. Then make a figure of the deceased whom thou wilt make      
perfect, [and place it] in the boat. Make it to sail in the Boat of   
Ra, and Ra himself shall look upon it. Do not these things in the     
presence of any one except thyself, or thy father, or thy son. Then   
let them keep guard over their faces, and they shall see the          
deceased in Khert-Neter in the form of a messenger of Ra.              
    
                HYMN TO RA FOR THE DAY OF THE NEW MOON 

  A HYMN TO RA [WHICH IS TO BE SUNG] ON THE DAY OF THE MONTH (THE     
DAY OF THE NEW MOON) [WHEN] THE BOAT OF RA SAILETH. [The Osiris the   
scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith:-] Homage to thee, O thou who  
dwellest in thy Boat. Thou rollest on, thou rollest on, thou sendest  
forth light, thou sendest forth light. Thou decreest rejoicing for    
[every] man for millions of years unto those who love him. Thou givest 
[thy] face to the Hememet spirits, thou god Khepera who dwellest in   
thy Boat. Thou hast overthrown the Fiend Aapep. O ye Sons of Keb,     
2791

overthrow ye the enemies of the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, and  
the fiends of destruction who would destroy the Boat of Ra. Horus hath 
cut off your heads in heaven. Ye who were in the forms of geese,      
your navel strings are on the earth. The animals are set upon the     
earth..... in the form of fish. Every male fiend and every female     
fiend shall be destroyed by the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth.      
Whether the fiends descend from out of heaven, or whether they come   
forth from the earth, or whether they advance on the waters, or       
whether they come from among the Star-gods, Thoth, [the son of        
Aner], coming forth from Anerti shall hack them to pieces. And the    
Osiris Ani shall make them silent and dumb. And behold ye, this god,  
the mighty one of slaughters, the terror of whom is most great,       
shall wash himself clean in your blood, and he shall bathe in your    
gore, and ye shall be destroyed by the Osiris Ani in the Boat of his  
Lord Ra-Horus. The heart of the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, shall 
live. His mother Isis giveth birth to him, and Nephthys nurseth him,  
just as Isis gave birth to Horus, and Nephthys nursed him. [He]       
shall repulse the Smait fiends of Suti. They shall see the Urrt       
Crown stablished upon his head, and they shall fall down upon their   
faces [and worship him]. Behold, O ye Spirit-souls, and men, and gods, 
and ye dead, when ye see the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, in the  
form of Horus, and the favoured one of the Urrt Crown, fall ye down   
upon your faces. The word of the Osiris Ani is truth before his       
enemies in heaven above, and on earth beneath, and before the         
Tchatchau Chiefs of every god and of every goddess.                    
    
  RUBRIC: This Chapter shall be recited over a large hawk standing    
upright with the White Crown upon his head, [and over figures of] Tem, 
Shu, Tefnut, Keb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, [Suti] and Nephthys. And they    
shall be painted in colour upon a new tablet, which shall be placed in 
a boat, together with a figure of the deceased. Anoint them with heken 
oil, and offer unto them burning incense, and geese, and joints of    
meat roasted. It is an act of praise to Ra as he journeyeth in his    
boat, and it will make a man to have his being with Ra, and to        
travel with him wheresoever he goeth, and it will most certainly cause 
the enemies of Ra to be slain. And the Chapter of travelling shall    
be recited on the sixth day of the festival.                           
    
                               APPENDIX 

  (From the Turin Papyrus)                                             
    
  ANOTHER CHAPTER WHICH IS TO BE RECITED WHEN THE MOON RENEWETH ITSELF 
ON THE DAY OF THE MONTH [WHEREON IT DOETH THIS]. Osiris unfettereth   
the storm-cloud in the body of heaven, and is unfettered himself;     
Horus is made strong happily each day. He whose transformations are   
many hath had offerings made unto him at the moment, and he hath      
made an end of the storm which is in the face of the Osiris, Auf-ankh, 
whose word is truth. Verily, he cometh, and he is Ra in journeying,   
and he is the four celestial gods in the heavens above. The Osiris    
Auf-ankh, whose word is truth, cometh forth in his day, and he        
embarketh among the tackle of the boat.                                
    
