WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF POWER
    Resonating Planet Earth

    Abstract

      Many  researchers have speculated on the meaning of the phrase  "non-
    Hertzian waves" as used by Dr. Nikola Tesla.  Dr. Tesla first began  to
    use this term in the mid 1890's in order to explain his proposed system
    for the wireless transmission of electrical power.  In fact, it was not
    until the distinction between the method that Heinrich Hertz was  using
    and  the  system  Dr. Tesla had designed, that Dr. Tesla  was  able  to
    receive the endorsement of the renowned physicist, Lord Kelvin.1
      To  this day, however, there exists a confusion  amongs  researchers,
    experimentalists, popular authors and laymen as to the meaning of  non-
    Hertzian waves and the method Dr. Tesla was promoting for the  wireless
    transmission of power.  In this paper, the terms pertinent to  wireless
    transmission  of power will be explained and the methods being used  by
    present  researchers  in  a recreation of  the  Tesla's  1899  Colorado
    Springs experiments will be defined.

    Early Theories of Electromagnetic Propagation

      In  pre-World  War  I  physics, scientists  postulated  a  number  of
    theories  to explain the propagation of electromagnetic energy  through
    the ether.  There were three popular theories present in the literature
    of the late 1800's and early 1900's.  They were:     1. Transmission through or along the Earth,     2. Propagation as a result of terrestrial resonances,     3. Coupling to the ionosphere using propagation through        electrified gases.
      We  shall  concern  our examination at this time to  the  latter  two
    theories  as  they  were both used by Dr. Tesla  at  various  times  to
    explain  his  system of wireless transmission of power.  It  should  be
    noted,   however,  that  the  first  theory  was  supported  by   Fritz
    Lowenstein,  the  first  vice-president  of  the  Institute  of   Radio
    Engineers, a man who had the enviable experience of assisting Dr. Tesla
    during the Colorado Springs experiments of 1899.  Lowenstein  presented
    what  came to be known as the "gliding wave" theory of  electromagnetic
    radiation  and  propagation during a lecture before the  IRE  in  1915.
    (Fig. 1)
      Dr.   Tesla   delivered  lectures  to  the  Franklin   Institute   at
    Philadelphia,  in  February, 1983, and to the National  Electric  Light
    Association  in St. Louis, in March, 1983,  concerning  electromagnetic
    wave propagation.  The theory presented in those lectures proposed that
    the Earth could be considered as a conducting sphere and that it  could
    support  a large electrical charge.  Dr. Tesla proposed to disturb  the
    charge  distribution on the surface of the Earth and record the  period
    of  the resulting oscillations as the charge returned to its  state  of
    equilibrium.  The problem of a single charged sphere had been  analyzed
    at  that time by J.J. Thompson and A.G. Webster in a treatise  entitled
    "The  Spherical Oscillator."  This was the beginning of an  examination
    of what we may call the science of terrestrial resonances,  culminating
    in  the 1950's and 60's with the engineering of VLF radio  systems  and    the research and discoveries of W.O. Schumann and J.R. Waite.
      The  second  method of energy propagation proposed by Dr.  Tesla  was
    that of the propagation of electrical energy through electrified gases.
    Dr.  Tesla experimented with the use of high frequency RF  currents  to
    examine the properties of gases over a wide range of pressures.  It was
    determined  by Dr. Tesla that air under a partial vacuum could  conduct
    high frequency electrical currents as well or better than copper wires.
    If  a transmitter could be elevated to a level where the  air  pressure
    was on the order of 75 to 130 millimeters in pressure and an excitation
    of megavolts was applied, it was theorized that;
     "...the  air will serve as a conductor for the current  produced,  and
    the  latter will be transmitted through the air with, it may  be,  even
    less resistance than through an ordinary copper wire".2 (Fig. 2)    Resonating Planet Earth
      Dr. James T. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum, in chapter two of their soon
    to be published book, A Tesla Primer, point out a number of  statements
    made by Dr. Tesla which indicate that he was using resonator fields and
    transmission line modes.
    1.  When  he speaks of tuning his apparatus until  Hertzian  radiations
    have been eliminated, he is referring to using ELF vibrations:  "...the
    Hertzian  effect  has gradually been reduced through  the  lowering  of
    frequency."3
    2.  "...the  energy received does not diminish with the square  of  the
    distance,  as it should, since the Hertzian radiation propagates  in  a
    hemisphere."3
    3.  He  apparently detected resonator or standing  wave  modes:  "...my
    discovery  of the wonderful law governing the movement  of  electricity
    through  the globe...the projection of the wavelengths (measured  along
    the  surface)  on the earth's diameter or axis  of  symmetry...are  all
    equal."3
    4.  "We are living on a conducting globe surrounded by a thin layer  of
    insulating   air,   above   which  is   a   rarefied   and   conducting
    atmosphere...The  Hertz  waves represent energy which is  radiated  and
    unrecoverable.  The current energy, on the other hand, is preserved and
    can be recovered, theoretically at least, in its entirety."4
      As  Dr. Corum points out, "The last sentence seems to  indicate  that
    Tesla's  Colorado Springs experiments could be properly interpreted  as
    characteristic of a wave-guide probe in a cavity resonator."5  This was
    in fact what led Dr. Tesla to report a measurement which to this day is
    not  understood  and  has led many to erroneously assume  that  he  was
    dealing with faster than light velocities.

