Purport To Chronicle The Arrival Of Roman Jews There In 775 A.D.
             [New York Times, December 13, 1925]
TUCSON, Ariz., Dec. 12 -- After investigation by a number of 
scientists, first announcement was made here today of the 
excavation near Tucson of cast lead swords, crosses and other 
objects bearing Latin and Hebrew inscriptions which, taken at 
their face value, are held to mean that Roman Jews crossed the 
Atlantic in the Dark Ages, penetrated to Arizona and founded a 
kingdom which lasted from about 700 A.D. to 900 A.D.
The cast symbols and the engravings on them include crosses, a 
crescent, a seven-branched candlestick and certain Masonic-like 
Opinions of scientists vary as to the authenticity of the 
objects. Neil Merton Judd, curator of American archaeology of the 
United States National Museum, said he believed that no hoax or 
fraud was involved, but he thought the date later than that of 
the Spanish conquest of 1540 A.D.
Dr. Byron Cummings, Professor of Archaeology of the University of 
Arizona, vouched for the reliability of the discoverers of the 
objects, which, he said, "show Jewish and Christian influence and 
bear dates of 700 to 900 A.D."
On the other hand, Dr. Bashford Dean, curator of arms and armor 
of the Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, when 
consulted about the excavations, branded the objects as crude and 
childish forgeries.
The first object to be found was a large metal cross, which was 
discovered by Charles E. Manier of Tucson, embedded in a 
limestone formation, five feet five inches below the surface of 
the land, near an old lime kiln. Further digging by Mr. Manier 
and Thomas W. Best uncovered the other objects. Analysis showed 
that they were made with lead mixed with antimony, silver and 
rome tin. This was described by Professor Cummings as a natural 
           -+- Noted Scientists Examine Objects -+-
The objects and site have been examined by Professor A.E. 
Douglass, noted astronomer and chronologist of the Lowell 
Observatory; Professor Frank H. Fowler of the College of Letters, 
Arts and Sciences of the University of Arizona; Dr. C.J. Saria, a 
geologist; Professor Cummings, Neil H. Judd and others. 
Descriptions of the objects and the texts of the inscriptions 
have been sent to scholars in many parts of the country.
The combination of Christian cross, Moslem crescent, Hebraic 
seven-branched candlestick and Freemasonry emblems has imposed a 
heavy tax on the credulity of investigators, but their appearance 
of having been covered and embedded in stone by natural processes 
has puzzled skilled archaeologists. Some have arrived at the 
opinion that, whatever their origin, the objects lay for 
centuries in the earth where they were found.
The inscriptions have been interpreted as describing the 
conflicts of the pre-historic Roman-Jewish kingdom in the 
Southwest with the Toltec Indians, forerunners of the Aztecs. 
From the inscriptions it has been deduced that the mysterious 
invaders called their land "Calalus." Using the texts as a basis 
for the work, Laura Coleman Ostrander, historian of Tucson, has 
sketched the history of rulers of Calalus, her dynasty consisting 
of Theodorus, Jacobus, Isreal [sic] the First and Isreal [sic] 
the Second.
Some scholars to whom the materials have been submitted have been 
slow to accept the finds as authentic because of the character of 
the objects and the frequency of archaeological frauds. The 
danger of indorsing another Cardiff [unclear] of a monument of 
the "Bil Stumpe His Mark(?)" type has generally caused 
investigators to be cautious, but it is alleged that those who 
have examined the site have come to the conclusion that the 
things were not planted as a hoax, but have been there for a 
considerable period of time. They were found in September, 1924, 
fifteen months ago -- a longer period than any motion picture 
press agent, as a rule, would allow for the incubation of a 
publicity dodge.
             -+- Finders' Story of the Case -+-
A statement of the case in favor of the relics, as worked out by 
the finders and their co-workers, follows:
"A chance discovery by Charles E. Manier and subsequent 
excavation by him and Thomas W. Bent, near Tucson, Ariz., has 
brought to light many relics that indicate an expedition of 
considerable proportion of Roman Jews in America during the 
period from 775 A.D. to 900 A.D."
"The evidence unearthed appears to be the positive data for which 
scientists have been searching for many years. It is thought that 
these relics definitely establish the fact that European or other 
outside influence existed in America before the advent of 
Columbus and the Spanish conquerors. This influence was found in 
America among the Indians in their rites and ceremonials by the 
Spaniards, but until the present find no definite evidence had 
appeared to prove this theory."
"The first article, a large metal cross, weighing sixty-five 
pounds, was discovered on Sept. 13, 1924, purely by accident. Mr. 
Manier and his family were returning from a trip to the historic 
Picture Rocks, just north of Tucson, Ariz., and had stopped to 
examine an old lime kiln along the road. While doing this, Mr. 
J.E. Manier noticed a peculiar object protruding from the bank to 
the north of the lime kiln. On examining the object he discovered 
it to be of metal, and firmly embedded in the bank, 5 feet 5 
inches from the top. Mr. Manier excavated the object and 
discovered that it was a large metal cross, consisting of two 
parts, that had been placed together and riveted with lead 
rivets. Between the two halves had been placed a wax 
preservative, and on the inner surface of both halves there was 
much Latin inscription. The cross was taken to the University of 
Arizona and the Latin translated by Professor Frank H. Fowler of 
the College of Letters, Arts and Sciences."
             -+- Objects Embedded in Strata -+-
"Since the discovery of the first article in the present time 
there have been unearthed five complete crosses and one 
unfinished cross, all of which contain much Latin inscription, 
many pictures and numerous symbols of both a religious and 
historic nature. There has also been unearthed a cross with a 
crescent cross-arm, entwined with a serpent, upon which there is 
Hebrew script and many religious symbols. Another cross has a 
circle of metal, connecting the cross-arms, with a serpent 
entwined over all. This cross also contains the Hebrew script and 
several religious symbols."
"The remainder of the discovery is made up of swords and spears, 
many of which are scarred as a result of having been used in 
battle. All the articles are of metal, and of a natural alloy of 
lead, silver, gold and antimony, with a trace of tin, and are all 
in a perfect state of preservation. None of the inscriptions has 
been obliterated and the war implements still retain a sharp 
straight edge, and are well balanced."
"The articles have been found at about the same level, that is, 
between five and six feet below the surface, and in a well- 
cemented stratum of caliche, the caliche, or lime formation, 
being so hard that it is necessary to chop each piece out with a 
pick. There is no evidence of burial, either in recent or in 
historic times; in fact, the articles have been covered by a 
natural process of the washing down of the debris from above, 
until time has resulted in building up of from five to six feet 
of overhead."
"The many scientists who have assisted in the research are 
unanimous in the opinion that the covering-over process has taken 
many hundreds of years; in fact, their conclusions tend to place 
the age of the relics at about the eighth century."
"The placing of the articles in history is being done by Laura 
Coleman Ostrander, historian, of Tucson, Ariz. She has, through 
the Latin and Hebrew inscriptions and the many interesting 
symbols, woven a complete story covering the entire period of 
these peoples in America, or 'Calalus Land,' as they called it. 
It is a story that covers a period of 125 years, and is replete 
with hardships, wars and romance."
                   [...to be continued...]