  RUBRIC: If this Chapter be known by the deceased he shall become a  
perfect Spirit-soul in Khert-Neter, and he shall not die a second     
time, and he shall eat his food side by side with Osiris. If this     
Chapter be known by the deceased upon earth, he shall become like unto 
Thoth, and he shall be adored by those who live. He shall not fall    
2792

headlong at the moment of the intensity of the royal flame of the     
goddess Bast, and the Great Prince shall make him to advance happily.  
    
              ADVANCING TO THE TCJATCHAU CHIEFS OF OSIRIS 

  THE CHAPTER OF ADVANCING TO THE TCHATCHAU CHIEFS OF OSIRIS. The     
Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- I have built a house for my  
Ba-soul in the sanctuary in Tetu. I sow seed in the town of Pe (Buto). 
I have ploughed the fields with my labourers. My palm tree [standeth  
upright and is] like Menu upon it. I abominate abominable things. I   
will not eat the things which are abominations unto me. What I        
abominate is filth: I will not eat it. I shall not be destroyed by the 
offerings of propitiation and the sepulchral meals. I will not        
approach filth [to touch it] with my hands, I will not tread upon it  
with my sandals. For my bread shall be made of the white barley, and  
my ale shall be made from the red grain of the god Hapi (the          
Nile-god), which the Sektet Boat and the Atett Boat shall bring       
[unto me], and I will eat my food under the leaves of the trees       
whose beautiful arms I myself do know. O what splendour shall the     
White Crown make for me which shall be lifted up on me by the         
Uraei-goddesses! O Doorkeeper of Sehetep-taui, bring thou to me that  
wherewith the cakes of propitiation are made. Grant thou to me that   
I may lift up the earth. May the Spirit-souls open to me [their] arms, 
and let the Company of the Gods hold their peace whilst the Hememet   
spirits hold converse with the Osiris Ani. May the hearts of the      
gods lead him in his exalted state into heaven among the gods who     
appear in visible forms. If any god, or any goddess, attack the Osiris 
Ani, whose word is truth, when he setteth out, the Ancestor of the    
year who liveth upon hearts [Osiris] shall eat him when he cometh     
forth from Abydos, and the Ancestors of Ra shall reckon with him,     
and the Ancestors of Light shall reckon with him. [He is] a god of    
splendour [arrayed in] the apparel of heaven, and he is among the     
Great Gods. Now the subsistence of the Osiris Ani, whose word is      
truth, is among the cakes and the ale which are made for your         
mouths. I enter in by the Disk, I come forth by the god Ahui. I       
shall hold converse with the Followers of the Gods. I shall hold      
converse with the Disk. I shall hold converse with the                
Hememet-spirits. He shall set the terror of me in the thick           
darkness, in the inside of the goddess Mehurt, by the side of his     
forehead. Behold, I shall be with Osiris, and my perfection shall be  
his perfection among the Great Gods. I shall speak unto him with the  
words of men, I shall listen, and he shall repeat to me the words of  
the gods. I, the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, in peace, have      
come equipped. Thou makest to approach [thee] those who love thee. I  
am a Spirit-soul who is better equipped than any [other] Spirit-soul.  
    