    The Controversial Measurement;

    It does not indicate faster than light velocity
      The  mathematical models and experimental data used by  Schumann  and
    Waite  to  describe ELF transmission and propagation  are  complex  and
    beyond  the scope of this paper.  Dr. James F. Corum, Kenneth L.  Corum
    and  Dr.  A-Hamid  Aidinejad  have, however,  in  a  series  of  papers
    presented  at  the  1984  Tesla  Centennial  Symposium  and  the   1986
    International Tesla Symposium, applied the experimental values obtained
    by Dr. Tesla during his Colorado Springs experiments to the models  and
    equations  used  by Schumann and Waite.  The results of  this  exercise
    have  proved that the Earth and the surrounding atmosphere can be  used
    as  a  cavity  resonator for the wireless  transmission  of  electrical
    power. (Fig. 3)
      Dr.  Tesla  reported that .08484 seconds was the time  that  a  pulse
    emitted  from his laboratory took to propagate to the opposite side  of
    the  planet and to return.  From this statement many have assumed  that    his  transmissions  exceeded the speed of light and many  esoteric  and
    fallacious theories and publications have been generated.  As Corum and
    Aidinejad point out, in their 1986 paper, "The Transient Propagation of
    ELF Pulses in the Earth Ionosphere Cavity", this measurement represents
    the coherence time of the Earth cavity resonator system.  This is  also
    known  to  students of radar systems as a determination  of  the  range
    dependent  parameter.   The  accompanying  diagrams  from  Corum's  and
    Aidinejad's paper graphically illustrate the point. (Fig. 3 & Fig. 4)
      We  now turn to a description of the methods to be used to build,  as
    Dr. Tesla did in 1899, a cavity resonator for the wireless transmission
    of electrical power.

    PROJECT TESLA:

    The Wireless Transmission of Electrical Energy Using Schumann Resonance
      It  has been proven that electrical energy can be  propagated  around
    the  world  between  the surface of the Earth  and  the  ionosphere  at
    extreme  low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity.   The
    Schumann  cavity surrounds the Earth between ground level  and  extends
    upward to a maximum 80 kilometers.  Experiments to date have shown that
    electromagnetic waves of extreme low frequencies in the range of 8  Hz,
    the  fundamental  Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate  with  little
    attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Cavity.
      Knowing  that a resonant cavity can be excited and that power can  be
    delivered to that cavity similar to the methods used in microwave ovens
    for  home use, it should be possible to resonate and deliver power  via
    the  Schumann  Cavity  to  any point on Earth.   This  will  result  in
    practical wireless transmission of electrical power.

