COIN'S FINANCIAL SCHOOL -- II
Synopsis by Conspiracy Nation
(Based on *Coin's Financial School* by William Harvey (1895))
The science of money is an exact science. As much so as
The primary value of all property is its exchange value. If we
had no money, one kind of property would be exchanged for
another. Money is a medium of exchange to facilitate this
exchanging of property.
If there were no money, and we had to depend on exchanging
property for property, we could find a subsistence, but there
would be no such thing as our present civilization or anything
As stagnation and depression to business would result from having
no money, then a part of these evils can be brought about by
having money insufficient in either QUALITY or QUANTITY.
It was best to select something for money which was valuable
within itself. By stamping it as money, and making it legal
tender in the payment of all debts, it then became money and
possessed two qualities:
(1) It had value of itself. If the government went to
pieces, it was still valuable property and would have an
(2) The stamp of the government upon it became a
certificate of its QUALITY and QUANTITY.
It was considered that silver and gold were sufficient in
quantity for use as primary money, but if at any time their
combined quantity should become too small, then some other metal
would have to be adopted and added to these two.
After a nation has fixed what its *money* shall be, it then
issues different forms of *credit money* all of which are
directly or indirectly redeemable in the commodity (silver and/or
gold) to which a fixed and stable value has been given.
All money may be a medium of exchange, but primary money *only*
is the measure of values. Credit money is not a measure of
values; it is a medium of exchange only.
There are two kinds of *credit money*, as to the material out of
which they are made. One is made on paper and embraces all forms
of government and bank notes. The other is *token money*. Token
money is made from some metal that does not enjoy free coinage.
Credit money of all kinds circulates by reason of its being
redeemable directly or indirectly in primary money. A piece of
paper money, or token money, is a promise of the government to
pay so much primary money. Hence it is called *credit* money.
It circulates on the credit of the government, on the confidence
of the people that the government will be able to redeem it if it
In issuing dollar for dollar of credit money to redemption money
(primary money), it is not necessary that the government should
keep the redemption money (gold and/or silver) at all times in
its treasury in full amount ready to redeem all the credit money.
So long as sufficient redemption money is in the country, the
credit of the government can be depended upon to get it. But it
cannot strain the proportion beyond such amount without making
the danger imminent, and the lack of confidence great.
If there is one thousand million dollars of redemption money in
the United States -- in its treasury, its banks, and among its
people -- then one thousand millions of credit money can be
safely used and not more.
If the plan is to weaken the currency, then (a) credit money is
increased *beyond* the supply of primary money; or, (b) the
foundation is dug out from under the credit money by lessening
the supply of primary money.
The currency was weakened in 1873, when Congress snuck in a law
demonetizing silver and President Grant unwittingly signed the
law. (See previous issue, CN 11.04.) If the plan is to weaken
the currency, the foundation (silver) is dug out from under the
credit money by lessening the supply of primary money.
By making gold the *unit* and closing the mints to silver, it
lessened the demand for silver, and its commercial value at once
began to depreciate. The moment a new standard of money was set
up -- only one-half in quantity to what had previously existed --
silver began to fluctuate. It was then measured for its value in
this new standard for measuring values and no longer possessed
that fixed value which free coinage had given it. Silver had
been changed from primary money to token money. With the
demonetization of silver, the balance between credit money and
primary money went out of whack: two-thirds of the money became
credit money; one-third was primary money.
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