                        CHANGING INTO A SWALLOW 

  THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A SWALLOW. The        
Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- I am a swallow, [I am] a     
swallow. [I am] that Scorpion, the daughter of Ra. Hail, O ye gods    
whose odour is sweet. Hail, O ye gods whose odour is sweet. Hail,     
Flame, who comest forth from the horizon. Hail, thou who art in the   
city. I have brought the Warder of his corner there. Give me thy two  
hands, and let me pass my time in the Island of Flame. I have advanced 
with a message, I have come having the report thereof [to make].      
Open to me. How shall I tell that which I have seen there? I am like  
Horus, the governor of the Boat, when the throne of his father was    
2793

given unto him, and when Set, that son of Nut, was [lying] under the  
fetters which he had made for Osiris. He who is in Sekhem hath        
inspected me. I stretch out my arms over Osiris. I have advanced for  
the examination, I have come to speak there. Let me pass on and       
deliver my message. I am he who goeth in, [I am] judged, [I] come     
forth magnified at the Gate of Nebertcher. I am purified at the       
Great Uart. I have done away my wickednesses. I have put away         
utterly my offences. I have put away utterly all the taints of evil   
which appertained to me [upon the earth]. I have purified myself, I   
have made myself to be like a god. Hail, O ye Doorkeepers, I have     
completed my journey. I am like unto you. I have come forth by day.   
I have advanced on my legs. I have gained the master over [my]        
footsteps. [Hail, ye] Spirit-souls! I, even I, do know the hidden     
roads and the Gates of Sekhet Aaru. I live there. Verily, I, even I,  
have come, I have overthrown my enemies upon the earth, although my   
body lieth a mummy in the tomb.                                       
ΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ
2794

                               APPENDIX 

  RUBRIC: (Naville, op. cit., II, Bl. 202)                             
    
  If this Chapter be known by the deceased, he shall enter in after he 
hath come forth by day.                                                
    
  RUBRIC: (Saite Recension)                                            
    
  If this Chapter be known by the deceased, he shall come forth by day 
from Khert-Neter, and he shall go [again] after he hath come forth. If 
this Chapter be not known [by the deceased], he shall not go in       
again after he hath come forth [and he] shall not know [how] to come  
forth by day.                                                          
    
                     CHANGING INTO A HAWK OF GOLD 

  [THE CHAPTER] OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A HAWK OF GOLD.     
The Osiris Ani saith:- I have risen up out of the seshett chamber,    
like the golden hawk which cometh forth from his egg. I fly, I        
alight like a hawk with a back of seven cubits, and the wings of which 
are like unto the mother-of-emerald of the South. I have come forth   
from the Sektet Boat, and my heart hath been brought unto me from     
the mountain of the East. I have alighted on the Atet Boat, and       
there have been brought unto me those who dwelt in their substance,   
and they bowed in homage before me. I have risen, I have gathered     
myself together like a beautiful golden hawk, with the head of the    
Benu, and Ra hath entered in [to hear my speech]. I have taken my seat 
among the great gods, [the children of] Nut. I have settled myself,   
the Sekhet-hetepet (the Field of Offerings) is before me. I eat       
therein, I become a Spirit-soul therein, I am supplied with food in   
abundance therein, as much as I desire. The Grain-god (Nepra) hath    
given unto me food for my throat, and I am master over myself and over 
the attributes of my head.                                             
    
                      CHANGING INTO A DIVINE HAWK 

  [THE CHAPTER OF] MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A DIVINE HAWK.
Osiris Ani saith:- Hail, thou Great God, come thou to Tetu. Make      
thou ready for me the ways, and let me go round [to visit] my thrones. 
I have laboured. I have made myself perfect. O grant thou that I may  
be held in fear. Create thou awe of me. Let the gods of the Tuat be   
afraid of me, and let them fight for me in their halls. Permit not    
thou to come nigh unto me him that would attack me, or would injure me 
in the House of Darkness. Cover over the helpless one, hide him. Let  
do likewise the gods who hearken unto the word [of truth], the Khepriu 
gods who are in the following of Osiris. Hold ye your peace then, O ye 
gods, whilst the God holdeth speech with me, he who listeneth to the  
truth. I speak unto him my words. Osiris, grant thou that that which  
cometh forth from thy mouth may circulate to me. Let me see thine     
own Form. Let thy Souls envelop me. Grant thou that I may come        
forth, and that I may be master of my legs, and let me live there like 
Nebertcher upon his throne. Let the gods of the Tuat hold me in       
fear, and let them fight for me in their halls. Grant thou that I     
may move forward with him and with the Ariu gods, and let me be firmly 
stablished on my pedestal like the Lord of Life. Let me be in the     
company of Isis, the goddess, and let [the gods] keep me safe from him 
that would do an injury unto me. Let none come to see the helpless     
2795