    Background

      Although  it was not until 1954-1959 when  experimental  measurements
    were  made of the frequency that is propagated in the  resonant  cavity
    surrounding  the Earth, recent analysis shows that it was Nikola  Tesla
    who,  in 1899, first noticed the existence of stationary waves  in  the
    Schumann cavity.  Tesla's experimental measurements of the wave  length
    and   frequency   involved   closely   match   Schumann's   theoretical
    calculations.  Some of these observations were made in 1899 while Tesla
    was   monitoring  the  electromagnetic  radiations  due  to   lightning
    discharges  in  a thunderstorm which passed over his  Colorado  Springs
    laboratory  and  then  moved more than 200 miles  eastward  across  the
    plains.   In  his  Colorado  Springs  Notes,  Tesla  noted  that  these
    stationary waves "... can be produced with an oscillator," and added in
    parenthesis,  "This is of immense importance."6  The importance of  his
    observations is due to the support they lend to the prime objective  of
    the Colorado Springs laboratory.  The intent of the experiments and the
    laboratory   Tesla   had  constructed  was  to  prove   that   wireless
    transmission of electrical power was possible.
      Schumann Resonance is analogous to pushing a pendulum.  The intent of
    Project Tesla is to create pulses or electrical disturbances that would
    travel in all directions around the Earth in the thin membrane of  non-
    conductive  air between the ground and the ionosphere.  The  pulses  or
    waves would follow the surface of the Earth in all directions expanding
    outward  to  the  maximum circumference of the  Earth  and  contracting
    inward  until meeting at a point opposite to that of  the  transmitter.
    This  point  is  called the anti-pode.  The traveling  waves  would  be
    reflected  back from the anti-pode to the transmitter to be  reinforced
    and sent out again.      At  the  time of his measurements Tesla was  experimenting  with  and
    researching  methods  for "...power transmission  and  transmission  of
    intelligible  messages to any point on the globe."  Although Tesla  was
    not  able to commercially market a system to transmit power around  the
    globe,  modern scientific theory and mathematical calculations  support
    his  contention  that the wireless propagation of electrical  power  is
    possible and a feasible alternative to the extensive and costly grid of
    electrical   transmission  lines  used  today  for   electrical   power
    distribution.

    The Need for a Wireless System of Energy Transmission

      A  great concern has been voiced in recent years over  the  extensive
    use  of energy, the limited supply of resources, and the  pollution  of
    the  environment  from the use of present  energy  conversion  systems.
    Electrical power accounts for much of the energy consumed. Much of this
    power is wasted during transmission from power plant generators to  the
    consumer.   The  resistance  of the wire used in  the  electrical  grid
    distribution  system causes a loss of 26-30% of the  energy  generated.
    This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is
    only 70-74% efficient.
      A system of power distribution with little or no loss would  conserve
    energy. It would reduce pollution and expenses resulting from the  need
    to generate power to overcome and compensate for losses in the  present
    grid system.
      The   proposed   project  would  demonstrate  a  method   of   energy
    distribution   calculated  to  be  90-94%  efficient.   An   electrical
    distribution system, based on this method would eliminate the need  for
    an  inefficient, costly, and capital intensive grid of cables,  towers,
    and substations.  The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy
    used  by  the  consumer and rid the landscape  of  wires,  cables,  and
    transmission towers.
      There  are  areas of the world where the need  for  electrical  power
    exists, yet there is no method for delivering power.  Africa is in need
    of power to run pumps to tap into the vast resources of water under the
    Sahara  Desert.   Rural  areas, such as those  in  China,  require  the
    electrical  power necessary to bring them into the 20th century and  to
    equal standing with western nations.
      As  first  proposed by Buckminster Fuller, wireless  transmission  of
    power would enable world wide distribution of off peak demand capacity.
    This  concept  is based on the fact that some nations,  especially  the
    United  States, have the capacity to generate much more power  than  is
    needed.   This situation is accentuated at night.  The greatest  amount
    of  power  used, the peak demand, is during the day.  The  extra  power
    available  during  the night could be sold to the side  of  the  planet
    where it is day time.  Considering the huge capacity of power plants in
    the  United States, this system would provide a saleable product  which
    could do much to aid our balance of payments.