one. May I advance, and may I come to the Henti boundaries of the sky. 
Let me address words to Keb, and let me make supplicaion to the god Hu 
with Nebertcher. Let the gods of the Tuat be afraid of me, and let    
them fight for me in their halls. Let them see that thou hast provided 
me with food for the festival. I am one of those Spirit-souls who     
dwell in the Light-god. I have made my form in his Form, when he      
cometh to Tetu. I am a Spirit-body among his Spirit-bodies; he shall  
speak unto thee the things [which concern] me. Would that he would    
cause me to be held in fear! Would that he would create [in them]     
awe of me! Let the gods of the Tuat be afraid of me, and let them     
fight for me [in their halls]. I, even I, am a Spirit-soul, a         
dweller in the Light-god, whose form hath been created in divine      
flesh. I am one of those Spirit-souls who dwell in the Light-god,     
who were created by Tem himself, and who exist in the blossoms of     
his Eye. He hath made to exist, he hath made glorious, and he hath    
magnified their faces during their existence with him. Behold, he is  
Alone in Nu. They acclaim him when he cometh forth from the horizon,  
and the gods and the Spirit-souls who have come into being with him   
ascribe fear unto him.                                                 
    
  I am one of the worms which have been created by the Eye of the Lord 
One. And behold, when as yet Isis had not given birth to Horus, I     
was flourishing, and I had waxed old, and had become pre-eminent among 
the Spirit-souls who had come into being with him. I rose up like a   
divine hawk, and Horus endowed me with a Spirit-body with his soul, so 
that [I] might take possession of the property of Osiris in the       
Tuat. He shall say to the twin Lion-gods for me, the Chief of the     
House of the Nemes Crown, the Dweller in his cavern: Get thee back    
to the heights of heaven, for behold, inasmuch as thou art a          
Spirit-body with the creations of Horus, the Nemes Crown shall not    
be to thee: [but] thou shalt have speech even to the uttermost        
limits of the heavens. I, the warder, took possession of the          
property of Horus [which belonged] to Osiris in the Tuat, and Horus   
repeated to me what his father Osiris had said unto him in the years  
[past], on the days of his burial. Give thou to me the Nemes Crown,   
say the twin Lion-gods for me. Advance thou, come along the road of   
heaven, and look upon those who dwell in the uttermost limits of the  
horizon. The gods of the Tuat shall hold thee in fear, and they       
shall fight for thee in their halls. The god Auhet belongeth to       
them. All the gods who guard the shrine of the Lord One are smitten   
with terror at [my] words.                                             
    
  Hail, saith the god who is exalted upon his coffer to me! He hath   
bound on the Nemes Crown, [by] the decree of the twin Lion-gods. The  
god Aahet hath made a way for me. I am exalted [on the coffer], the   
twin Lion-gods have bound the Nemes Crown on me and my two locks of   
hair are given unto me. He hath stablished for me my heart by his     
own flesh, and by his great, two-fold strength, and I shall not fall  
headlong before Shu. I am Hetep, the Lord of the two Uraei-goddesses  
who are to be adored. I know the Light-god, his winds are in my       
body. The Bull which striketh terror [into souls] shall not repulse   
me. I come daily into the House of the twin Lion-gods. I come forth   
therefrom into the House of Isis. I look upon the holy things which   
are hidden. I see the being who is therein. I speak to the great      
ones of Shu, they repulse him that is wrathful in his hour. I am Horus 
who dwelleth in his divine Light. I am master of his crown. I am      
master of his radiance. I advance towards the Henti boundaries of     
heaven. Horus is upon his seat. Horus is upon his thrones. My face    
2796

is like that of a divine hawk. I am one who is equipped [like] his    
lord. I shall come forth to Tetu. I shall see Osiris. I shall live    
in his actual presence.... Nut. They shall see me. I shall see the    
gods [and] the Eye of Horus burning with fire before my eyes. They    
shall reach out their hands to me. I shall stand up. I shall be master 
of him that would subject me to restraint. They shall open the holy   
paths to me, they shall see my form, they shall listen to my words.    
    
  [Homage] to you, O ye gods of the Tuat, whose faces are turned back, 
whose powers advance, conduct ye me to the Star-gods which never rest. 
Prepare ye for me the holy ways to the Hemat house, and to your god,  
the Soul, who is the mighty one of terror. Horus hath commanded me    
to lift up your faces; do ye look upon me. I have risen up like a     
divine hawk. Horus hath made me to be a Spirit-body by means of his   
Soul, and to take possession of the things of Osiris in the Tuat. Make 
ye for me a path. I have travelled and I have arrived at those who are 
chiefs of their caverns, and who are guardians of the House of Osiris. 
I speak unto them his mighty deeds. I made them to know concerning his 
victories. He is ready [to butt with his] two horns at Set. They      
know him who hath taken possession of the god Hu, and who hath taken  
possession of the Powers of Tem.                                       
    
  Travel thou on thy way safely, cry out the gods of the Tuat to me. O 
ye who make your names pre-eminent, who are chiefs in your shrines,   
and who are guardians of the House of Osiris, grant, I pray you,      
that I may come to you. I have bound up and I have gathered together  
your Powers. I have directed the Powers of the ways, the wardens of   
the horizon, and of the Hemat House of heaven. I have stablished their 
fortresses for Osiris. I have prepared the ways for him. I have       
performed the things which [he] hath commanded. I come forth to       
Tetu. I see Osiris. I speak to him concerning the matter of his       
Great Son, whom he loveth, and concerning [the smiting of] the heart  
of Set. I look upon the lord who was helpless. How shall I make them  
to know the plans of the gods, and that which Horus did without the   
knowledge of his father Osiris?                                        
    
  Hail, Lord, thou Soul, most awful and terrible, behold me. I have   
come, I make thee to be exalted! I have forced a way though the       
Tuat. I have opened the roads which appertain to heaven, and those    
which appertain to the earth, and no one hath opposed me therein. I   
have exalted thy face, O Lord of Eternity.                             
    
                               APPENDIX 

  (In the Papyrus of Nu, Sheet 14, the Chapter ends with the          
following.)                                                            
    
  Exalted art thou on thy throne, O Osiris! Thou hast heard fair      
things, O Osiris! Thy strength is vigorous, O Osiris! Thy head is     
fastened on thy body, O Osiris! Thy neck is made firm, O Osiris! Thy  
heart is glad, [O Osiris!]. Thy speech is made effective, O Osiris!   
Thy princes rejoice Thou art established the Bull in Amentet. Thy     
son Horus hath ascended thy trrone, and all life is with him. Millions 
of years minister unto him, and millions of years hold him in fear.   
The Company of the Gods are his servants, and they fold him in fear.  
The god Tem, the Governor, the only One among the gods, hath spoken,  
and his word passeth not away. Horus is both the divine food and the  
sacrifice. He made haste to gather together [the members of] of his   
2797

father. Horus is his deliverer. Horus is his deliverer. Horus hath    
sprung from the essence of his divine father and from his decay. He   
hath become the Governor of Egypt. The gods shall work for him, and   
they shall toil for him for million of years. He shall make millions  
of years to live through his Eye, the only one of its lord,           
Nebertcher.]                                                           
    
  (From the Turin Papyrus, Bl. XXX)                                    
    