    MARKET ANALYSIS

      Of  the  56  billion  dollars  spent for  research  by  the  the  U.S
    government in 1987, 64% was for military purposes, only 8% was spent on
    energy  related research.  More efficient energy  distribution  systems
    and  sources are needed by both developed and under developed  nations.
    In regards to Project Tesla, the market for wireless power transmission
    systems  is enormous.  It has the potential to become  a  multi-billion
    dollar per year market.

    Market Size

       The increasing demand for electrical energy in industrial nations is
    well  documented.   If we include the demand of  third  world  nations,
    pushed  by  their increasing rate of growth, we could  expect  an  even
    faster rise in the demand for electrical power in the near future.
      In 1971, nine industrialized nations, (with 25 percent of the world's
    population),  used  690  million kilowatts, 76  percent  of  all  power
    generated.  The rest of the world used only 218 million kilowatts.   By
    comparison,  China  generated  only  17  million  kilowatts  and  India
    generated only 15 million kilowatts (less than two percent each).7   If
    a conservative assumption was made that the three-quarters of the world
    which is only using one-quarter of the current power production were to
    eventually consume as much as the first quarter, then an additional 908
    million kilowatts will be needed.  The demand for electrical power will
    continue to increase with the industrialization of the world.

    Market Projections

    The  Energy  Information  Agency  (EIA),  based  in  Washington,  D.C.,
    reported the 1985 net generation of electric power to be 2,489  billion
    kilowatt hours.  At a conservative sale price of $.04 per kilowatt hour
    that  results in a yearly income of 100 billion dollars.  The EIA  also
    reported  that the 1985 capacity according to generator name plates  to
    be  656,118  million watts.  This would result in a  yearly  output  of
    5,740  billion kilowatt hours at 100% utilization.  What this means  is
    that  we  use only about 40% of the power we can  generate  (an  excess
    capability of 3,251 billion kilowatt hours).
    Allowing for down time and maintenance and the fact that the night time
    off  peak  load is available, it is possible that half  of  the  excess
    power  generation  capability  could be  utilized.   If  1,625  billion
    kilowatt  hours were sold yearly at $.06/kilowatt, income  would  total
    9.7 billion dollars.

    Project Tesla: Objectives

      The  objectives  of  Project Tesla are divided into  three  areas  of
    investigation.
      1. Demonstration that the Schumann Cavity can be resonated with an         open air, vertical dipole antenna;      2. Measurement of power insertion losses;      3. Measurement of power retrieval losses, locally and at a distance.

    Methods

      A  full size, 51 foot diameter, air core, radio frequency  resonating
    coil and a unique 130 foot tower, insulated 30 feet above ground,  have
    been  constructed and are operational at an elevation of  approximately
    11,000 feet.  This system was originally built by Robert Golka in 1973-
    1974 and used until 1982 by the United States Air Force at Wendover AFB
    in  Wendover,  Utah.   The USAF used the coil  for  simulating  natural
    lightning for testing and hardening fighter aircraft.  The system has a
    capacity  of over 600  kilowatts.  The coil, which is the largest  part
    of the system, has already been built, tested, and is operational.
      A location at a high altitude is initially advantageous for  reducing
    atmospheric  losses  which work against an efficient  coupling  to  the
    Schumann  Cavity.  The high frequency, high voltage output of the  coil
    will be half wave rectified using a uniquely designed single  electrode
    X-ray  tube.   The X-ray tube will be used to charge a  130  ft.  tall,    vertical  tower  which  will function to  provide  a  vertical  current
    moment.   The mast is topped by a metal sphere 30 inches  in  diameter.
    X-rays  emitted  from the tube will ionize the atmosphere  between  the
    Tesla  coil and the tower.  This will result in a low  resistance  path
    causing  all  discharges  to  flow  from the  coil  to  the  tower.   A
    circulating  current  of  1,000 amperes in the system  will  create  an
    ionization and corona causing a large virtual electrical capacitance in
    the  medium surrounding the sphere.  The total charge around the  tower
    will  be  in the range of between 200-600  coulombs.   Discharging  the
    tower  7-8  times per second through a fixed or rotary spark  gap  will
    create  electrical  disturbances,  which  will  resonantly  excite  the
    Schumann Cavity, and propagate around the entire Earth.
      The propagated wave front will be reflected from the antipode back to
    the transmitter site.  The reflected wave will be reinforced and  again
    radiated  when  it  returns  to  the  transmitter.   As  a  result,  an
    oscillation will be established and maintained in the Schumann  Cavity.
    The  loss of power in the cavity has been estimated to be about 6%  per
    round trip.  If the same amount of  power is delivered to the cavity on
    each  cycle  of  oscillation of the transmitter, there will  be  a  net
    energy gain which will result in a net voltage, or amplitude  increase.
    This will result in reactive energy storage in the cavity.  As long  as
    energy is delivered to the cavity, the process will continue until  the
    energy  is removed by heating, lightning discharges, or as is  proposed
    by  this  project, loading by tuned circuits at distant  locations  for
    power distribution.
      The resonating cavity field will be detected by stations both in  the
    United  States  and overseas. These will be staffed  by  engineers  and
    scientists who have agreed to participate in the experiment.
      Measurement  of power insertion and retrieval losses will be made  at
    the  transmitter  site and at distant receiving  locations.   Equipment
    constructed especially for measurement of low frequency electromagnetic
    waves  will  be  employed to measure the  effectiveness  of  using  the
    Schumann  Cavity  as  a means of electrical  power  distribution.   The
    detection equipment used by project personnel will consist of a pick up
    coil and industry standard low noise, high gain operational  amplifiers
    and active band pass filters.
      In  addition  to  project detection there will be  a  record  of  the
    experiment recorded by a network of monitoring stations that have  been
    set up specifically to monitor electromagnetic activity in the Schumann
    Cavity.  

    Evaluation Procedure


      The project will be evaluated by an analysis of the data provided  by
    local and distant measurement stations.  The output of the  transmitter
    will produce a 7-8 Hz sine wave as a result of the discharges from  the
    antenna.   The  recordings  made  by  distant  stations  will  be  time
    synchronized  to  ensure  that the data received is  a  result  of  the
    operation of the transmitter.
      Power  insertion  and  retrieval losses will be  analyzed  after  the
    measurements taken during the transmission are recorded.   Attenuation,
    field  strength,  and cavity Q will be calculated using  the  equations
    presented  in  Dr.  Corum's  papers.  These papers  are  noted  in  the
    references.   If  recorded results indicate power  can  be  efficiently
    coupled  into or transmitted in the Schumann Cavity, a second phase  of
    research involving power reception will be initiated.

    Environmental Considerations

      The  extreme low frequencies (ELF), present in the  environment  have
    several origins.  The time varying magnetic fields produced as a result
    of solar and lunar influences on ionospheric currents are on the  order
    of 30 nanoteslas.  The largest time varying fields are those  generated
    by  solar  activity and thunderstorms.  These magnetic fields  reach  a
    maximum  of  0.5 microteslas (uT)  The magnetic fields  produced  as  a
    result of lightning discharges in the Schumann Cavity peak at 7, 14, 20
    and 26 Hz.  The magnetic flux densities associated with these  resonant
    frequencies   vary  from  0.25  to  3.6  picoteslas.  per  root   hertz
    (pT/Hz1/2).
      Exposure  to  man made sources of ELF can be up to  1  billion  (1000
    million  or  1 x 109) times stronger than that of  naturally  occurring
    fields.   Household appliances operated at 60 Hz can produce fields  as
    high as 2.5 mT.  The field under a 765 kV, 60 Hz power line carrying  1
    amp  per  phase  is  15 uT.  ELF antennae systems  that  are  used  for
    submarine  communication  produce  fields  of  20  uT.   Video  display
    terminals  produce fields of 2 uT, 1,000,000 times the strength of  the
    Schumann Resonance frequencies.9
      Project  Tesla  will use a 150 kw generator to  excite  the  Schumann
    cavity.   Calculations  predict  that the field strength  due  to  this
    excitation at 7.8 Hz will be on the order of 46 picoteslas.