  Exalted is thy throne, O Osiris. Thou hearest well, O Osiris. Thy   
strength flourisheth, O Osiris. I have fastened thy head [on thy] body 
for thee. I have stablished thy throat, the throne of the joy of thy  
heart. Thy words are stable. Thy shenit princes are glad. Thou art    
stablished as the Bull of Amentet. Thy son Horus hath ascended thy    
throne. All life is with him. Millions of years work for him. The     
Company of the Gods fear him. Tem, the One Power of the Gods, hath    
spoken, and what he hath said is not changed, Hetu Aabi. Horus hath   
stood up. I have gone about collecting his father. Horus hath         
delivered his father. Horus hath delivered [his mother]. My mother    
is Horus. My brother is Horus. My uncle is Horus. I have come. Horus  
followeth his father.... there the dirt of his head. The gods shall   
serve him. Millions of years...... in his Eye, the Only One of its    
Lord, Neb-er-tcher.                                                    
    
             CHANGING INTO THE PRINCE OF TCHATCHAU CHIEFS 

  THE CHAPTER OF BEING TRANSFORMED INTO THE PRINCE OF THE TCHATCHAU   
CHIEFS. The Osiris Nu, whose word is truth, saith:- I am the god      
Tem, the maker of the sky, the creator of the things which are, who   
cometh forth from the earth, who made the seed of man to come into    
being, the Lord of things, who fashioned the gods, the Great God,     
who created himself, the Lord of Life, who made to flourish the Two   
Companies of the Gods. Homage to you, O ye divine Lords of things,    
ye holy beings, whose seats are veiled! Homage to you, O ye Lords of  
Eternity, whose forms are concealed, whose sanctuaries are            
mysteries, whose places of abode are not known! Homage to you, O ye   
gods, who dwell in the Tenait (Circle of Light)! Homage to you, O ye  
gods of the Circle of the country of the Cataracts! Homage to you, O  
ye gods who dwell in Amentet! Homage to you, O ye gods who dwell      
within Nut! Grant ye to me that I may come before you, I am pure, I am 
like a god. I am endowed with a Spirit-soul. I am strong. I am endowed 
with a Heart-soul. I bring unto you incense, and spice, and natron.   
I have done away with the chidings of your mouths. I have come, I have 
done away the evil which was in your hearts, and I have removed the   
offences which appertained to you [against me]. I bring to you deeds  
of well-doing, and I present before you truth. I know you. I know your 
names. I know your forms which are not known. I come into being       
among you. My coming is like unto that god who eateth men, and who    
feedeth upon the gods. I am strong before you even like that god who  
is exalted upon his pedestal, unto whom the gods come with            
rejoicing, and the goddesses make supplication when they see me. I    
have come unto you. I have ascended my throne like your Two Daughters. 
I have taken my seat in the horizon. I receive my offerings of        
propitiation upon my altars. I drink my fill of seth wine every       
evening. I come to those who are making rejoicings, and the gods who  
live in the horizon ascribe unto me praises, as the divine            
Spirit-body, the Lord of mortals. I am exalted like that holy god     
who dwelleth in the Great House. The gods rejoice greatly when they   
2798

see my beautiful appearances from the body of the goddess Nut, and    
when the goddess Nut bringeth me forth.                                
    
                    CHANGING INTO THE SERPENT SATA 

  [THE CHAPTER OF] MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO THE SERPENT SATA.   
The Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- I am the serpent Sata    
whose years are infinite. I lie down dead. I am born daily. I am the  
serpent Sa-en-ta, the dweller in the uttermost parts of the earth. I  
lie down in death. I am born, I become new, I renew my youth every    
day.                                                                   
                                                                   
                    CHANGING INTO THE CROCODILE GOD 

  [THE CHAPTER OF] MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO THE CROCODILE-GOD.  
The Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- I am the Crocodile-god   
(Sebak) who dwelleth amid his terrors. I am the Crocodile-god and I   
seize [my prey] like a ravening beast. I am the great Fish which is in 
Kamui. I am the Lord to whom bowings and prostrations are made in     
Sekhem. And the Osiris Ani is the lord to whom bowings and            
prostrations are made in Sekhem.                                       
    
  (From the Papyrus of Nebseni)                                        
    
  Behold, I am the dweller in his terrors, I am the crocodile, his    
firstborn. I bring (prey) from a distance. I am the Fish of Horus, the 
Great One in Kamui. I am the lord of bowings in Sekhem.                
    