    Future Objectives

      The  successful  resonating  of  the  Schumann  Cavity  and  wireless
    transmission of power on a small scale resulting in proof of  principle
    will  require  a second phase of engineering, the design  of  receiving
    stations.   On  completion of the second phase, the  third  and  fourth
    phases  of the project involving further tests and improvements  and  a
    large  scale demonstration project will be pursued to prove  commercial
    feasibility.   Total  cost  from  proof  of  principle  to   commercial
    prototype  is expected to total $3 million.  Interest in  participation
    in this project may be directed to the author.

    REFERENCES

      The following four papers were presented at the 1984 Tesla Centennial
    Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium.
      "The  Transient  Propagation of ELF Pulses  in  the  Earth-Ionosphere
    Cavity", by A-Ahamid Aidinejad and James F. Corum.
      "Disclosures Concerning the Operation of an ELF Oscillator", by James
    F. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum.
      "A Physical Interpretation of the Colorado Springs Data", by James F.
    Corum and Kenneth L. Corum.
      "Critical Speculations Concerning Tesla's Invention and  Applications
    of  Single  Electrode X-Ray Directed Discharges for  Power  Processing,
    Terrestrial Resonances and Particle Beam Weapons" by James F. Corum and
    Kenneth L. Corum.

    FOOTNOTES

    1.  Tesla  Said,  Compiled by John T.  Ratzlaff,  Tesla  Book  Company,
    Millbrae, CA, 1984.
    2.  Dr.  Nikola Tesla: Selected Patent Wrappers, compiled  by  John  T.
    Ratzlaff, Tesla Book Company, 1980, Vol. I, Pg. 128.
    3.  "The  Disturbing  Influence  of Solar  Radiation  on  the  Wireless
    Transmission  of  Energy", by Nikola Tesla, Electrical Review, July  6,
    1912, PP. 34, 35.
    4.  "The Effect of Static on Wireless Transmission", by  Nikola  Tesla,
    Electrical Experimenter, January 1919, PP. 627, 658.
    5. Tesla Primer and Handbook, Dr. James T. Corum and Kenneth L.  Corum,
    unpublished.  Corum and Associates, 8551 ST Rt 534, Windsor, Ohio 44099
    6.  Colorado  Springs Notes, 1899 - 1900, Nikola  Tesla,  Nikola  Tesla
    Museum, Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978, Pg. 62.
    7. Van Nostrands Scientific Encylopedia, Fith Edition, Pg. 899.
    8.  "PC Monitors Lightning Worldwide", Davis D. Sentman,  Computers  in
    Science, Premiere Issue, 1987.
    9.  "Artificially Stimulated Resonance of the Earth's  Schumann  Cavity
    Waveguide",  Toby  Grotz, Proceedings of the  Third  International  New
    Energy  Technology  Symposium/Exhibition, June 25th-28th,  1988,  Hull,
    Quebec,  Planetary  Association  for Clean  Energy,  191  Promenade  du
    Portage/600, Hull, Quebec  J8X 2K6 Canada

    FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT TESLA

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    ABOUT THE AUTHOR


      Mr.  Grotz, is an electrical engineer and has 15 years experience  in
    the field of geophysics, aerospace and industrial research and  design.
    While   working  for  the  Geophysical  Services  Division   of   Texas
    Instruments  and  at the University of Texas at Dallas, Mr.  Grotz  was
    introduced  to  and worked with the geophysical concepts which  are  of
    importance  to  the proposed project.  As a Senior Engineer  at  Martin
    Marietta,  Mr.  Grotz  designed  and  supervised  the  construction  of
    industrial  process control systems and designed and built devices  and
    equipment  for  use in research and development and for  testing  space
    flight  hardware.   Mr.  Grotz organized and  chaired  the  1984  Tesla
    Centennial Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium and was
    President  of  the  International  Tesla  Society,  a  not  for  profit
    corporation formed as a result the first symposium.  As Project Manager
    for Project Tesla, Mr. Grotz aided in the design and construction of  a
    recreation of the equipment Nikola Tesla used for wireless transmission
    of  power experiments in 1899 in Colorado Springs.  Mr. Grotz  received
    his B.S.E.E. from the University of Connecticut in 1973.