                          CHANGING INTO PTAH 

  THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO PTAH. The Osiris Ani  
[whose word is truth, saith]:- I eat bread. I drink ale. I gird up    
my garments. I fly like a hawk. I cackle like the Smen goose. I alight 
upon that place hard by the Sepulchre on the festival of the Great    
God. That which is abominable, that which is abominable I will not    
eat. [An abominable thing] is filth, I will not eat thereof. That     
which is an abomination unto my KA shall not enter my body. I will    
live upon that whereon live the gods and the Spirit-souls. I shall    
live, and I shall be master of their cakes. I am master of them, and I 
shall eat them under the trees of the dweller in the House of         
Hathor, my Lady. I will make an offering. My cakes are in Tetu, my    
offerings are in Anu. I gird about myself the robe which is woven     
for me by the goddess Tait. I shall stand up and sit down in          
whatsoever place it pleaseth me to do so. My head is like unto that of 
Ra. I am gathered together like Tem.                                   
    
  Here offer the four cakes of Ra, and the offerings of the earth.     
    
  I shall come forth. My tongue is like that of Ptah, and my throat is 
like unto that of Hathor, and I remember the words of Tem, of my      
father, with my mouth. He forced the woman, the wife of Keb,          
breaking the heads near him; therefore was the fear of him there.     
[His] praises are repeated with vigour. I am decreed to be the Heir,  
the lord of the earth of Keb. I have union with women. Keb hath       
refreshed me, and he hath caused me to ascend his throne. Those who   
dwell in Anu bow their heads to me. I am [their] Bull, I am stronger  
than [the Lord] of the hour. I unite with women. I am master for      
millions of years.                                                     
2799
    
                     TURNING INTO THE SOUL OF TEM 

  [THE CHAPTER OF] MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO THE SOUL OF TEM. The 
Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- I shall not enter into the   
place of destruction, I shall not perish, I shall not know [decay].   
I am Ra, who came forth from Nu, the Soul of the God who created his  
own members. What I abominate is sin; I will not look thereon. I cry  
not out against truth, nay, I live therein. I am the god Hu, the      
imperishable god, in my name of "Soul." I have created myself with Nu, 
in the name of "Khepera." I exist in them like Ra. I am the Lord of   
Light.                                                                 
    
                                                                       
    

                               APPENDIX 
  (From the Papyrus of Nu)                                             
    
  That which is an abomination unto me is death; let me not go into   
the chamber of torture which is in the Tuat. I am the delight of the  
Khu of Osiris. I make to be content the heart[s] of those who dwell   
among the divine things which are beloved [by me]. They cause the fear 
of me [to abound], they create the awe of me to be in those divine    
beings who dwell in their own circles. Behold, I am exalted on my     
own standard, and upon my throne, and upon my seat which is assigned  
[to me]. I am the god Nu, and those who commit sin shall not destroy  
me. I am the firstborn of the primeval god, and my soul is the Souls  
of the Eternal Gods, and my body is Everlastingness. My created form  
is [that of] the god Eternity, the Lord of Years, and the Prince of   
Everlastingness. I am the Creator of the Darkness, who maketh his seat 
in the uttermost limits of the heavens, [which] I love. I arrive at   
their boundaries. I advance upon my two legs. I direct my resting     
place. I sail over the sky. I fetter and destroy the hidden serpents  
which are about my footsteps [in going to] the Lord of the Two Arms.  
My soul is the Souls of the Eternal Gods, and my body is              
Everlastingness. I am the exalted one, the Lord of the Land of Tebu. I 
am the Child in the city: "Young man in the country" is my name.      
"Imperishable one" is my name. I am the Soul Creator of Nu. I make    
my habitation in Khert-Neter. My nest is invisible, my egg is not     
broken. I have done away the evil which is in me. I shall see my      
Father, the Lord of the Evening. His body dwelleth in Anu. I am made  
to be the Light-god, a dweller in the Light-god, over the Western     
Domain of the Hebt bird.                                               
    
                      CHANGING INTO THE BENU BIRD 

  [THE CHAPTER OF] MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO THE BENU BIRD. The  
Osiris, the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- I flew up out    
of primeval matter. I came into being like the god Khepera. I         
germinated like the plants. I am concealed like the tortoise [in his  
shell]. I am the seed of every god. I am Yesterday of the Four        
[Quarters of the Earth, and] the Seven Uraei, who came into being in  
the Eastern land. [I am] the Great One (Horus) who illumineth the     
Hememet spirits with the light of his body. [I am] that god in respect 
of Set. [I am] Thoth who [stood] between them (Horus and Set) as the  
judge on behalf of the Governor of Sekhem and the Souls of Anu. [He   
was like] a stream between them. I have come. I rise up on my         
throne. I am endowed with Khu. I am mighty. I am endowed with          
2800

godhood among the gods. I am Khensu, [the lord] of every kind of      
strength.                                                              
    
  RUBRIC: [If] this Chapter [be known by the deceased], he shall      
come forth pure by day after his death, and he shall perform every    
transformation which his soul desireth to make. He shall be among the 
Followers of Un-Nefer, and he shall satisfy himself with the food of  
Osiris, and with sepulchral meals. He shall see the Disk [of the Sun], 
he shall be in good case upon earth before Ra, and his word shall be  
truth in the sight of Osiris, and no evil thing whatsoever shall      
have dominion over him for ever and ever.                              
    
                         CHANGING INTO A HERON 

  [THE CHAPTER OF] MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO A HERON. The        
Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- I am the master of 
beasts brought for sacrifice, [and] of the knives which are [held]    
at their heads [and] their beards; those who dwell in their emerald   
[fields], the Aged Gods, and the Spirit-souls, are ready at the moment 
for the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, in peace. He maketh slaughter 
on the earth, and I make slaughter on the earth. I am strong. I follow 
the heights unto heaven. I have made myself pure. I walk with long    
strides to my city. I have become an owner of land there. I advance to 
Sepu...... is given to me in Unu. I have set the gods upon their      
roads. I have made splendid the houses and towns of those who are in  
their shrines. I know the stream of Nut. I know Tatun. I know Teshert. 
I have brought along their horns. I know Heka. I have hearkened to    
this words. I am the Red Bull-calf which is marked with markings.     
The gods shall say when they hear [of me]: Uncover your faces. His    
coming is to me. There is light which ye know not. Times and seasons  
are in my body. I do not speak [lies] in the place of truth, daily.   
The truth is hidden on the eyebrows. [By] night [I] sail up the       
river to keep the feast of him that is dead, to embrace the Aged      
God, and to guard the earth, I the Osiris Ani, whose word is truth.    
    
                               APPENDIX 
  (From the Saite Recension)                                           
    
  RUBRIC: If this Chapter be known [by the deceased], he will live    
like a perfect Spirit-soul in Khert-Neter; no evil thing whatsoever   
shall overthrow him.                                                   
    
                         CHANGING INTO A LOTUS 

  [THE CHAPTER OF] MAKING THE TRANSFORMATION INTO THE LOTUS. The      
Osiris Ani, whose word is truth, saith:- I am the holy lotus that     
cometh forth from the light which belongeth to the nostrils of Ra, and 
which belongeth to the head of Hathor. I have made my way, and I      
seek after him, that is to say, Horus. I am the pure lotus that cometh 
forth from the field [of Ra].                                          
    
                               APPENDIX 

  (Naville, op. cit., I, Bl. XCIII)                                    
    
  Chapter of making the transformation into a lotus. The Osiris, the  
lady of of the house, Aui, whose word is truth, in peace, saith:-     
Hail, thou Lotus, thou type of the god Nefer-Temu! I am the man who